Capital punishment in Washington state

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment in the U.S. state of Washington. A total of 110 executions have been carried out in the state and its predecessor territories since 1849. All but three were by hanging. As of February 2014, the Washington State Department of Corrections lists nine men on death row.[1]

History[edit]

The first hangings occurred on January 5, 1849, when Cussas and Quallahworst, two Native Americans, were hanged for murder. Executions are rarely carried out in the state — the most executions in one year was five in 1939, and there was an average of less than one hanging per year between 1849 and 1963.

The death penalty was abolished in 1913 and reinstated in 1919. The statute remained unchanged until 1975, when it was again abolished. A referendum in the same year reinstated it for a second time as the mandatory penalty for aggravated murder in the first degree. Supreme Court of the United States rulings in Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280 (1976) and Roberts v. Louisiana, 428 U.S. 325 (1976), 431 U.S. 633 (1977), meant that such a law was unconstitutional and the statute was modified to give detailed procedures for imposing the death penalty.

This new law was itself found unconstitutional by the Washington Supreme Court, as a person who had pled not guilty could be sentenced to death, while someone who pled guilty would receive a maximum sentence of life imprisonment without possibility of parole. The current law was passed in 1981 to correct these constitutional defects.

On February 11, 2014, Governor Jay Inslee announced a capital punishment moratorium. All death penalty cases that come to Inslee will result in him issuing a reprieve, not a pardon or commutation.

Method[edit]

Death Row for males is located at Washington State Penitentiary at Walla Walla, which is also the site of executions. Females are housed at Washington Corrections Center for Women at Purdy near Gig Harbor while awaiting execution.

Since June 6, 1996, inmates have been able to choose if their execution will be carried out by lethal injection or hanging. If the inmate makes no decision, lethal injection is the standard method. It should also be noted that Washington is the only state with an active gallows (Delaware dismantled theirs in 2003).[2]

According to the Revised Code of Washington § 10.95.180, executions in Washington:[3]

"…shall be inflicted by intravenous injection of a substance or substances in a lethal quantity sufficient to cause death and until the defendant is dead, or, at the election of the defendant, by hanging by the neck until the defendant is dead."

On September 10, 2010, Washington became the second state, after Ohio, to use a single dose injection of sodium thiopental as opposed to the typical three drug protocol used in most other jurisdictions. The single-drug protocol was used during the execution of Cal Brown.[4]

Capital offenses[edit]

The following are considered circumstances for aggravated first degree murder:[5]

As in any other state, people who are under 18 at the time of commission of the capital crime[6] or mentally retarded[7] are constitutionally precluded from being executed.

List of executions[edit]

Only five individuals have been executed by the state of Washington since the death penalty statute was reformed following the 1976 Supreme Court decisions.

