||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (September 2013)|
|Comune di Canzo|
Clockwise from top: Canzo skyline, Albergo Canzo (an historical hotel), Canzo-Asso railway station, Saint Mir's hermitage, Catholic youth summer camp in Canzo, Saint Stephen parish church (interior), Corni di Canzo (Canzo's Horns) mountain top.
|Nickname(s): The last town of Brianza|
|-Settled by Celts:
-Incorporated in Roman Republic (later: Empire):
-Adhesion to Italian unification (Risorgimento):
|c. 450 BC
fl. 194 BC
|• Mayor||rag. Fabrizio Turba|
|• Total||12 km2 (5 sq mi)|
|Elevation||402 m (1,319 ft)|
|• Density||430/km2 (1,100/sq mi)|
Gosdacaanz (West. Lomb.)
Matèll (in Canzo's dialect)
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||Saint Steven|
|Saint day||26 December|
Canzo (/'kantso/ in Italian language, Canz, /'kaːnts/ or /'kãːs/ in Lombard language, depending on native or Milanese pronunciation) is a commune of the Italian province of Como. It is the last town north of the historical Brianza region of Lombardy; it is the capital of the Lake Como Triangle community and is a destination for regional tourism.
It has 5,192 citizens and an area of 11.8 square kilometres (4.6 sq mi), with a density of 445 humans/km2 (1,100/sq mi).
Its history goes back to the 5th century BC when it was founded by Celts and Gaulish Insubres. There is evidence of prehistoric settlement going back to the Mesolithic period and the Copper Age. The name of the town comes from the Latin Cantius, itself proceeding from the Celtic root meaning edge.
It is known in Lombardy for its mountains, particularly the Corni di Canzo (Canzo's Horns) and the Cornizzolo. The surroundings of the commune are rich of water courses and springs. Lago del Segrino is a glacial lake with underground springs. Canzo hosts one of the main organic farming events in Italy (BIOFERA).
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Townscape
- 4 Culture
- 5 Contemporary life
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 External links
Founding and pre-Christian period
The first settlements were between Cornizzolo, Mount Raj and Segrino lake. This place remained inhabited until the 1950s, under consequent denominations of Canza and Sitt di Budracch. The latter Celtic and first Roman foundation were thou transferred in the valley under Corni di Canzo (Canzo's Horns), formed by the flowing of river Ravella. The ancient town were on the right side of this river, being the oldest streets still existing: Lunaa (from a Celtic root meaning "swampland") was the nearest to the river, not yet with banks, Casargh (probably from Casearium, place for production of cheese and milk-derivatives) was the nucleus where local populations lived, while Sumbich (summum vicum – the elevated camp) were the place where Roman cohorts settled. The presence of Roman soldiers and their integration within Insubric/Lepontian (partially Orobic) population is still evident by some toponyms of the area (Castelmarte, meaning "the Castle of Mars", the Roman god of war; Martesana; and maybe the root of the cult of St. Michael, like in the lazzaretto near to the springs of the river Valett). Evidence of the existence of pre-Roman cults are present in the mountain sites, such as stones dedicated to propitiatory rites for fertility and to female divinity of the waters (see Water sprite).
From 4th to 10th centuries
A legend says that the Church of Milan were founded by St. Barnabas. Though this notice is commonly denied by historians (because it seems that St. Barnabas never left Cyprus after the depart from St. Paul), archaeological proof of Christian presence in Milan during apostolic times have been found. The Christianization of the rural areas were slower than that of the city: missionaries were sent into the land, where they constituted some college of priests and deacons called pieve, from where they spread around into the villages. From the 3rd century until the 5th, Christianity came to consolidate in the area of Canzo; it most probably date back from this age the dedication of a church in the Canzo's territory to St. Stephen, first martyr, whose cult was spreading in primitive Christianity; another sign of this period is the diffuse veneration in the boundaries of St. Maternus, one of the saints Bishops during whose regency this lands has been Christianized. During the 3rd century, bishop Monas organized the diocese, and at this time, Canzo probably referred to Incino's pieve, but in a next time the Corte di Casale (or Canzo's Team) confederation were constituted, with a relative autonomy that it maintained also in politic affairs for all Middle age. This pieve or confederation of communes (comprehending the near villages of Caslino, Castelmarte, Proserpio, Eupilio, Longone, some frazioni of the current commune of Erba, and having Canzo as capital) from 784 to Martesana zone (the region straight north to Milan roughly corresponding to Brianza historical and cultural region). The Old Town of Canzo conserves the places of the ancient communal an pieval system: the seat of the governor and of the federal jails were in the street since then named cuntrada dal pretòri; the communal assembly of the representatives was in a place that gave name to the cuntrada dal cuèrc (street of the porch); a fort, after occupied by Spanish rulers in their first phase, was probably set not far from the pretòri, in the street now known as turèta (little tower's street); another tower was placed in an elevated place looking toward Crann and the little valley in front of it. The coat of arms of Corte di Casale was not so different from others of the zone (like pieve Vallassina), with diagonal white and red stripes, making sorts of triangles with the top up, and the imperial eagle on the top.
From 11th to 14th century
In these centuries the rule of Corte di Casale goes on. On 27 April 1162, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor recognizes with an act signed in Pavia the possessions of St. Peter's Abbey (built on the east side of mount Cornizzolo), included some fields in Canzo. Other documents of the period attest that other acreages formally belonged to Monza's Capitle; one of them was rented by a man named Nicola Prina. Most of the toponyms remained unchanged until our times, like Gèpp longh and Ravèl(a). The documents of this age also testify to the limitations of the feudal power of Dukes and Archbishops of Milan in favour of a communal autonomy of the Corte di Casale until 1414. This is the reason for which this pieve had a different denomination from all the others of western Lombardy: "corte" is the denomination of a down-to-up risen system of families, farms and possesses and not of a district established by a superior power.
The 14th century Canzo's history is dominated by the life of Blessed Mir, a begging hermit and pilgrim recognized saint by the population of Canzo and by these he visited during his travels. He was born in Canzo, precisely in the frazione of Segunt Alp, in the mountains, from the probably hybrid Welsh-local (settled on Canzo's Horns) family of Paredis (meaning relatives), even now existing and wide. After the death of his old parents, he was educated by an elder hermit who lived in the frazione named Scarenna. In Canzo he had a rule of spiritual father and peacekeeper, living in the mountains, near to the springs of river Ravella, where a church has been dedicated after his death. He dedicate a long period of his life to a pilgrimage on feet and in total poverty to Rome, where he is said to have visited the pope and (maybe) saint Bridget of Sweden. He then returned to Canzo, passing by Lomellina region near Pavia, where he did his first attested miracle, obtaining rain with the prayer. He did the same miracle in Canzo, when he started toward the north side of the Lake Como (where his mother was born) and he died in Sorico, where another church has been dedicated by the people. It has been suggested that he could belong to the newborn movement of St. Francis of Assisi.
