Caolan Mooney played for Rostrevor in County Down and attended St Mark's High School, Warrenpoint where he won a Down Under 14 championship. He then moved to St Colman's College, Newry to complete his A levels. He won the MacRory Cup and Hogan Cup double in 2010 and 2011. Mooney was part of the Down Minor team from 2009-2011 .In 2011 he was named the captain of the team. Later that year Mooney was called up to the Down Senior panel, starting in one and coming on in three games, scoring 1-1.