Name Date of Execution Method Crime Governor
Lum You January 31, 1902 hanging murder of Oscar Bloom John Rankin Rogers
James Champoux May 6, 1904 hanging murder of Lottie Brace[8] Henry McBride
Charles Clarke September 2, 1904 hanging murder of Leila Page[9] Henry McBride
Henry Arao June 3, 1905 hanging murder of Sam Chong[10] Albert E. Mead
Frank Pasquale September 15, 1905 hanging murder of Charles F. Gray[11] Albert E. Mead
Angus McPhail December 8, 1905 hanging murder of Fred Alderson[12] Albert E. Mead
William White March 2, 1906 hanging murder of Matthew Murphy[13] Albert E. Mead
Simon Brooks April 13, 1906 (WADOC lists date as May 13, 1906 while newspaper reports death as April 13) hanging murder of Adolph Miller[14] Albert E. Mead
A.A. Armstrong June 8, 1906 hanging murder of Robert Patton[15] Albert E. Mead
Fred Miller March 22, 1907 hanging murder of Fred Dierk[16] Albert E. Mead
Jose Nicolos (WADOC lists name as Joe Niculas) April 16, 1909 hanging murder of George Brown and unnamed four year old[17] Marion E. Hay
Joseph Gauvitte(WADOC lists name as Joseph Gauviette) August 27, 1909 hanging murder of Mrs. Joseph Gauvitte[18] Marion E. Hay
Bud Barnes(WADOC lists name as Hezekiah Barnes) November 12, 1909 hanging murder of Anna Aldrich[19] Marion E. Hay
Richard Quinn May 13, 1910 hanging murder of Mrs. Richard Quinn[20] Marion E. Hay
Frank Barker June 20, 1910 hanging murder of Ira Messinger[21] Marion E. Hay
William Frederick Jahns (WADOC lists name as Frederick William Johns) June 20, 1910 hanging murder of Agnes Jensen[22] Marion E. Hay
John Smith April 1, 1921 hanging murder of James O'Brien, Volney L. Stevens, and W.T. Angle[23] Louis Folwell Hart
James Mahoney December 1, 1922 hanging murder of Kate Mooers Mahoney[24] Louis Folwell Hart
George Whitfield June 13, 1924 hanging murder of Anna Nosko[25] Louis Folwell Hart
Ralph Waller June 27, 1924 hanging murder of Alfred Waldman and Ida Waldman[26] Louis Folwell Hart
Thomas Walton December 12, 1924 hanging murder of S.F. Burt[27] Louis Folwell Hart
L.E. Mosely (WADOC lists name as L.E. Mosley) February 19, 1926 hanging murder of A.J. Comer[28] Roland H. Hartley
Alfred Winters (WADOC also lists name as Albert Williams) May 27, 1927 hanging murder of A.J. Comer[29] Roland H. Hartley
Manuel Lopez February 15, 1928 hanging murder of Charles Markham[30] Roland H. Hartley
Emmett Bailey August 10, 1928 hanging murder of Erma Skinner[31] Roland H. Hartley
Wallace Gaines August 31, 1928 hanging murder of Sylvia Gaines[32] Roland H. Hartley
Luther Baker March 29, 1929 hanging murder of Lester Wood[33] Roland H. Hartley
Preston Rae Clark July 11, 1930 (WADOC lists date of execution as July 30, 1930) hanging murder of A.L. Bidwell[34] Roland H. Hartley
Robert Lee Wilkins August 15, 1930 hanging murder of John W. Brooks[35] Roland H. Hartley
Arthur Schafer (WADOC lists name as Arthur Schaffer) August 29, 1930 hanging murder of Mr. and Mrs. Joe Kirk[36] Roland H. Hartley
Archie Frank Moock (WADOC lists name as Archie Frank Much) September 12, 1930 hanging murder of Catherine Clark[37] Roland H. Hartley
George Miller December 18, 1931 hanging murder of John Ivester[38] Roland H. Hartley
Harold Carpenter April 15, 1932 hanging murder of Peter Jacobson[39] Roland H. Hartley
Walter Dubuc April 15, 1932 hanging murder of Peter Jacobson[40] Roland H. Hartley
Ollie Lee Stratton July 28, 1933 hanging murder of William Frawley[41] Clarence D. Martin
Ted Bradley May 11, 1934 hanging murder of George Ikeda[42] Clarence D. Martin
Byron Miller October 3, 1934 hanging murder of Marshal George Warring[43] Clarence D. Martin
Hong Yick July 19, 1935 hanging murder of Lee Wing Qmen[44] Clarence D. Martin
Barney Fleming April 3, 1936 hanging murder of La Belle Butler[45] Clarence D. Martin
Glen R. Stringer (WADOC lists name as Glenn R. Stringer) May 29, 1936 hanging murder of Herbert Lee Caples[46] Clarence D. Martin