Renaissance and Spanish rule
On 7 July 1414, Filippo Maria Visconti, duke of Milan, set under the temporal jurisdiction of Archbishops the former Corte di Casale, that then ceased to be an autonomous authority. But this happened for the consensus of the men of Canzo, who swore fidelity to and hosted the legitimate Archbishop Giovanni Visconti, constricted to escape from his seat by a pretending bishop. So Canzo has been the seat of the Archbishop and of the Curia for at least five years. After an economy based on its renomated wool weaving, Canzo, with the vassalship of Negronis family, nicknamed "Missaglia", became the official source of iron for the Duchy of Milan's army. So the town came to be wealthy and two schools were established. In this period the coat of arms of the commune of Canzo (who before was represented by the Corte di Casale's one) has been elaborated: a blue underground (visible also in the Prina's coat of arms) with golden stars and hooves for iron transformation, shaped similarly to beehives. While in Milan Leonardo da Vinci used to paint The Last Supper, the artistic wave of Renaissance was represented in Canzo by Giovanni da Canzo, a famous wood artist, and by his colleagues of the former Canzo's district, employed in the construction of the pipe organ for the Duomo of Milan: Giovanni Ambrogio da Longone, Cristoforo da Proserpio and Francesco Vignarca. Other wood artists of the former Squadra di Canzo, renomated in Milan, were the Contis from Mariaga and Stefano de Bernardi from Caslino.
The richness of Lombardy attracted the now more organized armies of national powers like France and Austria, which waged a lengthy battle in the late 15th and early 16th century. In this period Niccolò Pelliccione, the Canzese captain of a Free company, fought his battles at the sight of Francesco Sforza and Gian Giacomo Medici, and in the 1526 Canzo was theatre of a clash between his Company and the soldiers with arquebus sent by Antonio de Leyva. After the decisive Battle of Pavia, the Duchy of Milan became a possession of the Habsburgs of Spain, and Canzo became then part of "the empire where the sun never fell" (after the conquest of Americas). The new rulers did little to improve the economy, instead imposing a growing series of taxes needed to support their unending series of European wars. The Spanish soldiers had a base in Canzo, and about this period three episodes of rebellion of Canzo's population to Spanish rule were handed down: one of them tells about a man then became an hero, Mornerin, whose name is conserved as the title of a street in the Old Town.
18th and 19th centuries
After having been a centre of iron production for all Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, Canzo became an art centre known for its quality of life. In 1728 the construction of the baroque Paroquial Basilica started, expanding the existing church, whose realistic wooden crucifix (today existing) used to be elogiated by St. Charles Borromeo of Milan during his pastoral visit. A splendid architecture was built, with marble confessionals; with three monumental marble statues by Elia Vincenzo Buzzi, one of the artists of Duomo of Milan; with a great arch of triumph and frescos representing the Trinity, St. Stephen, and the four evangelists. In 1752, during the consecration of the church, the Archbishop Pozzobonelli was amazed by the magnificence of that work – having also three portals, two pulpits, two sacristies, many marble balaustras and several reliquary busts – and granted to it the title of basilica. In the 19th century it has been even more enriched by the pipe organ (1828) of the renomated enterprise Serassi from Bergamo and by the mural pictures of David Beghè, all even today existing. On 21 April, the pope extended the title granted to the parish of Canzo, giving to Canzo's vicars the titles of "provost" and "monsignore", encouraging the Archbishop of Milan Andrea Carlo Ferrari to make a revival of Corte di Casale's rule in matter of ecclesiastic administration. In Canzo lived and worked two important painters of later 19th century, Carlo Gerosa and Giovanni Segantini. Artistic chapels and monumental graves of the 18th and 19th century are visible in the cemetery. Poets and writers like Alessandro Manzoni and Carlo Porta were inspired by this places during their visits in their friends' villas.
Thanks to the intuition of marques Crivelli, with the establishment of the spinning mills belonging to Gavazzi and especially Verza family, Canzo became one of the major sites of silk production in Western world. Entire families came here as manpower for Canzo's silk factories, from Brescia and Veneto, receiving here a total education in the small workers city created by Giuseppe and Alessandro Verza around their factory. In the 19th century the Vallassinese Bank arose with the contribute of the capitals of Prinas' family, and Magno Magni from a simple silk worker became the pioneer of chemical industry in Italy, founding in Vicenza the society that after a century would invent commercial plastics. The strong moral ideas of Giuseppe Parini, educated in this lands, would encourage the economist Verri to explain the laws of supply and demand and elaborate the system of modern revenue service, then adopted by all the world, becoming the precursor of both Adam Smith and marginalism, and the philosopher Beccaria to expose his theory about "punishment as reeducation", making also the proposal of the abolition of capital punishment. The linguistic work of Manzoni and the syndical/political work of Filippo Turati, born in Canzo in 1857, contributed to moral unification of Italy after the politic one operated in 1861 by the Kingdom of Sardinia. This – helped by the contributes of many Canzese soldiers at the orders of Giuseppe Garibaldi and by the conquest of Duroni (a patriot from Canzo) who, first, during 1848 revolution against Austrians, attached the Italian flag on the higher spire of the Duomo di Milano, and by minister Prina who sustained the independence of Lombardy from imperial rule and had in Canzo his relatives – would give the possibility to Italian spirit to express, making fruits in contemporary Made in Italy, design, fashion and work fantasy.
20th and 21st centuries
In 1904, the political sustain in Parliament to Giovanni Giolitti's Italian Government by deputee Filippo Turati's party obtained the approval of important provides of social politics: laws on the protection of females' and youngs' work, on work accidents, invalidity, oldness, agencies for the analysis of workers' situation, open mindedness with cooperative societies. In 1915, Italy entered the Great War, being allied with France and Great Britain; this was the occasion for Italy to reconquest Italian territories of Trentino and Friuli then occupied by Austrian empire. In this war, many Canzeses died, and a monument was built in Garibaldi square. Patriotism was strong just after the war, and in 1924 the Gruppo Alpini Canzo was founded, as the club of former combatants of Italian mountain army, today still living as a major cultural, naturalistic and social pole of the town.
The autarchy caused in Canzo the rebirth of many urban vegetable garden, that are now a picturesque attraction of the town and an example of sustainable rapport to nature. After Mussolini's alliance with Hitler, racist laws was emanated by the State, but the population of Canzo, as well as many other Italian cities, operated in defence of their Hebrew compatriots. The official of Alpini Orlando Prina led a part of the military campaign of Greece, and returned in Canzo after the armistice, worked clandestinely in Resistance against German and Mussolini's occupation, and to the mantainment of economy, in spite of the presence in Canzo of two seats of SS's corps. After the retreat of Nazi soldiers, he settled the new Comune's organization, making first of all humanitarian politics in favour of displaced (sfollati) escaping from bombings. The people of Canzo demonstrated a great hospitality to these people who searched a refuge out of the big cities. A moral example was given by the parish priest don Pozzoli when he assisted the deserters captured by Nazis just few days before the Liberation of the country and destined for execution.
