Capital punishment in Egypt can be traced back to the ancient Egyptian civilization, where the death penalty was carried out against those who broke the Ma'at, a law which forbade crimes such as murder, theft, sacrilege, attempts on the life of the Pharaoh, and spying. Methods of execution included beheading, sacrifice, and drowning in the Nile in a closed sack. According to Amnesty International, the death penalty in Egypt is currently reserved for crimes under anti-terrorism legislation, as well as "premeditated murder, rape and drug related offences." There are currently two methods of execution in Egypt. The first and more commonly used is hanging (the gallows), which is used on civilian criminals. The second is the firing squad, which is specifically used for soldiers and military personnel who commit capital crimes.
In addition, capital punishment can also be meted out for high treason.