Leo Hall September 11, 1936 hanging murder of Frank Flieder, Anna Taylor Flieder, Clifford Taylor, Eugene Chenevert, Margaret Chenevert, Magnus Jorden, and Ezra Bolcom[47] Clarence D. Martin
Clifford Hawkins February 23, 1938 hanging murder of Ernest Grimm and Floyd Grimm[48] Clarence D. Martin
Claude H. Ryan February 25, 1938 hanging murder of S.R. Jackson[49] Clarence D. Martin
Stanley Knapp August 5, 1938 hanging murder of one unidentified victim[50] Clarence D. Martin
Joseph O'Donnell November 21, 1938 hanging murder of Trent A. Sickles and Theodore E. Stevens[51] Clarence D. Martin
Bernhard Leuch August 4, 1939 hanging murder of Lena Leuch[52] Clarence D. Martin
Paul Buttry September 15, 1939 hanging murder of Hugh Warren[53] Clarence D. Martin
Earl Talbott September 18, 1939 hanging murder of W.E. McKinney[54] Clarence D. Martin
Roy Wright October 6, 1939 hanging murder of John Dee Moore[55] Clarence D. Martin
Ralph Carson December 8, 1939 hanging murder of Lynwood Sproul[56] Clarence D. Martin
Edward L. Bouchard September 6, 1940 hanging murder of Cyril Ables and Ralph Allinson[57] Clarence D. Martin
Jack Marable October 4, 1940 hanging kidnapping and assault of Mrs. Emil Roloff[58] Clarence D. Martin
Arley Ovoyd Lewis January 30, 1941 hanging murder of Jack Avent[59] Arthur B. Langlie
Denzel David March 24, 1941 hanging murder of Harriet Arnold[60] Arthur B. Langlie
John Bruce Anderson November 14, 1941 hanging murder of David Johnson[61] Arthur B. Langlie
Chester Montgomery March 19, 1943 hanging murder of Jessie Sellers[62] Arthur B. Langlie
Roy Willard Jacobs April 6, 1943 hanging murder of Chadwick Storem and Harry Storem[63] Arthur B. Langlie
Persia Williams September 8, 1944 hanging murder of Joseph Romaglio[64] Arthur B. Langlie
Edward Heberling December 8, 1944 hanging murder of Harriet Louise Lindstrom[65] Arthur B. Langlie
Joe Bill September 7, 1945 hanging murder of Irma Irene McGough[66] Monrad C. Wallgren
Joseph B. Wessel January 19, 1946 hanging murder of his daughter (unnamed)[67] Monrad C. Wallgren
Woodrow Wilson Clark February 5, 1946 hanging murder of T.P. Dillon and Jane Staples[68] Monrad C. Wallgren
John Henry Clark January 7, 1947 hanging murder of Sam Katz[69] Monrad C. Wallgren
Jake Bird July 15, 1949 hanging murder of Bertha Kludt and Beverly Kludt[70] Monrad C. Wallgren
Arthur Bruce Perkins November 4, 1949 hanging murder of Mr. L.E. Jessup and Mrs. L.E. Jessup[71] Monrad C. Wallgren
Wayne Leroy Williams November 18, 1949 hanging murder of Hallie Lucille[72] Monrad C. Wallgren
Wayne Odell (WADOC lists name as Wayne O'Dell) June 18, 1951 hanging murder of Harold Rogers[73] Arthur B. Langlie
Grant E. Rio December 10, 1951 hanging murder of Harold Rogers[74] Arthur B. Langlie
Utah E. Wilson January 3, 1953 hanging murder of JoAnn Dewey[75] Arthur B. Langlie
Truman G. Wilson January 3, 1953 hanging murder of JoAnn Dewey[76] Arthur B. Langlie
Artell Junior Farley December 15, 1956 hanging murder of Flora McFarland[77] Arthur B. Langlie
Harvey John Collins December 3, 1957 hanging murder of Andrew Stolen[78] Albert D. Rosellini
John Richard Broderson June 25, 1960 hanging murder of Harold Oster[79] Albert D. Rosellini
Joseph Chester Self June 20, 1963 hanging murder of Ralph A. Gemmill Jr. Albert D. Rosellini
Westley Allan Dodd January 5, 1993 hanging murder of Cole Neer, William Neer, and Lee Iseli Booth Gardner
Charles Rodman Campbell May 27, 1994 hanging murder of Renae Wicklund, Shannah Wicklund, and Barbara Hendrickson Mike Lowry
Jeremy Vargas Sagastegui October 13, 1998 lethal injection murder of Kievan Sarbacher, Melissa Sarbacher, and Lisa Vera Acevado Gary Locke
James Homer Elledge August 28, 2001 lethal injection murder of Eloise Jane Fitzner Gary Locke
Cal Coburn Brown September 10, 2010 lethal injection murder of Holly Washa Christine Gregoire
Sources: List of persons executed by the Washington State Department of Corrections since 1904.[80]