After the war, the instructed class of Canzo made a growth of quality of life, with the set of many new infrastructures and with the restarting of production. Despite of national fight between Catholic and Marxist positions, in Canzo a moderated and peaceful freedom of thought was maintained, together with an honest collaboration in social matters. The population spreaded up, and the density of population increased, so new districts and houses were built, especially in the plain of river Ravella, in the former fields known as Parisùn and Gerètt. New enterprises were opened by Canzese businessmen, like Porroni stone work company (who created the capitals for Como's Portici Plinio), and a few mechanic industries. Even simple people began to produce iron scissors, using their historical experience in iron working: Canzo then became the leader centre of this kind of production in Italy, together with the friend village of Premana. The number of scissors companies in Canzo was astounding: every avenue had one at least. At the same time, a naturalistic sensibility came to penetrate into Canzese population, and environmental battles against pollution were fighted; in particular, the Lake Segrino was defended by the prejudicial calling of water ski international competitions, though that would give an immediate financial vantage to citizens.
In the last quarter of the century, Canzo has been the theatre of a spread of organic farming culture, that in 1984 produced the first example of what would become the BIOFERA in 1987, one of the three major and oldest "organic festivals" in Italy, together with Firenze and Trieste's ones. In the same year, the Giubiana local tradition turned to live, with the elaboration of a complex script based on a long ethnologic research. Many historical buildings were restored, like St. Francis church, St. Mir's hermitage, Villa Meda, and a new chapel was built by Hunters' Association in the adiacences of the (no more existing) hamlet where Blessed Mir was born. The 2000s Alpini founded a polyphonic chorus and a solidarity fund was established for people touched by the international financial crisis.
The bourgh of Canzo is situated in front of the Valassina valley beginning, at the foot of Corni mountain, so called (Corni meaning Horns) for its crest, shaped by nature as bifurcate and rocky, ashen-grey, just as it suit to the shape and color of a beast's two horns. After the plane of Erba, Canzo is the confluence of the two small valleys formed by mount Barzaghino, mount Scioscia and mount Cornizzolo, the first being the valley where Lake Segrino toke its place by glacial movements, the second being the valley where Caslino is set. A periodical river flows from a spring posed on Corni di Canzo's pendice, and goes to connect into river Lambro, whose waters (south) are the backbone of Brianza region, pass Milan and reach Po river. The communal territory goes from 360 mts. on the sea level to 1,371.
Geographically, Canzo is roughly the centre of Larian peninsula (or Lake Como Triangle), constituted by the land between the two ramifications of Lake Como, that who blows the city of Como, and the one who go straight south and, in the boundaries of Lecco, transforms itself into a river (the second part of the Adda river). The third side of the triangle consists in many little lakes, among which Segrino is the least one. All the mountains of Lake Como Triangle are pre-Alpine, and the highest peak is mount San Primo, at 1,686 metres on the sea level.
The classification of Larian peninsula's mountain range is: Western Alps > North-Western Alps > Lugano Pre-Alps > Como Pre-Alps > Larian Triangle. The chain is divided into three groups: mount Palanzone's group; mount San Primo's massif with the sub-group of Oriolo; and Canzo's Horns' group, constituted by the Canzo's Horns strictly said (with the surrounding mountains) and by the sub-group of mount Barro and mount Crocione, that is situated over the boundaries of Larian peninsula. Other mountains are: mount Bollettone, mount Moregallo, Pizzo dell'Asino, mount Raj, mount Boletto, Punta Tre Termini, mount Broncino and others minor reliefs.
The prevalent terrain is composed by limestone strata, rich of caves and caverns, the most famous of which is the Lead Hole (Bus del Piomb, Buco del Piombo in Italian). The proper characteristic of this geological area is the presence of isolated erratic boulders, transported down by the former glaciers that in prehistory lied in Valmasino and Valmalenco valleys. Some of them used to be digged by primitive populations in order to make sepulchres ("massi avelli").
In Canzo there is a boundary-climate between three climatic typologies: Continental climate of Brianza, Alpine climate given by the presence of mountains over 1,500 mts., and Mediterranean climate of Lake Como. The rains are abundant, trepassing 2,000 mm in a year. The cause of high rainfall is the Stau effect that happens within depressions activating intense southern streams: the air is constricted to elevate on the pendices of mountains and to release its humidity as abundant precipitations. The precipitations during winter often become snow, especially in quote. Winter is the relatively drier season, while other three seasons have a similar high humidity, with exception of the month of July, that's dry. The fog may appear few days a year. Most frequent winds are from the West; during intermediate seasons, southern winds are responsible of massive precipitations. During winter, streams from north or east bring a dry and cold climate; sometimes, the interaction with wet tepid masses from Atlantic or Mediterranean creates the conditions for conspicuous snowfalls. Foehn is also present, fall wind who can provoke sudden increase of temperature also in plain winter. Summer is warm with values around 30°C. Winters are complexively rigid, and by night the temperature goes under 0°C, but the protective action of reliefs and the mitigating one of Lake Como make not so rigid the winter cold, with values who goes only few degrees under 0°C. During intermediate seasons (spring and autumn) temperatures go under sudden variations, but generally they are quite moderated. The flora is composed by oaks, chestnut trees, ironwoods, alders, elms, maples, spruce firs, with a particularly rich underbrush: strawberries, blueberries, mushrooms. The location called Veronica, relatively warm, is propice to cultivation of wine vine. The main local winds are: Breva dal Segrin (from south), Breva da Caslin (from west), Vent dal Sant Prim (from north), and Ariasc di Alp (from east).
Canzo has been described by 19th-century writers like Ignazio Cantù, Giovanni Biffi, Pietro Ferrario, Cesare Cantù, and Stendhal, as a land where you can "enjoy the amenity of its positions and of its pastoral feasts", describing in particular "Saint Mir['s hermitage], place of devout pilgrimage, frequented by the neighbour landowners, and where in festive days the sacrifice [the Mass] is celebrated, as soon as the season occur not so rigid or snowy". And a tourists journal of the time said: "This bourgh, placed under a smiling sky, where Nature talks to sensitive hearts with the language of the dearest sweetness..." (Minerva Ticinese, 1829 October 21). Again describing Saint Mir's hermitage, Ignazio Cantù described the natural environment in this way: "a place eminently picturesque: little horizon, enclosed by nude rocks, varied by the rapid river Ravella and by some brushes of ancient woods", and in the patronal feast "the whole rise is crowded by joyful countrymen who, terminated the divine office, come down from the rise, and stop and contently nosh in an amene little valley, around the lips of the ... fountain of Gajumo". Pietro Ferrario wrote: "This amene and lonely rise lets one forget the exertion of its ascent, thanks to the several and pictorial views that it progressively shows".
The path #1 starts from Gajum (485 mts.) and, overlooked the trail to St. Mir's hermitage, you go up the left track (closed to private traffic), with a few bends, within a dense pine forest reforestation, up to the saddle over which you reach Prim Alp (725 mts.), with a fountain. You continue on the gravel road, began closer, and you pass the ruins of Segunt Alp, where you can visit a chapel, and drink from a fountain (793 mts.) and you arrives at Terz Alp (800 mts.), after an hour of walking, where you can find an alpine refuge. From there, you go left on a steep slope within some bush in an untamed, dominated by the south face of Canzo's Horns. A final stretch on a scree debris brings you away from the detour that leads to the beginning of the iron path, and you reach the base of western ridge, at the very beginning of that long ridge (Costa Bella) who extends westward toward Colletta. You go on the north side and you take the flat path that, passing by little woods and meadows, lead you to the vast plateau of Pianezzo (1,225 mts.).
