List of capitals of Burma

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Capital of Burma)
Jump to: navigation, search

The current capital of Burma (Myanmar) is Naypyidaw. The following is a list of political capitals of notable states in Burmese history from the 9th century to the present. The list is generally organized in dynastic and chronological orders. National capitals are shown in bold.

List of capitals[edit]

State Capital Period Duration Notes
Pagan Kingdom Pagan (Bagan) 23 December 849 – 17 December 1297 447 years, 359 days [note 1]
Myinsaing Kingdom Myinsaing, Mekkhaya and Pinle 17 December 1297 – 13 April 1310 12 years, 117 days [note 2]
Pinya Kingdom Pinle 13 April 1310 – 7 February 1313 2 years, 300 days [note 3]
Pinya 7 February 1313 – September 1364 51 years, 6+ months [1]
Sagaing Kingdom Sagaing 16 May 1315 – April 1364 48 years, 10+ months [note 4]
Ava Kingdom Sagaing April – September 1364 4+ months [2]
Pinya September 1364 – 26 February 1365 5+ months [3]
Ava (Inwa) 26 February 1365 – 22 January 1555 189 years, 330 days [note 5]
Prome Kingdom Prome (Pyay) c. November 1482 – 19 May 1542 59 years, 6+ months [4]
Hanthawaddy Kingdom Martaban (Mottama) 4 April 1287 – 1363 76+ years [note 6]
Donwun 1363 – 1369 ~6 years [note 7]
[5]
Pegu (Bago) 1369 – c. November 1538 169+ years [note 8]
Pegu late June 1550 – 12 March 1552 1 year, 8+ months [note 9]
Mrauk-U Kingdom Launggyet 18 April 1429 – 16 November 1430 1 year, 212 days [note 10]
Mrauk-U 16 November 1430 – 2 January 1785 354 years, 47 days [note 11]
[6]
Toungoo Dynasty Toungoo (Taungoo) 16 October 1510 – 1539 28–29 years [note 12]
Pegu 1539 – 30 April 1550 ~11 years [7]
Toungoo 11 January 1551 – 12 March 1552 1 year, 61 days [note 13]
Pegu 12 March 1552 – 19 December 1599 47 years, 282 days [8]
Ava 19 December 1599 – 14 May 1613 13 years, 146 days [note 14]
Pegu 14 May 1613 – 25 January 1635 21 years, 256 days [9]
Ava 25 January 1635 – 23 March 1752 117 years, 58 days [10]
Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom Pegu November 1740 – 6 May 1757 16 years, 6 months [11][12]
Konbaung Dynasty Shwebo 29 February 1752 – 26 July 1760 8 years, 148 days [13]
[14]
Sagaing 26 July 1760 – 23 July 1765 4 years, 362 days [15]
Ava 23 July 1765 – 13 May 1783 17 years, 294 days [16]
Amarapura 13 May 1783 – 22 November 1821 38 years, 193 days [17]
Ava 22 November 1821 – 10 February 1842 20 years, 80 days [18]
Amarapura 10 February 1842 – 23 May 1859 17 years, 102 days [19]
Mandalay 23 May 1859 – 29 November 1885 26 years, 190 days [20]
British Burma Mawlamyaing (Moulmein) and
Sittwe (Akyab)
24 February 1826 – 20 December 1852 35 years, 341 days [note 15]
Mawlamyaing
Sittwe
Yangon (Rangoon)
20 December 1852 – 31 January 1862 9 years, 42 days [note 16]
Yangon 31 January 1862 – 7 March 1942 80 years, 35 days [note 17]
Yangon 3 May 1945 – 4 January 1948 2 years, 246 days
Japanese Burma Yangon 7 March 1942 – 3 May 1945 3 years, 57 days
Burma Yangon 4 January 1948 – 6 November 2005 57 years, 306 days
Naypyidaw 6 November 2005 – present 9 years, 1 month and 20 days