Criticism[edit]

The Washington State Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty is a 501(c)3 organization, incorporated in 1986. They oppose the death penalty on several moral and practical grounds, including its financial cost, low value as a deterrent, psychological cost to victim families and the clear execution of innocent people in other states.

In 2004, the Washington State Bar Association's Council on Public Defense chartered a sub-committee to examine "the practical wisdom of continuing to pursue death penalty prosecutions in light of Washington's experience with sentence reversals, potential benefits to the criminal justice system from cost savings" and other matters. Made up of both opponents and advocates, the subcommittee issued its final report in December, 2006. Noting the extra costs associated with capital trials and great disparities in the current system, the report suggested that compensation for attorneys be increased, with all defense and prosecution costs to be paid by the state.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Offenders Currently Under Sentence of Death". Washington State: Department of Corrections. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ RCW 10.95.180
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ RCW 10.95.030
  6. ^ Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005)
  7. ^ Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002)
  8. ^ "Washington State carries out its first execution on May 6, 1904.". Washington State: HistoryLink. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Ask for Rehearing". (May 4, 1904). The Seattle Times, pp. 2.
  10. ^ "Pays His Penalty Bravely". (June 3, 1905). The Seattle Times, pp. 4.
  11. ^ "Appeals Dismissed by Supreme Court". (May 26, 1905). The Seattle Times, pp. 4.
  12. ^ "Fight Made for Man's Life". (July 19, 1905). The Seattle Times, pp. 3.
  13. ^ "Mackintosh Says White Should Hang". (February 22, 1906). The Seattle Times, pp. 1.
  14. ^ "Sentence of Death is Given Simon Brooks". (February 17, 1906). The Seattle Times, pp. 10.
  15. ^ "Murderer Armstrong Sentenced to Hang". (April 16, 1906). The Seattle Times, pp. 2.
  16. ^ "Fred Miller Hanged at State Penitentiary". (March 22, 1907). The Seattle Times, pp. 15.
  17. ^ "Double Murderer Goes to his Doom". (April 16, 1909). The Seattle Times, pp. 8.
  18. ^ "Wife Murderer Hanged". (August 27, 1909). The Seattle Times, pp. 25.
  19. ^ "Murderer Forfeits Life on Gallows". (November 12, 1909). The Seattle Times, pp. 12.
  20. ^ "Execution Bungled". (May 13, 1910). The Seattle Times, pp. 7.
  21. ^ "Walks to Scaffold Laughing and Joking". (June 20, 1910). The Seattle Times, pp. 5.
  22. ^ "Execution May Spoil Solution of Mystery". (April 13, 1911). The Seattle Times, pp. 10.
  23. ^ "Captor of Slayer Honored by Mayor". (April 1, 1921). The Seattle Times, pp. 3.
  24. ^ "Mahoney is Executed in Prison Yard for his Deed". (December 1, 1922). The Seattle Times, pp. 1.
  25. ^ "Whitfield Hanged at State Penitentiary". (June 13, 1924). The Seattle Times, pp. 10.
  26. ^ "Slayer Blames Divorce Evil on Way to Gallows". (June 27, 1924). The Seattle Times, pp. 5.
  27. ^ "Thomas Walton Hanged at State Penitentiary". (December 12, 1924). The Seattle Times, pp. 24.
  28. ^ "Seattle Slayer Pays Penalty on Gallows". (February 19, 1926). The Seattle Times, pp. 4.
  29. ^ "Longview Slayer Hanged". (May 27, 1927). The Seattle Times, pp. 22.
  30. ^ "Lopez Hanged at State Prison for Riparia Murder". (February 15, 1928). The Seattle Times, pp. 7.
  31. ^ "Bailey is Hanged for Murder of Wife". (August 10, 1928). The Seattle Times, pp. 20.
  32. ^ "Dawn Brings Message of Hanging". (August 31, 1928). The Seattle Times, pp. 1.
  33. ^ "Luther is Hanged for Slaying of Clark Sheriff". (March 29, 1929). The Seattle Times, pp. 18.
  34. ^ "Clark Goes to Gallows". (July 11, 1930). The Seattle Times, pp. 2.
  35. ^ "Wilkins Dies for Slaying of Attorney". (August 15, 1930). The Seattle Times, pp. 2.
  36. ^ "Shelton Logger is Hanged". (August 29, 1930). The Seattle Times, pp. 13.