Other thirteen main paths are present, with different difficulties and length: #2 (geological path) passes by Cepp da l'Angua and you can see several rock species, like red ammonite, serpentino, quartz, gneiss, verrucano, ghiandone and many "massi erratici", visit St. Mir's hermitage church (600 mts.) and go skirting or climbing river Ravella and see especially the deep glacial "giants' mufflers", with almost cylindrical shape; #3 goes on mount Cornizzolo, passing by Val di Pesora; #4 proceeds until Pianezzo passing by Funtanin del Foo; #5 links Pianezzo directly with Gajum springs, passin by Prim Alp; #6 permit you to visit Alp a vòlt; #7, starting from the town, links directly Gajum with mount Cornizzolo; via ferrata (iron path) is for those who want to climb on Canzo's Horns; the crestal path of Crann; the botanich path passing by farm Repossino; the Senterùn (Big path), reaching Alp de Carella; the Budracch path (or Budrachèra), leading on the lake passing by the mountain woods; the Sentée da mèz da Scioscia, leading to farm In-arca; the path "Spirit of the Woods" is full of wood sculptures representing the fantastic inhabitants of the woods.
Lake and rivers
The rocks of Segrino are calcareous, produced by the gradual solidification of an ancient sea depth. Afterwards, with the continents' geological movings and with the push of Africa on the European plate, the rocks have been deformed and raised till beginning the mountains. The "flutes" are signs of the channels of flowing of the sediments that formed the rocks. Along the journey, you can see on the top the village of Galliano, the Medieval tower "della Ghita", who inspired many writers and poets. Lake Segrino has been appreciated also by Leonardo da Vinci, and by the Italian writers Ippolito Nievo and Antonio Fogazzaro, who placed here some of their romances. At bridge called Punt d'Inach, we can find a habitat rich of vegetal and animal species. In June and August you can see on the surface of the water the bloom of waterlilies; a community of reed-maces is diffused on the shores. In a place called Schiuntina, on the eastern side of the lake, water birds come and stay: coots, gallinules, wild ducks, herons, nycticoraxes, cannareccione, dunnocks, nightingales and bitterns. This is the kingdom of emis orbicularis, the indigenous green turtle. Myriophylls on this site's depth offer feeding to birds and a place where nidify for perche, jackfish, rudd, savettas, tench, carp, eel etc. In late summer, you can see myriophylls blooming out just on the surface of the water. From the aedicule at the middle of the way, you can have a panoramic sight of the western part of the Lake, where you can observe the colour difference of the middle of the lake, where the depth is considerably deeper (particularly in the northern side). This lake is one of the few habitats where Lataste frog (a species protected by EU and UN) can live. A "souvenir" of the former presence of the sea is testified by foxiles of radiolarians and ammonites. On the way, near to a bridge, you encounter Fons Sacer, so named for its sacrality, the main underground source of Segrino's water, that gave the name to the entire lake. In this part of the lake, commons toads nidify and you can see grebes (or loons) swim with their joeys and heard nightingales sing. In the air kestrels (or windhovers), hawks and buzzards fly, and also eagles have been seen. This lake is the most clear and unpolluted lake of Europe, for the absence of influent rivers and for the advanced vegetal-based depuration system placed on the northern side. The north end of the lake is pointed by the Roman milestone, on which a two sides niche has been constructed, remembering the fact (happened in the first 19th century, during the so-called little Ice Age) when a carter fell asleep and the oxen brought the stone loaded wagon on to the iced lake, but the ice didn't break.
River Lambro and river Ravella
The river Lambro borns in the mountains of mt. San Primo group, not far from Madonna del Ghisallo. The springs are carsic and their name is Menaresta, meaning "flows and stops". In fact, it consists in a particular stone siphon, situated underground, in the calcareous rock. Every eight minutes, as observed by Pliny the Elder, the water fills the siphon and then flows out and produce an alternating stream going down toward the village of Magreglio. The first affluent of Lambro is said Lambretto (coming from Crezzo) and it enter Lambro around the village of Lasnigo. Then, it accelerates its running and "cuts" Vallassina valley, going down in Asso, where it give energy to three ancient mills for flour. Its bed signs the end of Vallassina when it receives the flowing of river Foce (coming from Valbrona), who comes down by an unexpected waterfall, that also marks the beginning of the comune of Canzo. In Canzo the periferic passing of river Lambro is an important source of irrigation for Canzese plain frazione of Terra Rossa and for the Canzese part of Scarenna, going on until the boundaries of Caslino. In Canzo, as in many boroughs of Brianza, the term Lambar became a synonym of "river". Proverbial is also his clearness, so that "clear as Lambro" is frequently said. Its waters are relatively fresh and constant, compared with the Ravella's ones.
Ravella is a stream born in the southern side of Corni di Canzo, at about 1,000 mts. altitude, on the down border of Colma dei Corni, where the glacial argillas outcrop, under a mantle of alluvial sediments. It flows down and reaches the Old Town Canzo. Its basin, lengthened in east-west direction, is bounded by Cranno's crest, Colletta, Corni, Colma dei Corni (north), and by Maschèrpa and mt. Prasanto (east). South, the basin of Ravella comprehends regions of mount Raj, mount Cornizzolo and Pesora. Its affluents are the very small rivers of st. Mir and of Valett, the last flowing down from Pesora and getting into Ravella not far from St. Francis' church, passing between the convent's terrain and curt di Sant, crossing an ancient bridge and going down in Ravella between former Prinas' and Arcellazzis' palaces. The river Ravella, in its high course, flows often into steep rocky sides, made of calcarean with little consequent waterfalls and with the characteristic "giants' mufflers", provoked by the passing of glaciers, parallel to anteclinalic and synclinalic folds forming the structure of Lombard pre-Alps. The environment is completely virgin until Gajum's site, being made of coppices; the quality of its waters is testified by the presence of stream trouts, sometimes visible also under Town's bridges in Canzo. The scape of thee river valley is dominated by the promontory named Cepp da l'Angua or Scalfìn dal diaul, with the shape of an enormous heel, while on the right side you can see, even if covered by arboric vegetation, the morenic terraces, where Prim Alp, Segunt Alp and Terz Alp are built. The valley is accompanied by a geological-naturalistic track whose attractions are the green rocks ("massi erratici") of serpentite and serizz. After passing the Town, river Ravella flows in the plain of Lambro, and, in the frazione of Castelmarte called Ravella too, it become an affluent of Lambro river.
The springs of Gajum (485 mts.) are a source of drinking water of high quality, in the past sold in bottles by a local cooperative. Now the majority of their water is distributed freely to local population throw two fountains placed one very near to the source, the second nearer to the houses, in Villa Meda. The springs are a renomated point of restore for excursionists, since 19th century class tourism; there are typical tables and chairs made with rocks, composed by the first tourists in that century. In the woods over the source, you can find an ancient little chapel dedicated to Our Lady of Sorrows (Madòna di Sètt Duluur). They are in the crossroads of Alps' path and St. Mir's path, and their name comes from local Lombard word gaumm /ga'ym/ (from Celtic ga-, womb) meaning "husk, walnut husk, hull", because a walnut tree overlooked the main fountain, leaving its fruits go down into the water vask, floating on it and sometimes, when they were ripe, coloring it in black. Traditionally, Gajum is considered the third better water in Canzo's mountains. The popularity of its goodness is so diffuse that in front of the two fountains you can every time find a multitude of people from southern Brianza and Province of Milan with empty bottles and jerry cans to fill.
