Caprolactam

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Caprolactam
Caprolactam-2D-skeletal.png
Caprolactam-3D-vdW.png
Names
IUPAC name
Azepan-2-one
Other names
ε-Caprolactam, 1-Aza-2-cycloheptanone, 2-Azacycloheptanone, Capron PK4, Cyclohexanone iso-oxime, Extrom 6N, Hexahydro-2-azepinone, Hexahydro-2H-azepin-2-one (9CI), Hexanolactame
Identifiers
105-60-2 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:28579 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL276218 YesY
ChemSpider 7480 YesY
EC number 203-313-2
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG C06593 YesY
PubChem 7768
UNII 6879X594Z8 YesY
Properties
C6H11NO
Molar mass 113.16 g·mol−1
Appearance White solid
Density 1.01 g/cm3
Melting point 69.2 °C (156.6 °F; 342.3 K)
Boiling point 270.8 °C (519.4 °F; 544.0 K) at 1013.25 hPa
866.89 g/L (22 °C)
Vapor pressure 0.00000008 mmHg (20° C)[1]
Hazards
R-phrases R20, R22, R36/37/38
Flash point 125 °C (257 °F; 398 K)
Explosive limits 1.4%-8.0%[1]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
none[1]
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Caprolactam (CPL) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)5C(O)NH. This colourless solid is a lactam or a cyclic amide of caproic acid. Approximately 4.5 billion kilograms are produced annually. Caprolactam is the precursor to Nylon 6, a widely used synthetic polymer.[2]

Synthesis and production[edit]

Caprolactam was first described in the late 1800s when it was prepared by the cyclization of ε-aminocaproic acid, the product of the hydrolysis of caprolactam. Given the commercial significance of Nylon-6, many methods have been developed for the production of caprolactam. Most of the caprolactam is synthesised from cyclohexanone (1), which is first converted to its oxime (2). Treatment of this oxime with acid induces the Beckmann rearrangement to give caprolactam (3):

The Beckmann Rearrangement

The immediate product of the acid-induced rearrangement is the bisulfate salt of caprolactam. This salt is neutralized with ammonia to release the free lactam and cogenerate ammonium sulfate. In optimizing the industrial practices, much attention is directed toward minimizing the production of ammonium salts.

The other major industrial route involves formation of the oxime from cyclohexane using nitrosyl chloride. The advantage of this method is that cyclohexane is less expensive than cyclohexanone. In earlier times, caprolactam was prepared by treatment of caprolactone with ammonia.[2]

Uses[edit]

Almost all caprolactam produced goes into the manufacture of Nylon-6. The conversion entails a ring-opening polymerization:

n (CH2)5C(O)NH → [(CH2)5C(O)NH]n

Nylon-6 is widely used in fibers and plastics.

In situ anionic polymerization is employed for cast nylon production where conversion from ε-caprolactam to Nylon-6 takes place inside a mold. In conjunction with endless fiber processing the term thermoplastic resin transfer molding (T-RTM) is often used.

Safety[edit]

Caprolactam is an irritant and is mildly toxic, with an LD50 of 1.1 g/kg (rat, oral). In 1991, it was included on the list of hazardous air pollutants by the U.S. Clean Air Act of 1990. It was subsequently removed from the list in 1996.[3] In water, caprolactam hydrolyzes to aminocaproic acid, which is used medicinally.

As of 2014 caprolactam had the unusual status of being the only chemical in the International Agency for Research on Cancer's lowest hazard category, Group 4 "probably not carcinogenic to humans".[4]

Currently, there is no official permissible exposure limit set for workers handling caprolactam in the United States. The recommended exposure limit is set at 1 mg/m3 over an eight-hour work shift for caprolactam dusts and vapors. The short-term exposure limit is set at 3 mg/m3 for caprolactam dusts and vapors.[5]

References[edit]