Canton of Schaffhausen
|Canton of Switzerland|
|• Executive||Regierungsrat (5)|
|• Legislative||Kantonsrat (80)|
|• Total||298.42 km2 (115.22 sq mi)|
|• Density||260/km2 (680/sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||CH-SH|
|Highest point||912 m (2,992 ft) - Hagen|
|Lowest point||344 m (1,129 ft) - Rhine at Buchberg|
Schaffhausen was a city-state in the Middle Ages, documented to have struck its own coins starting in 1045. It was then known as Villa Scafhusun. Around 1049 Count Eberhard von Nellenburg founded a Benedictine monastery which led to the development of a community. This community achieved independence in 1190. In 1330 the town lost not only all its lands but also its independence to the Habsburgs. Then, in 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, and was banned by the Emperor Sigismund. As a result of the ban and Frederick's need of money, Schaffhausen was able to buy its independence from the Habsburgs in 1418. The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454 and allied with a further two (Uri and Unterwalden) in 1479. Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederation in 1501. The first railroad came to Schaffhausen in 1857. In 1944 Schaffhausen suffered from a bombing raid by United States Army Air Forces planes that accidentally strayed from Germany to neutral Switzerland.
The cantonal constitution was written in 1876 and revised in 1895.
The distinctive coat of arms bears the Schaffhauser Bock, (Billy Goat of Schaffhausen).
Schaffhausen is the northernmost canton of Switzerland and the only one lying entirely on the right bank of the Rhine. It lies west of Lake Constance and has a size of 298 km2 (115 sq mi). Much of the canton is productive agricultural land, with 134.4 km2 (51.9 sq mi) (about 45%) of the canton used for agriculture while an additional 128.7 km2 (49.7 sq mi) (about 43%) is wooded. Most of the rest of the canton, 31.8 km2 (12.3 sq mi) (about 10%), is developed while only 3.8 km2 (1.5 sq mi) (1.3%) of the canton is unproductive (rivers, lakes or mountains).
The canton's territory is divided into three segments where German territory reaches the Rhine. The large central part, which includes the capital Schaffhausen, in turn separates the German exclave of Büsingen am Hochrhein from the rest of Germany. The small district of Rüdlingen-Buchberg lies to the southwest, and the third part contains Ramsen and Stein am Rhein to the east. All three segments are separated by the Rhine from the rest of Switzerland.
Most of the canton lies on a plateau dominated by the Hoher Randen. The summit of this mountain is 912 m (2,992 ft). The slopes of the mountain are gentle towards the south where it reaches the Rhine valley. Short and narrow valleys intersect these gentle slopes. The Klettgau is one such valley.
The population of the canton (as of 31 December 2012) is 77,955. As of 2007[update], the population included 16,323 foreigners, or about 21.9% of the total population. The German language and Protestant faith predominate. The majority of the population (as of 2000[update]) is Protestant (50%) while a large minority is Roman Catholic (24%).
Schaffhausen is a part of the Zürcher Wirtschaftsraum (Zurich economic region) and the canton's economy is well integrated with that of the wider region.
Well-regarded white Riesling wine is grown here as well as several other varieties. The main industries, however, are the production of machinery and metal goods. There is also watch making and jewellery. Minor industrial branches are textiles, leather goods, glass, cement, paper and chemicals. There is a brewery in the canton.
At Rheinau there is a hydro electrical power plant generating electricity for the canton and for export. Major electricity customers are the chemical industry in Rheinfelden and the aluminium plant at Neuhausen am Rheinfall. The city of Schaffhausen also uses much of the electricity produced at Rheinau.
Notes and references
- Arealstatistik Standard - Kantonsdaten nach 4 Hauptbereichen
- Swiss Federal Statistics Office – STAT-TAB Ständige und Nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Region, Geschlecht, Nationalität und Alter (German) accessed 29 August 2013
- "Schaffhausen (city)". Encyclopædia Britannica 24. 1911. p. 312. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- Canton Schaffhausen website, Geography (German). Retrieved 18 April 2009
- Federal Department of Statistics (2008). "Arealstatistik – Kantonsdaten nach 15 Nutzungsarten" (Microsoft Excel). Retrieved 2009-01-15.(German)
- "Répertoire officiel des communes de Suisse". Statistique Suisse. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2009.
- Federal Department of Statistics (2008). "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit, Geschlecht und Kantonen" (Microsoft Excel). Retrieved 5 November 2008.
- Federal Department of Statistics (2004). "Wohnbevölkerung nach Religion" (Interactive Map). Retrieved 2009-01-15.
- Canton Schaffhausen website, Wine Production (German). Retrieved 18 April 2009
- Canton Schaffhausen website- Economic Promotion. Retrieved 18 April 2009
- Canton Schaffhausen website, Economic Promotion-Geographic Location. Retrieved 18 April 2009
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