A possible itinerary is an upward tour starting from the relics chapel of St. Stephen's church and analyzing the rinascimental Crucifix present in a niche. You can then walk until Villa Meda and the surrounding area, the space where BIOFERA takes place. Syntetically, it is composed by two neoclassical courtyards, the smaller and the bigger one, by the park with an internal bridge, and by st. Francis square, where characteristics of many architectural periods are present, particularly the church (baroque), the curt da Pinòla (medieval poor courtyard), and the ramparts and arch of Villa Meda. Then, taking the upgrade street, you can experience the cobbled roads and the surrounding humanized forestscape, including aedicules, rationalization of the woods, farm Repossino, the large-steps, botanical gardens, the excavations of Segunt Alp. Finally you can see the particular architecture of Prim Alp and Terz Alp and the places called Alpett and Alp a vòlt, upper sites where animals and peoples went during summer.
An alternative tour can go in search of the identity of this bourgh, observing the two monuments to the fallen; the complex of the City Hall (designed as a great modern Broletto); then make the itinerary of Gonfalone, discovering the particular structure of the Old Town, made by streets called cuntradas, of differend times; and then turn on yourself in order to use another method to explore the Old Town, a "microscopic" one, i.e. paying attention to the variety of portals and to other particulars like mullioned windows, ogives, ribbings, tower-shaped garrets, and the mysterious Old Theatre's lane. City Hall is composed by the ancient Palazzo Tentorio and its park, to whom a modern building has been linked, composed by urban furnishings, offices and particularly a massive freestone civil clock tower.
Another itinerary take inspiration from the history of the enterprise: so it touches the complex of the 18th-century silk factory – informally known as Filandùn (with annexed Villa Verza) – and looks at the terracing of Veronica land; then it goes around the Town, observing the agricultural cottages – Fabrica, Cà Quarantina, Cà Duglia, Cà Miglia, Cà Bianca; then, the Work Tour stays on the parvis and looks, in addition to its façade, to the old market's portico; a tour itinerary can encompass the block of houses just in front of the church, whose main part consists now in the Convent of the Nuns, but that in the past was composed by notables' palaces (generally businessmen of the 18th century), whose architecture is still visible; a tour of industrial archaeology can consider many old factories, like the Pellizzoni one and the spinning mill near to the water hammer, where now a Youth Oratory and Park is placed; and you can visit the villas of the noblemen / property owners of the past, including Villa Zucchelli, Villa Conti-Ponti, Villa Raverta, Villa Arcellazzi, Villa Gavazzi.
Stay Tour. Different ways of staying in Canzo. This tour offers to cover a little distance in a long time: from Albergo Canzo / Ponti, to the beginning of a road situated on the left, 50 mts. before Albergo Canzo / Ponti if you come from the provincial road. This itinerary shows to you different manners of live one's presence and life in Canzo. The first way is a reproduction of Milanese mundanity, like in the cafés (Albergo Canzo, Ponti, Citterio...). Another way is the tranquil spartanity of who stays on the town bench and drink to the town fountains, of who has dinner under the arbours of Merican or Parabum restaurants. A third way is represented by the neoclassical Villas that many rich people built in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, especially in the boundaries of the southern train station; the stations themselves are an example of neoclassical art, with Liberty's influences, being edificated around 1900; a major building of this style is the Teatro Sociale (Social Theatre), built in the last 18th century (during Austrian domination) by the architects and artists of Milan's La Scala, because of the enterprise of Milanese tourists and Canzese rich people, in order to make the vacancies more enjoying and similar to city's life; many palaces in the Old Town also conserve on their walls their accurate engravings and the typical ochre colour. The Magno Magni's villa (1903–1906), built into a park extending from Mirabèla and Grimèll, is a product of architect Pietro Fenoglio, in a fantasious neo-medieval style; the exterior is characterized by its evident Vicentine stones and by the garden, that contains other constructions like little medieval-style towers; the interior is very very rich. The last way of stay is that of the new urbanization, called for metonymy Parisùn or Parisone.
Parco Barni is the former park of a rich family of the zone, alienated to the Commune in the World War II after-war. It's surrounded by a wall and the authentic portal is on via Volta, while two other portals have been built on via Roma and on piazzale Remo Sordo. The interior, open to the public during day-time, presents many features of old villas' parks, like hiding places, artificial lakes and rivers, exotic or monumental woods. It has been furnited with park benches and many families, young and old people come here to relax, especially on Sundays and during summer. There is a covered stand where concerts take place, and a game area for children. Its western door is near to southern Canzo railway station and the other two doors are near to Garibaldi square; a hidden door also links the park with the Social Theatre's yard.
Parco Giochi (Games Park) – situated in front of new market's square (that takes place every Wednesday), named piazza Giovanni XXIII – comprehends a game area for children and a sports village with soccer, tennis, basket and volleyball fields and a café-restaurant-pizzeria. Not far from it, piazzetta Turati is a little park, along with the park of Villa Meda. Other parks are placed in Parisone area, viz. the two soccer and athletics bowls (the local teams are US Canzese for the former and ATL for the latter one), the courtyard of children, the "Campetto" furnished for basket and free play, and the green areas of Ravella, Jesus with children's chapel, and Holy Cross' chapel.
For the Park of Lake Segrino, see Canzo#Lake Segrino.
The official language is Italian, spoken by all the population (excluded some people of stranger immigration's 1st generation, and very small old people immigrated from southern regions of Italy). About 20% of Canzese people is bilingual with Lombard language; other statistics say something about 40%. Other languages are Arab, Romanian and Russian. Local pronunciation of Italian language is similar to Milan's one, with the prevalence of open vowels, like in "quèsto" (compared with Standard Italian "quésto" = "this (one)") or "murètto" (compared with Standard Italian "murétto" = "little wall"), with the wide use of voiced "dz" instead of Standard Italian "ts", like in /'dzuk:ero/ instead of /'tsuk:ero/ (=sugar), and the amortization of geminates; viceversa, in common with Standard Italian, it strongly distinguishes voiceless from voiced consonants, differently from Central and Southern pronunciations of Italian, who are unbalanced toward voiced ones. Consequently from different pronunciation of Lombard language, also in Italian language's pronunciation the people of Canzo doesn't know Milanese typical nasal accent. Nevertheless, because of regional immigration, also others region's pronunciations of Italian are present (especially of Central Italy and Apulia), along with Venetian, Neapolitan and Sicilian languages in family context. Latin is also used, as a high culture language, in plaques and inscriptions, and in liturgical and academic contexts. Almost all schools in the region teach English as first stranger language, and many of them French, German or Spanish as the second one. The knowledge of Ancient Greek is wide too, being matter of teaching in Liceo classico secondary school, and for the presence of Bizantine Greek fixed formulas in Ambrosian Rite of Catholic liturgy. Traditional songs in Piedmontese, Venetian and Friulian are also sung.
