Capa vehicle

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A capacitor vehicle or capa vehicle is a traction vehicle that uses supercapacitors (also called ultracapacitors) to store electricity.[1]

As of 2010, the best ultracapacitors can only store about 5% of the energy that lithium-ion rechargeable batteries can, limiting them to a couple of miles per charge. This makes them ineffective as a general energy storage medium for passenger vehicles. But ultracapacitors can charge much faster than batteries, so in vehicles such as buses that have to stop frequently at known points where charging facilities can be provided, energy storage based exclusively on ultracapacitors becomes viable[2]

Capabus[edit]

Capabus recharging at the bus stop

China is experimenting with a new form of electric bus, known as Capabus, which runs without continuous overhead lines (is an autonomous vehicle) by using power stored in large onboard electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), which are quickly recharged whenever the vehicle stops at any bus stop (under so-called electric umbrellas), and fully charged in the terminus.

A few prototypes were being tested in Shanghai in early 2005. In 2006 two commercial bus routes began to use electric double-layer capacitor buses; one of them is route 11 in Shanghai.[3] In 2009 Sinautec Automobile Technologies,[4] based in Arlington, Virginia, and its Chinese partner Shanghai Aowei Technology Development Company[5] are testing, with 17 forty-one seat Ultracap Buses serving the Greater Shanghai area since 2006 without any major technical problems.[6] During the Shanghai Expo in 2010, however, 40 super-capacitor buses were being used on a special Expo bus service and owing to the super-capacitors becoming overheated some of the buses broke down.[7] Buses in the Shanghai pilot are made by Germantown, Tennessee-based Foton America Bus Company[8] Another 60 buses will be delivered early next year with ultracapacitors that supply 10 watt-hours per kilogram.

The buses have very predictable routes and need to stop regularly every 3 miles (4.8 km) or less, allowing quick recharging at charging stations at bus stops. A collector on the top of the bus rises a few feet and touches an overhead charging line at the stop; within a couple of minutes the ultracapacitor banks stored under the bus seats are fully charged. The buses can also capture energy from braking, and the company says that recharging stations can be equipped with solar panels. A third generation of the product, which will give 20 miles (32 km) of range per charge or better is planned.[2]

Sinautec estimates that one of its buses has one-tenth the energy cost of a diesel bus and can achieve lifetime fuel savings of $200,000. The buses use 40% less electricity even when compared to an electric trolley bus, mainly because they are lighter[citation needed] and have the regenerative braking benefits. The ultracapacitors are made of activated carbon and have an energy density of six watt-hours per kilogram (for comparison a high-performance lithium-ion battery can achieve 200 watt-hours per kilogram, but the ultracapacitor bus is about 40% cheaper than a lithium-ion battery bus and far more reliable).[2][6]

There is also a plug-in hybrid version, which also uses ultracaps.

RATP, the public-owned company that manages most of Paris' public transport system, is currently performing tests using a hybrid bus outfitted with ultracapacitors. The model, called Lion's City Hybrid, is supplied by German manufacturer MAN.[9]

Foton America Bus is in talks with New York City, Chicago, and some towns in Florida about trialing the buses.[citation needed]

Pantographs and underbody collectors at bus stops[edit]

Pantographs and underbody collectors are integrated in bus stops to quick electric bus recharge, making possible to use a smaller battery on the bus, which reduces the investment and subsequent costs.[10][11][12][13]

Subway and tram[edit]

In a subway car or tram, an insulator at a track switch may cut off power from the car for a few feet along the line and use a large capacitor to store energy to drive the subway car through the insulator in the power feed. [14]

Other deployments[edit]

In 2001 and 2002 VAG, the public transport operator in Nuremberg, Germany tested a hybrid bus which uses a diesel-electric drive system with electric double-layer capacitors.[15]

Since 2003 Mannheim Stadtbahn in Mannheim, Germany has operated a capa vehicle, an LRV (light-rail vehicle), which uses electric double-layer capacitors to store braking energy.[16][17]

Other companies from the public transport manufacturing sector are developing electric double-layer capacitor technology: The Transportation Systems division of Siemens AG is developing a mobile energy storage based on ELDCs called Sibac Energy Storage [18] and also Sitras SES, a stationary version integrated into the trackside power supply.[19] Adetel Group has developed its own energy saver named ″NeoGreen″ for LRV, LRT and metros.[20] The company Cegelec is also developing an ELDC-based energy storage system.[21]

Proton Power Systems has created the world's first triple hybrid forklift truck, which uses fuel cells and batteries as primary energy storage with ELDCs to supplement them.[22]

