Cape sparrow

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Cape sparrow
Cape Sparrow, Passer melanurus at Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden, Johannesburg, South Africa (14727921265).jpg
Male in Roodepoort, South Africa
Passer melanurus.jpg
Female in Sossusvlei, Namibia
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Passeridae
Genus: Passer
Species: P. melanurus
Binomial name
Passer melanurus
(Statius Müller, 1776)
Passer melanurus distribution.svg
Range
Synonyms[2]

Loxia melanura Statius Müller, 1776
Fringilla arctuata Gmelin, 1788

The Cape sparrow or mossie (Passer melanurus) is a bird of the sparrow family Passeridae found in southern Africa. A medium-sized sparrow at 14–16 centimetres (5.5–6.3 in), it has distinctive plumage including large pale head stripes. Both sexes are mostly coloured grey, brown, and chestnut, and the male has some black and white markings on its head and neck. It inhabits semi-arid savannah, cultivated areas, and towns, and ranges from the central coast of Angola to eastern South Africa and Swaziland. Three subspecies are distinguished.

Cape sparrows are primarily granivorous, and also eat soft plant parts and insects. The birds typically breed in colonies and gather in large, often nomadic flocks while not breeding. The nest can be constructed in a variety of locations, in a tree or a bush in a hole or an empty nest of another species. A typical clutch contains three or four eggs, and both parents are involved in breeding from nest building to feeding young. The Cape sparrow is common in most of its range and coexists successfully in urban habitats with two of its relatives, the introduced house sparrow and native southern grey-headed sparrow. The population has not been recorded decreasing significantly, so according to the IUCN Red List the species is not threatened.

Description[edit]

A male in Western Cape, seen from the front

For a sparrow, the Cape sparrow is brightly coloured and distinctive, and is medium-sized at 14–16 cm (5.5–6.3 in) long.[3] The breeding male has a mostly black head, but with a broad white mark on each side, curling from behind the eye to the throat. On the throat a narrow black band connects the black bib of the breast to black of the head.[4] The underparts are greyish, darker on the flanks. The back of the male's neck is dark grey, and its back and shoulders are bright chestnut. The male has a white and a black wing bar below its shoulders, and flight feathers and tail streaked grey and black.[3]

The female is plumaged like the male, but is duller and has a grey head with a different pattern from the male, though it bears a hint of the pale head markings of the male. The juvenile is like the female, but young males have black markings on the head from an early age.[3][5]

The Cape sparrow's vocalisations are chirps similar to those of the house sparrow, but much more musical and mellow.[3][6] The basic call is used in flight and while perching socially and transcribed as chissip, chirrup, chreep, or chirrichup.[6] A call used by the male to advertise nest ownership is transcribed as tweeng or twileeng. Distinctive and loud, this call sometimes becomes a jerky and repetitive song, transcribed as chip cheerup, chip cheerup.[6][7]

Taxonomy[edit]

The Cape sparrow was first described by Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller in 1776, as Loxia melanura.[2] Some other earlier biologists described the Cape sparrow in Loxia or Fringilla, but it has otherwise been regarded as a member of the genus Passer. Within this genus its relations have generally been regarded as obscure.[8] Mitochondrial DNA studies, however, have strongly suggested that the Cape sparrow among the most basal member (the earliest offshoot) of its genus. It seems to be related to the southern grey-headed sparrow and its relatives, and to the saxaul sparrow of Central Asia.[9][10][11]

The Cape sparrow's specific epithet comes from the Greek μέλας (melas, "black") and ουρά (oura, "tail"),[12] while the name of the genus Passer comes from a Latin word for small birds.[13]

The Cape sparrow has three subspecies. The nominate subspecies Passer melanurus melanurus is found in eastern South Africa, east to the west of Free State. The subspecies vicinus, which is sometimes included in subspecies melanurus, occurs from Free State east to the Eastern Cape and Lesotho. The subspecies damarensis ranges from the extreme southern coastal areas of Angola into Namibia, Botswana and the extreme west of Zimbabwe, as well as northern South Africa.[7]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Females drinking at a waterhole in Namibia

The Cape sparrow inhabits southern Africa south of Angola and as far east as Swaziland.[1] The northernmost point in its range is Benguela in Angola, and it is found in the coastal and central parts of Namibia, except for the driest parts of the Namib Desert. It occurs in all of South Africa except the farthest east, in southern Botswana and spottily in the Kalahari Basin of central Botswana. In the east, it breeds a t small number of localities in southeastern Zimbabwe, and its range ends once it reaches the wet eastern forests of Limpopo and KwaZulu Natal, extending into the hills of western Swaziland.[14]