The local speak is named Canzés or Canzées, a dialect of Insubric or Western Lombard language, recognized by UNESCO as one of the two branches of Lombard language. The central variety of Western Lombard is Milanese dialect, which is used also as a lingua franca for all Western Lombard speakers. Canzés dialect culturally belongs to Brianzöö dialects family, but it is also influenced by 19th century's Milanese, Comasco and Lecchese. Not only these influences, but also the Substratum of primitive Canzo's population makes it different from the others Brianzöö dialects: for example, in phonetics you can see the prevalence of vowel "a" instead of Milanese "e" or common Brianzoeu "u"; in lexicon, it is very conservative in comparison with the surrounding dialects and modern Milanese; in grammar, it owns a wide variety of registers, e.g. the noble one (more similar to Old Milanese, but with strong idioms and conservative pronunciation), the commercial one (with many influences, especially from Lecchese and southern Brianzoeu), the peasant one (prevalence of idioms and few similarities with Erba and Asso's dialects), the alpées one (with proper phonetic and lexical idioms). A major difference with Milanese pronunciation is the absence of vowel's nasalization, rendered in Canzés with the velar nasal consonant, and the conservation of "ts" instead of Milanese "s", as you can see in the pronunciation of the toponym Canz, along with the absence of Milanese half-geminates. Like in the other conservative Brianzoeu dialects, Canzés has a certain number of original Lombard terminations in "tsh" (written as "cc"): typically, lacc (=milk), frècc (=cold), tècc (=roof), nòcc (=night), tücc (=everybody).
Art, literature, and performing arts
Theatre troupes include Filodrammatica Canzese and Mobeel. Social Theatre hosts theatre companies acting in Italian, Venetian, Lombard, Neapolitan, German... Every year, the last Thursday of January Giubiana by Cumpagnia di Nost takes place in the streets of the town, and it has a traditional script in Lombard.
Orchestras and bands include Amicinbanda, Corale e Coretto S. Stefano, Coro e Orchestra MM. M. e C. Colombo, Coro Alpini Canzo, Quijcacanta. Operetta outdoor concerts take place in Parco Barni.
Live-music genres that are part of town's cultural heritage include Alpine Polyphonic Chant, Lyric Music, Ambrosian Chant and Baroque music.
Nowadays, the masterpieces of Canzese literature in Lombard language are "In ucasiun" by Tiziano Corti, for the poetry (monolingual), and "Al föch" by Cinzia Valli, for the prose (bilingual with Italian language). The further is a collection of circumstance poems, among which a bilingual poem is present (Un restauro preciso e sapiente...) while the latter is an essay on popular wisdom, basing on the element of fire. See also: Western Lombard literature.
One of the most typical events in Canzo is the Giubiana, who is celebrated in the last Thursday of January. It is a tradition who dates back to the Insubric people (7th–2nd century BC) and consists in a propitiatory rite for end of winter. Its name is derived by Jupiter, the Roman "translation" of an unknown Insubric god of spring. The rite is a bonfire of a puppet on which all the bads of the past year are pronounced (similarly to Hebrew "scapegoat"). During the further two millenniums, the manifestation assumed other sybolic values like the renunciation to idols and the stigmatization of the oldness. It is diffused in all Brianza, Province of Varese and some parts of Piedmont. In Canzo this feast knew a strong revival from the 1980s, thanks to a long ethnologic research made by Cumpagnia di Nost; and in the further decades Canzo's Giubiana has been imitated by many Brianza's villages. There are three moments of the feast, holded during the night in the streets of the Old Town:
- a procession from Cipiloeu da San Rocch, in which many characters are seen acting their part, like Anguana (the sprite of the water), the devils, the witches, and symbolic characters like the Hunter and the Bear. The children follow the cortege with a white- or black-coloured face, with little bells or iron pots.
- a criminal trial to the (living) puppet (named Giubiana itself), made in Lombard language, with witnesses for the prosecution and exculpatory witnesses, with the harangue of Giubiana's counsel for the defence and the reading of Giubiana's threatening last will, with the judgement of Regiuus (the heads of Canzo's families and Town senators) and the pronunciation of the verdict.
- the bonfire of the puppet and a supper based on risotto with sausage (lugànega) and mulled wine (vin brulé).
In Villa Meda, the first weekend of September, BIOFERA takes place, one of the main organic farming events in Italy (with a number of visitors constantly over 10,000) and a festival of Lombard culture. It's born in 1988, as an evolution of Festa di Nost (1983) by the Canzese association Cumpagnia di Nost. BIOFERA offers a wide choose of organic foods and drinks with exhibitors coming from all Italy and from many states of Europe, a sell of historical, ethnologic and geographical books, a dramatization laboratory, a ludoteque, traditional songs and exhibitions, games, theatre shows, hand-made and music laboratories for children. It has an area dedicated to handicraft with environment compatible items, a restoration area with both vegan and traditional cuisines, and a wellbeing area. Inside fair, experts of various branches hold free conferences on cultural or spiritual themes.
The oldest tourist event in Canzo is "Fera di üsei", started in 1963 by Hunters' Association. It occurs in August, in the area of Piazzale Giovanni XXIII and it mainly consists in an exposition of birds, with exhibitors coming from all Italy and from many states of Europe. It is also a festival of the hunt dogs (with several kinds of competitions), home pets and courtyard animals like chickens and turkeys. In the first morning a competition of singer birds takes place in Parco Barni, judged by a titulated jury. It helped very much Canzo's tourist development in the second part of 21st century, along with the entertainment events (with the participation of Mike Bongiorno, Adriano Celentano and others stars of the moment) of Azienda Autonoma di Soggiorno (the local section of Tourism Public Agency), now extinct. After that, it has been imitated by other towns and villages of Brianza, with minor fairs. It still today attracts many people from all Lombardy and it is appreciated for its quality and antiquity.
In May, the religious feast of St. Mir (for his life, see Canzo#From 11th to 14th century) falls: more than one date is suggested: 10 May (according to Martyrologium Nocomiensis), 21 May (probably the day in which the first recognition of St. Mir's relics occurred) or the 2nd Friday of the month. Along the last decades, the feast has ever been celebrated on Sunday, with a Mass in the parish church, to whom the monastic community of St. Mirett (St. Francis' church) takes part too. In that occasion, during an evening programme at Social Theatre, a Committee – composed by members of the Commune and of the parish – awards a prize to a well-deserving citizen of the Town. Every Thursday and Sunday of July and August, a Eucharist is celebrated in the mountains hermitage of St. Mir.
Other worth mentioning aggregation and tourist events in Canzo are those organized by Gruppo Alpini Canzo, particularly the Chestnut festival in October–November and the meetings on mount Cornizzolo, along with the concerts of its Polyphonic Choir of Alpine songs. Fireworks, concerts, open-air dramas, comic shows and so on are hold during summer. Other yearly events are the Feast of the Volunteers (by SOS Canzo), the Patronal feast of St. Stephen (26 December), the Magg (in May, the transport of a fir from wood to town, by eighteen-year-old youth), the Day of the Sun (Lughnasadh and traditional men's day and celebration of the agriculture of the mountains), the Cargà i Alp (route in the mountains, recalling the ancient use to annually carry beasts to the upper stables).
