Cape Government Railways
The first railways at the Cape were privately owned. The Cape Town Railway and Dock Company started construction from Cape Town in 1859, reaching Eerste Rivier by 1862 and Wellington by 1863. Meanwhile, by 1864 the Wynberg Railway Company had connected Cape Town and Wynberg. For the moment, railway development at the Cape did not continue eastwards beyond Wellington because of the barrier presented by the mountains of the Cape Fold Belt.
Formation of CGR
The discovery of diamonds, and the consequent rush to Kimberley that started in 1871, gave impetus to the development of railways in South Africa. Shortly afterwards, in 1872, the Cape Colony attained responsible government under the leadership of Prime Minister John Molteno, who had plans for an enormous network or railways to connect the Cape Colony's main ports to its interior and, importantly, to the Diamond fields. In his very first speech to the Cape Parliament he announced the purchase of all existing lines and the formation of the Cape Government Railways.
The announced expansion was to see the construction of a network over ten times more extensive than the total length of railway that existed at the time, in all of southern Africa. The management of this system – which was to become the nucleus of the future South African Railways – initially fell under his Public Works Department, until July 1873, when Molteno established a separate Railway Department under the renowned Engineer William Brounger. In the same year, the government of the Cape Colony decided to standardise railway development on what became known as the "Cape gauge" of 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in), to ease construction of railways through the mountains. This gauge went on to become the standard for all railways in southern and central Africa.
The government planned for lines to strike northwards, from the three ports of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and East London, towards Kimberley and the developing hinterland. These three lines became known as the "Cape Western", "Cape Midland" and "Cape Eastern" lines respectively. They were intended to bring the towns of southern Africa's vast hinterland into direct railway connection with the country's ports, thus driving the development of the interior and building an export economy.
The Cape Western Line was charted by the Prime Minister himself (allegedly with only a map, pen and ruler). Cape Town was cut off from the highland interior by a triple barrier of steep mountain ranges, but the lines nonetheless progressed fast inland, once the primary obstacle of the Hex River Mountains was overcome in 1876 with a major system of bridges and tunnels. 1876 also saw the building of a new central station for Cape Town, and over the next few years the line was rapidly extended through the Karoo desert to the town of Beaufort West, De Aar, and thence to Kimberley.
The Cape Midland Line only began when the Cape Government took over the rudimentary and incomplete line of the Port Elizabeth and Uitenhage Railway Company in 1872. However building accelerated massively over the next few years, with twin lines reaching northwards to Graaff-Reinet, and eastwards to Grahamstown. These connected with the Cape Western Line at De Aar and thus to Kimberley.
The Cape Eastern Line was built partially to serve the frontier, and its network of military forts. The port of East London was likewise chosen partly for strategic reasons, being the closest port to the frontier for landing and transporting troops. Work only began when the Molteno Government took over its construction in 1873, with the Prime Minister turning the first spades for both the East London harbour and the Eastern Railway Line on 20 August 1873. Though frontier wars disrupted construction from time to time, the line reached Queenstown in 1880. 
By 1885 the separate sections were connected and the Cape Western line reached Kimberley, marking the end of an epic which had begun in 1873, with the network completed faithfully according to the original 1873 plans. From an initial total of 92 kilometres in 1872, the Cape was now criss-crossed with over 2,000 kilometres of railway.
The news of the Cape's immense railway programme inspired similar moves in neighbouring states, such as the project of the Natal Government Railways to extend its few miles of railway inland towards the Drakensberg, and President Burgers' ill-fated attempt to link the Transvaal Republic to Lourenço Marques.
In 1886 gold was discovered in the South African Republic (the Transvaal), setting off the Witwatersrand Gold Rush. The Cape government and the government of the Orange Free State (OFS) reached an agreement, by which the Cape Government Railways would build and operate a railway line, through the OFS, to the rapidly-growing city of Johannesburg. This line reached Bloemfontein (the capital of the OFS) in 1890, and the first trains operated from Cape Town to Johannesburg in 1892. In 1897 the OFS government took over control of its portion of the line.
Formation of SAR
The Cape railway network played a significant role in supporting and supplying the British forces during the Second Boer War. After the war, when the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, all railways in South Africa, including the CGR, the Natal Government Railways and the Central South African Railways, were taken over by the newly formed South African Railways (SAR).
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- The Royal Commonwealth Society, 1898, "Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute". The Institute, Northumberland Avenue, London, W.C. p. 26.
- Burman 1984, p. 50.
- SABC, 14 August 1954, John Bond. "John Molteno: Founder of the South African Railways", p. 3.
- Davenport, D.E. A Railway Sketch of South Africa. 1882. Cape Town
- Bond J.: They were South Africans. London: Oxford University Press. 1956. Chapter 19, The Makers of Railways: John Molteno. p.170.
- Royal Colonial Society: Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute. Northumberland Avenue, London. 1898. p.26. "The Railway System of South Africa".
- Burman 1984, pp. 52–63.
- Burman 1984, pp. 64–78.
- Burman 1984, pp. 79–90.
- F. Statham: Blacks, Boers, & British: A Three-cornered Problem. MacMillan & Co. 1881. p.42.
- Burman 1984, pp. 95–96.
- Kleingeld, Christo (2003). A South African Railway History. Accessed 14 December 2009.
- Paxton, Leith, and David Bourne (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways. C. Struik (Pty) Ltd., ISBN 0-86977-211-2
- Burman, Jose (1984), Early Railways at the Cape, Cape Town: Human & Rousseau, ISBN 0-7981-1760-5