Its original habitats were the semi-arid savanna, thornveld, and light woodland typical of southern Africa. When settled agriculture arrived in its range about a thousand years ago, it adapted to cultivated land. Since the arrival of settlement, it has moved into towns.[15] The Cape sparrow prefers habitats with an annual rainfall of less than 75 centimetres (30 in), though in desert areas it is usually found near watercourses or watering holes. While it occurs in urban centres, it prefers parks, gardens, and other open spaces, and has a low reproductive success in more built-up areas.[15]

In towns, the Cape sparrow competes with both the native southern grey-headed sparrow and the introduced house sparrow.[16] Since it is more established around humans in its range than either, it successfully competes with both species, though they may exclude it from nesting in holes.[15][14] There are reports by birdwatchers in suburban areas of South Africa of increases in some regions (the northern Johannesburg area, and Pietermaritzburg) and decreases in others (the southern Cape Town area). The house sparrow is reported decreasing in several urban areas, as it has in parts of Europe, declines which are attributed to factors including the increasing density of garden plantings and increases in predation.[17]

Behaviour[edit]

Social behaviour[edit]

Cape sparrows and a southern masked weaver feeding at a bird feeder in Johannesburg during the winter

The Cape sparrow is social, lives in flocks, and usually breeds in colonies. Away from humans it is nomadic, and forms flocks of up to 200 birds. In cultivated and built up areas, smaller flocks form where food is provided for livestock or birds. In such places, it associates with other seed-eating birds, such as the house sparrow, the cape weaver, and Euplectes weavers.[15] Birds from urban areas form flocks seasonally and fly out to nearby countryside to feed on ripening grain, returning at night to roost.[15][18]

Cape sparrows prefer to roost in nests, and while wandering when not breeding, birds in uncultivated areas roost socially in old nests or dense bushes. In farmland and towns, birds build special nests for roosting, lined more poorly than breeding nests, but made of more insulating material.[15][18][19]

An unusual social behaviour has been described from Cape sparrows in Johannesburg. Groups of 20–30 birds separate from larger flocks and stand close together on the ground with tails on the ground and heads held high. These groups sometimes move in an unconcerted fashion by hopping slowly. Often birds will fly up and hover 30–60 centimetres (12–24 in) above the ground. During these gatherings birds are silent and are never antagonistic. This behaviour's significance is unknown, and it is not reported in any other sparrow.[15]

Feeding[edit]

The Cape sparrow mostly eats seeds, foraging in trees and on the ground.[18] The larger seeds of cereals, wild grasses, and other small plants are preferred, with wheat and khakiweed (Alternanthera caracasana) being favourites. Buds and soft fruits are also taken, causing considerable damage to agriculture. Insects are eaten, and nestlings seem to be fed exclusively on caterpillars. The Cape sparrow eats the soft shoots of plants, and probes in aloes for nectar, but these habits are not important sources of food.[20]

Breeding[edit]

Courtship and colonies[edit]

The Cape sparrow usually breeds in loose colonies of 50–100 birds. 10 to 20 percent of the breeding birds in each population nest away from colonies, for unknown reasons.[21] The Cape sparrow is usually monogamous, but some records of a male and two females nesting and raising young in one nest have been made in Western Cape.[22] It seems pairs are formed in the non-breeding flocks, but it is not known how pairs are formed, or if the pair bond is for life. Once ready to breed, newly mated pairs look for a suitable nesting site, spending mornings searching, and returning to their flock in the afternoon. Once a site has been selected, both birds begin to build their nest. Other pairs seeking a nest site join them, and in this matter a colony forms quickly.[21]

The courtship display is poorly recorded. Ornithologist J. Denis Summers-Smith observed a display in which the male hopped beside the female in a tree, drooping its wings and ruffling the chestnut-coloured feathers on its back. Groups of two or more males have been observed chasing a female. In the house sparrow a similar display exists, in which a female who is not ready to copulate is chased by her mate, who is joined by other males. It is not known if the display in the Cape sparrow has a similar significance. When ready to mate, the female crouches in solicitation and is mounted by the male.[23] Instances of hybridisation with the house sparrow,[7] the southern grey-headed sparrow, and the Sudan golden sparrow have been reported.[24]

Nesting[edit]