The cuisine of Northern Brianza is based upon maize (used in polenta and cakes), Italian vegetables (used especially in minestras and minestrone), pork (salami are typical), wine (like that of Montevecchia), many high quality cheeses, milk and butter (or lard), rice (like in risotto), game and freshwater fish, and other first-class primary products. Canzo has a time-honoured tradition in salami and cold meat production; Canzo's wine, cultivated in Veronica land, is called ragett. Local chicken, cow, goat, rabbit, and frogs are also used in cuisine. Typical meals include cassoeula, tripe (busecca), and salmì, carpione or dry fish; you can find various kinds of soup or broth, sometimes with rice. Birds are eaten with polenta; mushrooms with polenta too or in a risotto; a Canzese typical meal based on mushrooms is funghi trifolati. A kind of pasta is made with pumpkin instead of corn flour. A sweet bread, called pan meino, is characteristic of northern Brianza too, along with a kind of fritter, named paradèll in Canzo; fruit mustard is usual with meat. Native products of the earth are valorized into Canzo's own dishes like roast throstles, little birds with polenta and poccen de salsa e fongs secch. In the Terz Alp and mountains you can eat pulénta e lacc: hard hot polenta in cold milk. Coq-au-vin and Boeuf-à-la-mode has a particular preparation here. Témpia cui sciger is the temple of a pork cooked in a soup of chickpeas, a meat for All Souls' Day.
But Canzo is famous in Italy for:
- Nocciolini di Canzo (kind of biscuits);
- Vespetrò (kind of liqueur).
The prevalent and traditional religion of Canzo's population is Roman Catholicism.
Men expect from the various religions answers to the unsolved riddles of the human condition, which today, even as in former times, deeply stir the hearts of men: What is man? What is the meaning, the aim of our life? What is moral good, what is sin? Whence suffering and what purpose does it serve? Which is the road to true happiness? What are death, judgment and retribution after death? What, finally, is that ultimate inexpressible mystery which encompasses our existence: whence do we come, and where are we going?
The main author of Communal spirituality is Bonvesin de la Riva. Here one of his verses, transcribed in classic orthography:
Ove l'omm no mètt el coeur e l'ingegn, nient var.
Where the man doesn't put his heart and genius, no worth exists.—Bonvesin de la Riva, Libro delle Tre Scritture (1274)
About Ambrosian spirituality, this hymn is exemplar:
Splendor paternae gloriae, de luce lucem proferens, lux lucis et fons luminis, diem dies illuminans.
O splendor of my Father's light, Bright that is brought about bright, spirit of light and fountain of white, The day that enlight all my days.
...in Patre totus Filius, et totus in Verbo Pater.
...in the Father all the Son, and the whole Father in the Son (Logos).—Saint Ambrose of Milan, Hymn Splendor paternae gloriae (~350)
An example of Natural law doctrine is foundable in Italian Constitution:
Art. 2: The Republic recognises and guarantees the inviolable rights of the person, both as an individual and in the social groups where human personality is expressed.
The Republic expects that the fundamental duties of political, economic and social solidarity be fulfilled.
Art. 29: The Republic recognises the rights of the family as a natural society founded on marriage.[...]
Saint Mir of Canzo (lived at the beginning of 14th century) has been mainly an example of love to the poor. The rock on river Ravella under which he sleeped is already visible next to the path connecting st. Mir's hermitage to Terz Alp.
Among the immaterial heritage of the town, you can find a high number of "names of place", so that we can talk about a true ethnological topography as a discipline concerning the conservation and the analysis of the toponomastic heritage of the region. In fact, the high agricultural exploitation of the land and the discrete humanization of the mountain zones produced a very complex topography of the natural environment of the borough. Some of them are of Celtic origin, others of Latin's, someone else come from Longobard, with a specific Western Lombard pronunciation and a wide use of diminutives. The Commune of Canzo and the Cumpagnia di Nost have written up three maps with the places of Canzo with their local language toponym. The first map (Mapa di sitt) is about all the communal territory, and comprehends the name of the mountains and lesser peaks, of the hunt or escavation localities, of the water springs, of the rocks, ancient main paths and old frazioni. The second one (Mapa di lööch) the toponymy of agricultural fields, while the third one (Mapa dal paés vecc) portraits streets, quarters and remarkable places of the Old Town. Among these, there are Cèpp da l'Angua alias Scalfìn dal Diaul with a double (Celtic and Christian) denomination, the Sass dal Prim Fiöö (stone of the first son), trace of an ancient cult for good delivery, Crann (a Celtic root meaning "hard"), Alpèt, Alp a vòlt, Repussìn and so on. Some famous fields in Canzo are Tèra russa (Red earth) and Lagüsc (Little lake); Parisùn and Gerascia; Castèll and Cà bianca; Grimèll, Mirabèla and Cèpp; Cà Milia, Cà Dulia and Cà növa (Cà means "house" or "farmhouse"). Cuntrada da San Mirètt, Cuntrada dal Cuèrc, Pretòri, Portacinées, Turèta, Bergamasca, Caravazz are a few examples of Old Town's toponyms.
The oldest surnames of Canzo are Carpani, Masciadri, Pellizzoni, Ponti, Prina, Locatelli. Carpani are present in old times as one of the main family in the Corte de Casale administration, with house also in Caslino, they have a castle in their coat of arms; Masciadri surname is derived from a job that is the ambulant seller of little items; Pellizzoni, in the modern shape, or Pelliccione, as intended during the Cinquecento, is the surname of a famous free captain (see History) that has been acted as a practical vassal of Canzo during his life; Ponti, and Conti-Ponti, is a family that during history has been very rich and also linked itself with the rich families of silk industrials; Prina is the oldest surname testified by a written document, in which they appears as the owners of one third of the Canzese territory, in name of the Cathedral of Monza’s Capitle, territory that they maintained until recent times (first years of 20th century); Locatelli is probably the modern fashion of the surname Catelli/Catella, present in some medieval documents on Canzo’s family-heads and also in a woman known as saint born in Canzo but dead in Parma. Nowadays, Paredi and Pina are considered the most wide and typical surnames of Canzo: some theories tells that the first was originally the common denomination of a Welsh clan established on Canzo’s mountains by emperors as a borderline defence, and it’s famous for the belonging of Saint Mir to this clan; the second one (Pina) is said to be an hybrid Spanish-Canzese family (Piña), or a Canzese family that had links with Spanish administration, that had a wide spread, so that nowadays is the most common surname in the population of the town.
Other parts of the immaterial heritage are the rural witness, the Man-Nature relation, saint Mir and the people, and the traditional style e.g. the urban hangings and the typical costume.
