|Caudal extremity of male Eucoleus aerophilus (= Capillaria aerophila)|
Since the taxonomy of the Capillariidae is disputed, species are included within the single genus Capillaria or 22 different genera (Amphibiocapillaria, Aonchotheca, Baruscapillaria, Calodium, Capillaria, Capillostrongyloides, Crocodylocapillaria, Echinocoleus, Eucoleus, Freitascapillaria, Gessyella, Liniscus, Paracapillaria, Paracapillaroides, Pearsonema, Paratrichosoma, Pseudocapillaria, Piscicapillaria, Pseudocapillaroides, Pterothominx, Schulmanela, and Tenoranema).
Some species parasitic in fish, previously classified within Capillaria, are now included in Huffmanela (family Trichosomoididae).
Old literature, and sometimes modern medical literature, use Capillaria as a genus for species included in all these genera.
The term Capillariasis is generally used for diseases produced by species of Capillaria, even if the species is now placed in another genus.
Species in the genus Capillaria include (among hundreds of described species):
- Capillaria aerophila; modern name Eucoleus aerophilus; a parasite of the respiratory system of foxes and other mammals
- Capillaria gastrica; a parasite of rodents
- Capillaria hepatica; modern name Calodium hepaticum; cause of hepatic capillariasis in man
- Capillaria philippinensis; modern name Paracapillaria philippinensis; cause of intestinal capillariasis in man
- Capillaria plica; modern name Pearsonema plica; a parasite of the urinary system of dogs and other mammals
- Capillaria feliscati; modern name Pearsonema feliscati; a parasite of the urinary system of cats and other mammals
- Moravec, F. 2001: Trichinelloid Nematodes parasitic in cold-blooded vertebrates. Academia, Praha, 432 pp. (list of genera in pages 30-32) (ISBN 8020008055)
- Capillariasis, a disease caused by some Capillaria species
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