The Cape sparrow utilises a variety of nesting sites, including holes as well as open locations. Bushes and trees, especially acacias, seem to be preferred.[21] Many nests may be built in a single tree.[25] Holes and other covered sites are chosen less frequently. Nests have been recorded from the eaves of buildings, on creepers on walls, in holes in earth banks, and in holes in haystacks. Sometimes the Cape sparrow nests in the disused nests of other birds, such as weavers and swallows. Pairs that nest away from colonies usually choose low bushes or utility poles as nesting sites.[21] Nests are placed at least a metre above the ground, and can be only a few centimetres apart in colonies. Only the nest and its very close vicinity are defended as a territory. Males defend their territory with threatening postures, and sometimes by fighting with bills on the ground.[21]

Nests built in the open are large and untidy domed structures. Nests are built mainly of dry grass and twigs, with a soft lining of plant down. Any leaves or thorns present in a nest tree are worked into the nest. In cavity nests, the hole is simply filled with a shapeless mass of grass with a cup of soft material containing the eggs on the inside. When the disused nests of weavers are utilised, they are simply given a soft lining. The nest entrance is in the side, and is sometimes extended into a funnel. The male and the female construct the nest together, keeping close when finding material and weaving it together.[21][26]

Eggs and young[edit]

A male feeding a fledgeling

Clutches contain between two and six eggs, typically three or four. Variation in clutch size depending on the amount of food available for young birds. Presumably owing to the greater availability of food, clutches are larger during the peak of the breeding season, and in more southern latitudes of the Cape sparrow's range.[23] Both birds of a pair incubate the eggs during the day, switching every ten or fifteen minutes. At night, only the female incubates the eggs, while the male roosts outside or in the nest. In pairs breeding outside of colonies, birds leave the nest to make room for their mates upon hearing their mates approaching. Among colonial pairs, the incubating bird waits until its partner arrives in the nest, to prevent other birds from entering the nest. Incubation seems to begin before the clutch is complete, and lasts 12–24 days.[23]

The young of a clutch hatch over two or three days and are brooded until their feathers develop and eyes open five days after hatching. The young are fed on insects until they fledge 16 to 25, typically 17, days after hatching. After this they are fed for one or two weeks. While feeding nestlings, the female is dominant over the male.[23] Cape sparrows are among the main hosts of brood parasitism by the dideric cuckoo,[14] and have been recorded parasitising others of the same species.[27]

Relationships with humans[edit]

A female in Johannesburg, South Africa

The Cape sparrow is an abundant and familiar bird of human habitations and cultivation in most of southern Africa.[7] It is not believed to be threatened, and accordingly is listed as a least concern species on the IUCN Red List.[1] It can be an agricultural pest, especially of grain cultivation and vineyards.[15]

When vineyards in the south-west Cape started letting weeds grow between vines to conserve moisture, around 1956, the Cape sparrow moved in. Cape sparrows quickly exhausted the seeds and started eating the grapes. The Cape sparrow is now a serious pest in vineyards. However, vineyards are not optimal habitat: some populations have had such a low reproductive success that they could not be maintained without immigration.[7][15]