- Famous people:
Schools and libraries
- Infant school (E. & F. Arcellazzi)
- Primary school (Guglielmo Marconi)
- Junior high school (Filippo Turati)
- All kinds of Senior high school within 12 mi range
- All kinds of University departments in 14 Universities in Lombardy
- Communal Library (open afternoons) in Villa Meda
- Two railway stations (south-north) on the line Canzo–Milan, passing through the cities of Erba, Mariano Comense, Seveso, and the university quarter of Milan Bovisa
- Provincial roads to Arosio and Bellagio; you reach Lecco in 20 mins, Como in 30, Monza in 40, Milan (and its Linate Airport) in 50, Bergamo and Varese (and their Orio Airport and Malpensa Airport) in 1 h
There are nine sport associations, five performing arts associations, four naturalistic associations. In addition, there are some peculiar fellowships, some of which are presented here.
- Gruppo Alpini Canzo. The purpose of this association is, in a climate of proud and fraternity, those of promoting the care of the mountains and the of the natural environment, especially in order to the spiritual and intellectual education of new generations, and of volunteering especially in missions of civil protection. The members are former soldiers of the Alpini corps and their work service is for free. They also organize some events, of tourist relevance, in which they celebrate their values and identity.
- Pubblica assistenza SOS. This is a conventioned association for ambulance and medical aid services composed by over 150 volunteers, inspired by principles of Christian charity and solidarity. It was founded in 1979.
- Gruppo Naturalistico della Brianza. The purpose of this association is to study, understand and help to resolve environmental problems in the territory of Lombardy, giving much relevance to a correct environmental education. They give lessons in the schools, organize meetings with other associations and exhibits, contests and observational trips. Many works have been done in collaboration with Public administration. It was founded in 1960 by Giorgio Achermann and Adolfo Rancati.
- Oratorio. It is an institution belonging to the pastoral care of Catholic Church on youth. It proposes a complete life experience for young people, with prayer, catechesis, community experiences, play and sport, cultural openmindedness, charity and social diligence. It has links with the Christian sacraments and transmission of faith project within the parish community, but it is open to everybody whether or not believer in Christian faith.
- CAI Canzo. This associations offers many services in mountain safety, and holds cultural and sport activities concerning alpinism and the mountains.
- Nonsoloturismo. This is an association centered on the tourist promotion of the town of Canzo. It collaborates with the Communal agencies in the organization of cultural events, entertaining shows and the programming of the Social Theatre.
- Fondazione Raverta. It is a foundation born in Canzo in 1997 in order to conserve the artistic heritage of the watercolour painter Giuseppe Raverta, died in 1976. It cares about the publishing of the arts by making conferences, publications, exhibits and concerts. Its proposal is also the creation of a museum.
- Cumpagnia di Nost. A traditional-kind association with the aim of rescue and defence of local culture as an element of exchange with other identities. The members belong to very different social classes and competence but they are unified by the offering of their personal skills, relations of esteem and desire for company and self-improvement.
- Associazione Nazionale Carabinieri - Canzo. Solidarity association composed by Carabinieri in service or former and their families, promoting the devotion to fatherland and the memory of fallen, and for the help of sociality.
- In some place near Ravella, the elevation is 367 m while the tops of mt. Cornizzolo, mt. Raj and mt. Corni di Canzo (all situated in the communal land), are respectively at 1240, 1215 and 1372 m.
- Although, one of the most important religious festivity of the Town is that of St. Mir, a Blessed who was born in Canzo in the 14th century, and it takes place in May.
- "Comune di Canzo, Anagrafe". Demographic statistics years 2005–2011 (born, dead, population flows, marriages).
- See: Languages in Canzo.
- Also a Latin origin has been suggested in the past, when studies on Celts in southern Europe weren't advanced. It is that "Canz" would come from the cognomen of a man or from the word cantus (chant, song), referring to the abundance of singing birds.
- For another example of Celtic root cant, see Kent.
- Escursioni e passeggiate nel Triangolo lariano: ai Corni di Canzo. Passolento.it.
- Il giro dei Corni di Canzo. Rifugi-bivacchi.com.
- Vie Ferrate. www.vieferrate.it.
- Foreste di Lombardia. Forestedilombardia.it.
- La Pinnetta: Triangolo Lariano – Corni di Canzo e Rifugio SEV da VALMADRERA invernale. Lapinnetta.blogspot.com.
- Trekking Ai Corni Di Canzo (Lc) | Universosport. Universosport.it.
- :. ERSAF – Ente Regionale per i Servizi all' Agricoltura e alle Foreste:Regione Lombardia .:. Ersaf.lombardia.it.
- Tourenberichte und Fotos. Hikr.org (10 September 2013).
- Tennis, ciclismo, sci, nuoto, sport americani: tutte le competizioni e gli sport, i risultati e i live. Come non ne parla nessuno. Outdoorblog.it (5 July 1975).
- Home. Montagna Forum (27 August 2010).
- Paragliding Club (www.cornizzolo.com) based in Suello (CO), 
- Cornizzolo Flying Club (www.cornizzolo.it) based in Rovellasca (CO), Cornizzolo Environmental Defence Committee
- Cornizzolo Running Trophy, Cornizzolo is "the most famous mountain of High Brianza" (www.altabrianza.org), Cornizzolo's permanent webcam online
- Paragliding infos portal. www.airecornizzolo.com.
- Cornizzolo Coordination Committee.
- "Lago del Segrino" Official website. Parcolagosegrino.it.
- Informations portal (with pictures gallery). Lagodelsegrino.com.
- Segrino Beach.
- Biofera Historic site. Biofera.altervista.org.
- (Italian) ''BIOFERA'' New Official site. Biofera.org.
- Article on. Universofood.net.
- News and picture gallery by Ecoinformazioni (Ecologic Information). Ecoinformazioni.wordpress.com (22 September 2013).
- Chamber of Commerce. Calendar of trade fairs and exhibitions in Italy: BIOFERA.
- Vicini wrote a hymn whose lirics are: Nacque Miro nel Trecento / dalla madre sospirato / nel silenzio inviolato / d'un sperduto casolar. / Giovinetto il nostro Santo / al Signor donò la vita; / la rinuncia fu un incanto / e suggello alla virtù... (= Mir was born in Trecento, / hoped by his old mother, / in the virgin silence / of a lonely hamlet. / Even young, our Saint / gave his life to Lord; / the lose was glorious / and sigil to his virtue...).
- Declaration on the relation of the Church to non-Christian religions Nostra aetate, proclaimed by His Holiness Pope Paul VI on October 28, 1965: .
- Longoni, Virginio (1998). Religiosità e cultura del Rinascimento nel Triangolo Lariano. Immagini di un'epoca. Canzo: Comunità Montana del Triangolo Lariano, Assessorato alla Cultura.
- Longoni, Virginio (1999). Fonti per la storia del Triangolo Lariano. Il medioevo, Canzo: Comunità Montana del Triangolo Lariano, Assessorato alla Cultura.
- Prina, Stefano (2003–2006). Al Cadreghin. Gazetin di bagaj (da Canz). Canzo: Cumpagnia di Nost & Prinas.
- Rebora, Sergio [editor] (1998). Carlo Gerosa a Canzo (1805–1878). Ritratti e soggetti sacri. Comune di Canzo & Fondazione Raverta.
- Valli, Cinzia [editor] (1988–2002). Festa di Nost – Librett. Canzo: Comitato Biofera, Comune di Canzo & Cumpagnia di Nost.
- Commune of Canzo official website
- Lake Como Triangle Community official website
- Park Lake Segrino tourist data