Capital punishment in the Philippines

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Capital punishment in the Philippines has a varied history and was suspended on June 24, 2006 -- the second time since 1987.

Filipinos have mixed opinions about the death penalty, with many opposing it on religious and humanitarian grounds, while advocates viewing it as a way of deterring crimes.

Spanish and American periods[edit]

A 1901 execution at the Old Bilibid Prison, Manila, Philippines

During Spanish colonial rule, the most common methods of execution were death by firing squad (especially for treason/military crimes, usually reserved for independence fighters) and garrotte (a notable case would be the Gomburza). Death by hanging was another popular method.

A prominent example is the national hero, José Rizal, who was executed by firing squad on the morning of December 30, 1896, in the park that now bears his name.[1]

In 1926, the electric chair (Spanish: silla eléctrica; Filipino: silya eléktrika) was introduced by the United States' colonial Insular Government, making the Philippines the only other country to employ this method. The last colonial-era execution took place under Governor-General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. in February 1932. There were no executions under Manuel L. Quezon, the first President of the Commonwealth.[2]

1946 to 1986[edit]

The capital crimes after regaining full sovereignty in July 1946 were murder, rape and treason. Notable cases included Julio Gullien, executed for attempting to assassinate President Manuel Roxas;[3] and Marciál "Baby" Ama, electrocuted at the age of 16 on October 4, 1961 for murders committed while in prison for lesser charges.[4] Ama notably became the subject of the popular 1976 film, Bitayin si... Baby Ama! (Execute Baby Ama!).[5]

Another famous case was of former powerful Governor of Negros Occidental Rafael Lacson and 22 of his allies, condemned to die in August 1954 for the murder of a political opponent.[6] Ultimately, Lacson was never executed.

In total, 51 people were electrocuted up to 1961. Execution numbers climbed under President Ferdinand Marcos, who was ironically himself sentenced to death in 1939 for murder of Julio Nalundasan -- the political rival of his father, Mariano; the young Ferdinand was acquitted on appeal. A well-publicised triple execution took place in May 1972, when Jaime José, Basilio Pineda, and Edgardo Aquino were electrocuted for the 1967 abduction and gang-rape of the young actress Maggie dela Riva. The executions were ordered broadcast on national television.[citation needed]

Under the Marcos regime, drug trafficking also became punishable with death by firing squad, such as the case with Lim Seng, whose execution in December 1972 was also ordered broadcast on national television. Future President and then Chief of the Philippine Constabulary, General Fidel V. Ramos, was present at the execution.[7]

The electric chair was used until 1976, when execution by firing squad eventually replaced it as the sole method of execution. Under Marcos' 20-year authoritarian rule, however, countless more people were summarily executed, tortured, or simply disappeared for opposition to his rule.[neutrality is disputed]

After Marcos was deposed in 1986, the newly-drafted 1987 Constitution limited the application of the death penalty to only a few crimes. This meant that it was abolished in practise, making the Philippines the first Asian country to do so.

Reinstatement and moratorium[edit]

President Fidel V. Ramos promised during his campaign that he would support the reintroduction of the death penalty in response to increasing crime rates. The new law, drafted by Ramos, restored capital punishment by defining "heinous crimes" as everything from murder to stealing a car.

This law provided the use of the electric chair until the gas chamber (chosen by the government to replace electrocution) could be installed.

The death of Leo Echegaray in 1999 by lethal injection took place under Ramos' successor, Joseph Estrada, marking the first execution after the reinstatement of the death penalty. Following on a personal appeal by his spiritual advisor, Bishop Teodoro Bacani, Estrada called a moratorium in 2000 to honour the bimillenial anniversary of Christ's birth.[8] Executions were resumed a year later.

Estrada's own successor, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, was a vocal opponent and also approved a moratorium, but later permitted executions and denied pardons.

Second suspension[edit]

An old embarkation card (erroneously) warning visitors of the death penalty for drug trafficking. The caveat has since been removed from subsequent versions.

On 15 April 2006, the sentences of 1,230 death row inmates were commuted to life imprisonment, in what Amnesty International believes to be the "largest ever commutation of death sentences".[9]

Capital punishment was again suspended via Republic Act No. 9346, which was signed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on 24 June 2006. The bill followed a vote held in Congress earlier that month which overwhelmingly supported the abolition of the practise.[10] The penalties of life imprisonment and reclusion perpetua (detention of indefinite length, usually for at least 30-years) replaced the death penalty.[11] Critics of Arroyo's initiative called it a political move meant to placate the Roman Catholic Church, some sectors of which were increasingly vocal in their opposition to her rule.

Aftermath[edit]

President Arroyo controversially pardoned many prisoners during her presidency, including a 2009 pardon for all remaining felons convicted for the 1983 assassination of former Senator and opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr..[12]

Methods[edit]

The Philippines was the only country aside from the United States that used the electric chair, due to its being introduced during the US colonial period. Until its first abolition in 1987, the country reverted to using death by firing squad.

After re-introduction of the death penalty in 1993, the country switched to lethal injection as its sole method of execution.

References[edit]

  1. ^ McLean, John (2003-12-21). "Programmes | From Our Own Correspondent | Philippines 'restores' death penalty". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-02-24. 
  2. ^ [1][dead link]
  3. ^ [2][dead link]
  4. ^ "History of Public Enemy". Dokumentaryonijuantagalog.weebly.com. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  5. ^ "Bitayin si... Baby Ama! (1976) Rudy 'Daboy' Fernandez / FULL MOViE". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  6. ^ iPad iPhone Android TIME TV Populist The Page (1954-09-06). "THE PHILIPPINES: Justice for the Governor". TIME. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  7. ^ "Lim Seng’s execution - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos". Opinion.inquirer.net. 2008-12-29. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  8. ^ "Download Documents | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. Archived from the original on 2009-02-17. Retrieved 2014-02-24. 
  9. ^ Amnesty InternationaPhilippinesl, April 19, 2006 Philippines: Largest ever commutation of death sentences
  10. ^ Jansen, Jamie. June 6, 2006 Philippines Congress votes to end capital punishment, The Jurist
  11. ^ Sun Star Cebu. 25 June 2006. Arroyo kills death law
  12. ^ "10 Aquino-Galman convicts free finally - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos". Newsinfo.inquirer.net. Retrieved 2014-02-24. 

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