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The date of fortification (6th waxing of Pyatho 211 ME) per Zatadawbon Yazawin (Zata 1960: 41) given as the date of foundation. Zata (Zata 1960: 53) says the city of Arimaddana was founded in 190 CE (Sunday, 15th waxing of Tagu 112 Pyu Era) while the palace was moved to Thiri Pyissaya in 390 (Thursday, 1st waxing of Pyatho 312 Pyu Era). Hmannan Yazawin (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 185–188) gives 107 CE as the date of foundation of Pagan. According to scholarship, Pagan was founded in mid-to-late 9th century, and fortified in the late 10th century at the earliest. (Aung-Thwin 2005: 185): radiocarbon dating shows the earliest human settlement in Pagan dates only to c. 650 CE. (Aung-Thwin 2005: 38): radiocarbon dating of Pagan's surviving walls yields dates no earlier than 980 CE, with more likely dates c. 1020 CE. It means the Pyu Era dates claimed by Zata may have been Burmese Era dates. If true, Pagan was founded on 16 March 751 (15th waxing of Late Tagu 112 ME) and the palace was moved to Thiri Pyissaya on 12 December 950 (1st waxing of Pyatho 312 ME).
    (Than Tun 1959: 119–120): King Kyawswa was dethroned on 17 December 1297 (13th waxing of Pyatho 659) according to inscriptional evidence. Chinese records show that the dethronement occurred in June-July 1298.
  2. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 369) states that King Yazathingyan, ruler of Mekkhaya, died after having reigned for five years. But (Than Tun 1959: 123) quotes an inscription which says two brothers Yazathingyan and Thihathu were still alive after the eldest brother Athinhkaya died on 13 April 1310.
  3. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 370) gives Wednesday, 15th waxing of Tabaung 674 ME, which translates to Saturday, 10 February 1313. But 15th waxing is most probably a copying error since it is highly uncommon to say 15th waxing instead of full moon. The date was probably 12th waxing of Tabaung, which correctly translates to Wednesday, 7 February 1313. Burmese numerals 2 (၂) and 5 (၅) are similar and can easily be miscopied.
  4. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 375): Sawyun began his reign at Sagaing on 12th waxing of Nayon 677 ME (16 May 1315). (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 394): Sagaing fell in Kason 726 ME (2 April to 1 May 1364).
  5. ^ Ava fell to Toungoo forces on 22 January 1555 (Tuesday, 2nd waxing of Tabaung 916 ME) per (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 221). Ava had two prior dynastic changes both wrought by the men from Mohnyin. The founding Thadominbya dynasty (သတိုးဆက်) fell on 20 May 1426 (14th waxing of Nayon 788 ME) to forces led by Mohnyin Thado per (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 62). The Mohnyin dynasty (မိုးညှင်းဆက်) in turn fell to the forces of the Confederation of Shan States led by Sawlon on 14 March 1527 (12th waxing of Late Tagu 888 ME) per (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 113).
  6. ^ (Pan Hla 2004: 25–26) says per Mon records King Wareru proclaimed independence on Thursday, 6th waning of Tagu 648 ME (16 March 1286). But 648 ME is most probably a typographical error. The date is more likely 6th waning of Tagu 649 ME (4 April 1287) since Mon records themselves say Wareru, who was born on 20 March 1253, came to power at age 34 (35th year). Moreover, Burmese records recognize Full moon of Tabodwe 649 (18 January 1288), which Pan Hla conjectures as the date of coronation.
  7. ^ (Phayre 1967: 66) says King Saw Zein moved his capital to Pegu soon after he came to power in Thadingyut 685 ME (2 September 1323 to 30 September 1323). (Pan Hla 2004: 39–41) only states Saw Zein first had to reacquire Pegu but does not mention a move. According to Pan Hla, Saw Zein' successor ascended the throne at Martaban in 1330. As for the move to Donwun, (Pan Hla 2004: 57–59) gives 1363 citing Mon sources, and states that Burmese sources give 10 years earlier, 1353.
  8. ^ Chronicles give only 900 ME (30 March 1538 to 29 March 1539) as the date when Pegu fell to Toungoo forces. (Harvey 1925: 368) translates that to year 1539. (Harvey 1925) generally adds 639 when translating from the Burmese calendar to the Western calendar for Ava and early Toungoo periods, which is highly inaccurate. (The Burmese calendar straddles the Western year. In the 16th century, a little over 75% of the Burmese year fell on the Western year arrived at by adding 638. The book does revert back to adding 638 in later periods.) Nonetheless many history books on Burma follow (Harvey 1925)'s dates. (Than Tun's books are an exception.) The date Pegu fell is almost always given as 1539 in Western history books although the actual chronicle text clearly indicates that Pegu fell early in the dry season of 1538–1539 (probably c. November/December 1538), and plenty of fighting ensued after Pegu's fall.
  9. ^ (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 197): Smim Sawhtut took over Pegu a little over a month and a half after Tabinshwehti's assassination on 30 April 1550. Per the Shwezigon Pagoda Bell Inscription (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 339), Bayinnaung took Pegu on 12 March 1552 (Saturday, 3rd waning of Late Tagu 913 ME).
  10. ^ Rakhine Razawin Thit (Sandamala Linkara Vol. 2 1999: 11) says Min Saw Mon took Launggyet on Thursday, 1st waning of Kason 791, which translates to Monday, 18 April 1429.
  11. ^ The founding date of Mrauk-U appears differently in different sources. The Burmese encyclopedia (Myanma Swezon Kyan Vol. 9 1964: 425) gives the date as Sunday, 1st waxing of Natdaw 792 ME (16 November 1430). But (Harvey 1925: 139) gives 1433, and (Sandamala Linkara Vol. 2 1999: 13) gives Sunday, 1st waxing of Tawthalin 792 ME (20 August 1430).
  12. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 179): Mingyi Nyo declared independence from Ava on Tuesday, Full moon of Tazaungmon 872 ME, which translates to Wednesday, 16 October 1510. (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 196): Tabinshwehti moved his capital to Pegu in 901 ME (30 March 1539 to 29 March 1540).
  13. ^ (Maha Yazawin 2006: 201): Bayinnaung took Toungoo on 11 January 1551 (Sunday, 5th waxing of Tabodwe 912 ME). (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 339): He took Pegu, and moved his capital on 12 March 1552 (Saturday, 3rd waning of Late Tagu 913 ME).
  14. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 172–173): The Burmese chronicles do not state that King Anaukpetlun officially moved the capital to Pegu. But Anaukpetlun arrived at Pegu in early May 1613 as part of his war operations and hosted the first function at his temporary palace on 14 May 1613 (10th waning of Kason 975). He did not go back to Ava afterwards.
  15. ^ Mawlamyaing/Moulmein was the capital of the Tenesserim Division while Sittwe/Akyab was that of the Arakan Division of British India. The start date is counted from the date of signing of the Treaty of Yandabo. Arakan, Tenasserim and Pegu were united as British Burma within British India on 31 January 1862.
  16. ^ Yangon/Rangoon became the capital of Pegu Division after the Second Anglo-Burmese War.
  17. ^ Yangon became the capital of the Province of Burma of British India on 31 January 1862.