University of Southampton spin-out Nanotecture[23] has received a Government grant to develop supercapacitors for hybrid vehicles. The company is set to receive £376,000 from the DTI in the UK for a project entitled “next generation supercapacitors for hybrid vehicle applications”. The project also involves Johnson Matthey and HILTech Developments. The project will use supercapacitor technology to improve hybrid electric vehicles and increase overall energy efficiency

Future developments[edit]

Sinautec is in discussions with MIT's Schindall about developing ultracapacitors of higher energy density using vertically aligned carbon nanotube structures that give the devices more surface area for holding a charge. So far they are able to get twice the energy density of an existing ultracapacitor, but they are trying to get about five times. This would create an ultracapacitor with one-quarter of the energy density of a lithium-ion battery.[24]

Future developments includes the use of inductive charging under the street, to avoid overhead wiring. A pad under each bus stop and at each stop light along the way would be used.

Motor racing[edit]

The FIA, the governing body for many motor racing events, proposed in the Power-Train Regulation Framework for Formula 1 version 1.3 of 23 May 2007 that a new set of power train regulations be issued that includes a hybrid drive of up to 200 kW input and output power using "superbatteries" made with both batteries and supercapacitors.[25]

UltraBatteries[edit]

Ultracapacitors are used in some electric vehicles, such as AFS Trinity's concept prototype, to store rapidly available energy with their high power density, in order to keep batteries within safe resistive heating limits and extend battery life.[26][27] The Ultrabattery combines a supercapacitor and a battery in a single unit, creating an electric vehicle battery that lasts longer, costs less and is more powerful than current technologies used in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).[28]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Capacitor vehicle having high speed charging ability and method of operating a capacitor vehicle
  2. ^ a b c Hamilton, Tyler (19 October 2009). "Next Stop: Ultracapacitor Buses". MIT Technology Review. MIT. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  3. ^ 超级电容公交车专题 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 5 January 2007. 
  4. ^ "SINAUTEC, Automobile Technology, LLC". Sinautecus.com. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  5. ^ "Aowei Technology". aowei.com. Archived from the original on 2010-01-25. Retrieved 6 November 2009. 
  6. ^ a b Richard, Michael (19 October 2009). "Ultracapacitor Buses Work... As Long as You have Lots of Quick-Charge Stations". TreeHugger. Archived from the original on 2014-09-19. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  7. ^ "Super Capacitor Buses in Shanghai". Slideshare.net. 8 September 2010. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  8. ^ "Foton America Bus Company". Foton-america.com. Archived from the original on 2014-06-05. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  9. ^ Navarro, Xavier (15 April 2009). "Paris tests a new hybrid bus that uses ultracapacitors". Green.autoblog.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  10. ^ Large-capacity, flash-charging, battery-powered pilot bus takes to the street.
  11. ^ Current collectors for electric busses
  12. ^ A Giant Charger That Juices Up Electric Buses in Three Minutes
  13. ^ Ultrafast Electric Bus Charging, Opbrid
  14. ^ Capacitors
  15. ^ "The Ultracapbus: an alternative drive system taking the test of everyday-use". en.vag.de. Archived from the original on 2008-05-22. 
  16. ^ Hope, Richard (1 July 2006). "UltraCaps win out in energy storage". Railway Gazette International. Archived from the original on 2009-12-04. 
  17. ^ Steiner, Michael; Scholten, Johannes; Klohr, Markus. "MITRAC Energy Saver" (PDF). Bombardier. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-01. 
  18. ^ "Sibac ES Product Page". Siemens AG. Retrieved 2009-11-06. [dead link]
  19. ^ "Sitras SES". Siemens AG. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  20. ^ "Neo Green" (PDF). Adetel Group. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-01-10. 
  21. ^ "Electric double-layer capacitor Transportation applications". Blogs.transworldnews.com. 28 May 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  22. ^ "Proton Power Systems Unveils the World’s First Triple-hybrid Forklift Truck.". Fuel Cell Works press release. 25 September 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. 
  23. ^ "Nanotecture". Nanotecture.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2010-02-09. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  24. ^ Hamilton, Tyler (19 October 2009). "Next Stop: Ultracapacitor Buses - Page 2 |". MIT Technology Review. MIT. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  25. ^ Goeschel, Burkhard; Mosley, Max (24 May 2007). "Formula One 2011: Power-Train Regulation Framework" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-02-17. 
  26. ^ Wald, Matthew (13 January 2008). "Closing the Power Gap Between a Hybrid’s Supply and Demand". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2009-04-10. 
  27. ^ "AFS Trinity unveils 150 mpg Extreme Hybrid (XH) SUV" (PDF). 13 January 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-02-29. 
  28. ^ "Error - LexisNexis® Publisher". Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
  29. ^ "ABB demonstrates technology to power flash charging electric bus in 15 seconds". www.abb.com. 30 May 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-06-01.