The Cape sparrow was featured on the lowest-denomination South African coin, from the farthing (¼-cent) in 1923 to the cent that ceased to be minted in 2002, with designs based on an original by George Kruger Gray. This was said to be because women interned at a concentration camp in Bethulie during the Boer War adopted a biblical quotation (from Matthew 10) as their motto: "Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father."[28] Additionally, it has been featured on stamps from Lesotho and the Central African Republic.[29]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Passer melanurus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Summers-Smith 1988, p. 67
  3. ^ a b c d Clement, Harris & Davis 1993, pp. 456–457
  4. ^ Summers-Smith 1988, p. 68
  5. ^ Stark 1900, pp. 159–162
  6. ^ a b c Summers-Smith 1988, pp. 76–77
  7. ^ a b c d e Summers-Smith 2009, p. 800
  8. ^ Summers-Smith 1988, p. 305
  9. ^ Allende, Luis M.; Rubio, Isabel; Ruíz-del-Valle, Valentin; Guillén, Jesus; Martínez-Laso, Jorge; Lowy, Ernesto; Varela, Pilar; Zamora, Jorge; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio (2001). "The Old World sparrows (genus Passer) phylogeography and their relative abundance of nuclear mtDNA pseudogenes" (PDF). Journal of Molecular Evolution 53 (2): 144–154. PMID 11479685. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. 
  10. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A.; Gómez-Prieto, P.; Ruiz-de-Valle, V. (2009). "Phylogeography of finches and sparrows". Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-60741-844-3. 
  11. ^ González, Javier; Siow, Melanie; Garcia-del-Rey, Eduardo; Delgado, Guillermo; and Wink, Michael (2008). "Phylogenetic relationships of the Cape Verde Sparrow based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA" (PDF). Systematics 2008, Göttingen. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. 
  12. ^ Gotch 1996, pp. 442–443
  13. ^ Summers-Smith 1988, p. 13
  14. ^ a b c Dean, W. R. J. (1997). "Cape Sparrow". In Harrison, J. A.; Allan, D. G.; Underhill, L. G.; Herremans, M.; Tree, A. J.; Parker, V.; and Brown, C. J. The Atlas of Southern African Birds 1. BirdLife South Africa. pp. 540–541. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Summers-Smith 1988, pp. 70–71
  16. ^ Summers-Smith, J. D. (1990). "Changes in distribution and habitat utilisation by members of the genus Passer". In Pinowski, J.; and Summers-Smith, J. D. Granivorous birds in the agricultural landscape. Warszawa: Pánstwowe Wydawnictom Naukowe. pp. 11–29. ISBN 83-01-08460-X. 
  17. ^ Harrison, J. A. (2000). "Changing suburban birds – terrestrial species". Bird Numbers (Avian Demography Unit, Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town) 9 (2). Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. 
  18. ^ a b c Dean, W. R. J. (2005). "Cape Sparrow Passer melanurus". In Hockey, P. A. R.; Dean, W. R. J.; and Ryan, P. G., editors. Roberts Birds of Southern Africa (7th. ed.). Cape Town: The Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund. pp. 1084–1086. ISBN 0-620-34053-3. 
  19. ^ Friedmann 1950, p. 306
  20. ^ Summers-Smith 1988, p. 77
  21. ^ a b c d e f Summers-Smith 1988, pp. 71–72
  22. ^ Oschadleus, H. Dieter; Brooks, Michael (2008). "Bigamy in Cape Sparrows". Bird Numbers 14: 18–19. Archived from the original on 26 February 2011. 
  23. ^ a b c d Summers-Smith 1988, pp. 73–75
  24. ^ McCarthy 2006, pp. 268–267
  25. ^ Dean, W. R. J. (1989). "Cape Sparrow". In Ginn, P. J.; McIlleron, W. G.; and Milstein, P. le S., editors. The Complete Book of Southern African Birds. Cape Town: Struik Winchester. p. 652. ISBN 0-947430-11-3. 
  26. ^ Milton, Sue; Dean, Richard (1999). "Nesting Thyme: The use of aromatic plants in Cape Sparrow nests" (PDF). Africa Birds & Birding 4 (1): 37–39. Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. 
  27. ^ MacWhirter, R. Bruce (1989). "On the Rarity of Intraspecific Brood Parasitism" (PDF). The Condor 91 (2): 485–492. doi:10.2307/1368333. JSTOR 1368333. 
  28. ^ "One Cent (1c)". The South African Mint Company. 2008. Archived from the original on 20 September 2011. 
  29. ^ Scharning, Kjell. "Cape Sparrow stamps". Theme Birds on Stamps. Retrieved 25 May 2010. 

Works cited[edit]

  • Clement, Peter; Harris, Alan; Davis, John (1993). Finches and Sparrows: an Identification Guide. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03424-9. 
  • Friedmann, Herbert (1950). "The breeding habits of the weaverbirds: a study in the biology of behavior patterns". Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, Showing the Operations, Expenditures, and the Condition of the Institution for the Year Ended June 30, 1949: 293–316. 
  • Gotch, A. F. (1996). Latin Names Explained: A Guide to the Scientific Classification of Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals. New York: Facts On File. ISBN 0-8160-3377-3. 
  • McCarthy, Eugene M. (2006). Handbook of avian hybrids of the world. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518323-8. 
  • Stark, Arthur C. (1900). The Birds of South Africa I. London: R. H. Porter. 
  • Summers-Smith, J. Denis (2009). "Family Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)". In del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Christie, David. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 14: Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-84-96553-50-7. 
  • Summers-Smith, J. Denis (1988). The Sparrows: a study of the genus Passer. illustrated by Robert Gillmor. Calton, Staffs, England: T. & A. D. Poyser. ISBN 0-85661-048-8. 

External links[edit]