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 393): Pinya fell in Tawthalin 726 (28 August to 26 September 1364).
  2. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 394): Sagaing fell in Kason 726 ME (2 April to 1 May 1364).
  3. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 396): Tuesday, 6th waxing of Tabaung 726 ME = 26 February 1365
  4. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 213): 5th waxing of Nayon 904 = 19 May 1542
  5. ^ Harvey 1925: 368
  6. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 2 2004: 2-25): Sunday, 8th waning of Pyatho 1146 ME = 2 January 1785
  7. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 257): Wednesday, 1st waning of Kason 912 = 30 April 1550
  8. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 102): Sunday, 4th waxing of Pyatho 961 = 19 December 1599
  9. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 223): 7th waxing of Tabodwe 996 = 25 January 1635
  10. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 392): 8th waxing of Old Tagu 1113 = 23 March 1752
  11. ^ (Zata 1960: 44): Natdaw 1102 ME = 19 November 1740 to 17 December 1740
  12. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 1 2004: 128): 4th waning of Kason 1119 = 6 May 1757
  13. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 1 2004: 52): Full moon of Tabaung 1113 = 29 February 1752
  14. ^ Buyers: King Naungdawgyi
  15. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 1 2004: 278): Tuesday, 7th waxing of Wagaung 1127 = 23 July 1765
  16. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 1 2004: 395): Tuesday, 13th waxing of Nayon 1145 = 13 May 1783
  17. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 2 2004: 223): Thursday, 13th waning of Thadingyut 1183 = 22 November 1821
  18. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 3 2004: 33): 1st waxing of Tabaung 1203 = 10 February 1842
  19. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 3 2004: 193): Monday, 7th waning of Kason 1221 = 23 May 1859
  20. ^ Htin Aung 1967: 263

Bibliography[edit]

  • Myat Soe, ed. (1964). Myanma Swezon Kyan (in Burmese) 9 (1 ed.). Yangon: Sarpay Beikman. 
  • Aung-Thwin, Michael (2005). The mists of Rāmañña: The Legend that was Lower Burma (illustrated ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 9780824828868. 
  • Buyers, Christopher. "The Royal Ark: Burma -- Konbaung Dynasty". Retrieved February 2012. 
  • Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 
  • Htin Aung, Maung (1967). A History of Burma. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Kala, U (1724). Maha Yazawin (in Burmese) 1–3 (2006, 4th printing ed.). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. 
  • Maung Maung Tin, U (1905). Konbaung Set Yazawin (in Burmese) 1–3 (2004 ed.). Yangon: Department of Universities History Research, University of Yangon. 
  • Pan Hla, Nai (1968). Razadarit Ayedawbon (in Burmese) (8th printing, 2004 ed.). Yangon: Armanthit Sarpay. 
  • Phayre, Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. (1883). History of Burma (1967 ed.). London: Susil Gupta. 
  • Royal Historians of Burma (c. 1680). U Hla Tin (Hla Thamein), ed. Zatadawbon Yazawin (1960 ed.). Historical Research Directorate of the Union of Burma. 
  • Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese) 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar. 
  • Sandamala Linkara, Ashin (1931). Rakhine Razawin Thit (in Burmese) 1–2 (1997–1999 ed.). Yangon: Tetlan Sarpay. 
  • Than Tun (December 1959). "History of Burma: A.D. 1300–1400". Journal of Burma Research Society XLII (II). 
  • Thaw Kaung, U (2010). Aspects of Myanmar History and Culture. Yangon: Gangaw Myaing Sarpay.