  37. ^ "Moock Hangs as Killer in Wedding Plot". (September 12, 1930). The Seattle Times, pp. 11.
  38. ^ "Express Slayer Meets Death on State's Gallows". (December 18, 1931). The Seattle Times, pp. 21.
  39. ^ "Man, Youth Pay Penalty on Gallows for Murder". (April 15, 1932). The Seattle Times, pp. 1.
  40. ^ "Man, Youth Pay Penalty on Gallows for Murder". (April 15, 1932). The Seattle Times, pp. 1.
  41. ^ "Ollie Stratton, Port Townsend Slayer, Hangs". (July 28, 1933). The Seattle Times, pp. 28.
  42. ^ "Ready to Kill". (May 11, 1934). The Seattle Times, pp. 6.
  43. ^ "Ready to Kill". (October 3, 1934). The Seattle Times, pp. 17.
  44. ^ "Seattle Tong Slayer Hanged". (July 19, 1935). The Seattle Times, pp. 32.
  45. ^ "Meyers Studies Hanging Case". (April 3, 1936). The Seattle Times, pp. 15.
  46. ^ "Reward Posted for Asserted Slayer". (May 29, 1936). The Seattle Times, pp. 2.
  47. ^ "Last Minute Fight Made to Prevent Execution". (September 11, 1936). The Seattle Times, pp. 1.
  48. ^ "State Executes Skagit Slayer". (February 23, 1938). The Seattle Times, pp. 9.
  49. ^ "Deputy's Killer to Hang". (January 14, 1938). The Seattle Times, pp. 5.
  50. ^ "Killer Hanged; Warns Others". (August 5, 1938). The Seattle Times, pp. 5.
  51. ^ "O'Donnell Blames Frame-Up as he Calmly Goes to Death". (November 21, 1938). The Seattle Times, pp. 1.
  52. ^ "Shelton Slayer Dies on Gallows". (August 4, 1939). The Seattle Times, pp. 16.
  53. ^ "Doomed Slayer Hopes". (September 14, 1939). The Seattle Times, pp. 13.
  54. ^ "Ranch-Slayer is Hanged, Calm to End". (September 18, 1939). The Seattle Times, pp. 7.
  55. ^ "Young Killer, on Gallows, Warns Youth Against Crime". (October 6, 1939). The Seattle Times, pp. 11.
  56. ^ "Clallam County Slayer Hanged". (December 8, 1939). The Seattle Times, pp. 9.
  57. ^ "Slayer Hanged at State Prison". (September 6, 1940). The Seattle Times, pp. 5.
  58. ^ "Kidnapper Hangs, Denouncing Troy". (October 4, 1940). The Seattle Times, pp. 10.
  59. ^ "Slayer to Give Life Tomorrow at Walla Walla". (January 29, 1941). The Seattle Times, pp. 17.
  60. ^ "David Dies for Killing Mother". (March 24, 1941). The Seattle Times, pp. 24.
  61. ^ "John B. Anderson, Slayer, Is Executed". (November 14, 1941). The Seattle Times, pp. 15.
  62. ^ "Man Hanged for Woman's Death". (March 19, 1943). The Seattle Times, pp. 2.
  63. ^ "Jacobs Denies Slaying as He Dies on Gallows". (April 6, 1943). The Seattle Times, pp. 4.
  64. ^ "Seattle Slayer Dies on Gallows". (September 8, 1944). The Seattle Times, pp. 13.
  65. ^ "Heberling Dies for Girl Murder". (December 8, 1944). The Seattle Times, pp. 21.
  66. ^ "Joe Bill, Child's Slayer, Hanged". (September 7, 1945). The Seattle Times, pp. 18.
  67. ^ "Wessel Hanged as Child Slayer". (January 19, 1946). The Seattle Times, pp. 30.
  68. ^ "Hatchet Slayer Dies on Gallows". (February 5, 1946). The Seattle Times, pp. 3.
  69. ^ "Slayer Dies on Prison Gallows". (January 7, 1947). The Seattle Times, pp. 20.
  70. ^ "Final Appeal Failing, Jake Bird is Hanged". (July 15, 1949). The Seattle Times, pp. 11.
  71. ^ "Perkins Dies on Prison Gallows". (November 4, 1949). The Seattle Times, pp. 9.
  72. ^ "Williams, Wife Slayer, Hanged". (November 18, 1949). The Seattle Times, pp. 37.
  73. ^ "Clemency Denied Condemned Youth". (June 14, 1951). The Seattle Times, pp. 14.
  74. ^ "Slayer is Denied Stay of Execution". (December 10, 1951). The Seattle Times, pp. 2.
  75. ^ "Langlie Refuses to Stop Execution of Wilsons, Due Tonight". (January 2, 1953). The Seattle Times, pp. 1.
  76. ^ "Langlie Refuses to Stop Execution of Wilsons, Due Tonight". (January 2, 1953). The Seattle Times, pp. 1.
  77. ^ "Farley, Tacoma Slayer, Hanged". (December 15, 1956). The Seattle Times, pp. 3.
  78. ^ "Tacoma Slayer Hanged". (December 3, 1957). The Seattle Times, pp. 11.
  79. ^ "Broderson Hanged at State Prison". (June 25, 1960). The Seattle Times, pp. 11.
  80. ^ "Persons Executed Since 1904 In Washington State". Washington State: Department of Corrections. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 

References[edit]