Captain America in other media
|Adaptations of Captain America in other media|
|Created by||Joe Simon
|Original source||Comics published by Marvel Comics|
|First appearance||Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941)|
|Novel(s)||The Great Gold Steal (1968)
Captain America: Holocaust For Hire (1979)
Captain America: Liberty's Torch (1998)
|Films and television|
|Film(s)||Captain America (1944)
Captain America (1979)
Captain America (1990)
Captain America: The First Avenger (2011)
Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014)
|The Marvel Super Heroes (1966)|
|Video game(s)||Captain America in: The Doom Tube of Dr. Megalomann (1987)
Captain America and the Avengers (1991)
Captain America: Super Soldier (2011)
Since the 1940s, the comic book character Captain America has been presented in a variety of other media, including serial films, feature films, animations, and video games.
- 1 Television
- 2 Film
- 3 Video games
- 4 Digital comics
- 5 Novels
- 6 Toys
- 7 Captain America references in media
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The Marvel Super Heroes (1966): Captain America was one of the five featured superheroes, starring in one "Captain America" segment a week. They were largely straightforward adaptations of not just Cap's solo stories from Tales of Suspense, but also includes several stories from The Avengers series as well.
- Captain America appeared in two 1979 live-action television movies that aired on CBS: Captain America which aired January 19, 1979, and Captain America II: Death Too Soon, which aired November 23, 1979, both starring Reb Brown in the title role. The character differs significantly from the comics in both his origin and his operations. For instance, Steve Rogers is a character in contemporary times whose father was the original Captain America, a 1940s government agent. The very patriotic attitude of Steve's father earned him the nickname Captain America, and his father is spoken of as having been murdered. Rogers, a former Marine now making what little living he makes as an artist, was inspired by this story to sketch a super-hero. After receiving potentially fatal injuries in an accident, he was administered an experimental chemical called the FLAG—Full Latent Ability Gain—formula (at one point referred to as a "super-steroid") which not only saves his life but also enhances his body with heightened strength and reflexes. These new abilities lead Dr. Simon Mills(Len Birman), the research biochemist and intelligence official who had told Rogers about his father, to recruit him and give Steve a costume based on his drawing. As Captain America, he also makes significant use of a specialized reconstruction of the van he has been driving, out the rear of which can be launched a modified motorcycle. Its functions include a rocket thrust for a fast start out of the van, a jet boost for increased speed, a setting to allow the bike to be ridden with less noise for stealthier movement and a hang glider structure which can allow the bike to glide to the ground with some forward momentum, although it must be jettisoned upon landing. The bike has a round windshield, described as being made of "Jet-Age plastics," with concentric circles that alternate between red and transparent around a centered star, blue in color. He is able to detach this, and he uses it as his shield when he goes on foot. At the end of the first movie, Rogers briefly appears in his father's costume—more accurately a uniform—that bears a stronger resemblance to the uniform Captain America is seen wearing in the comics, and he wears this uniform in the sequel.
- In Captain America II: Death Too Soon, Brown's Steve Rogers is first shown sketching a portrait of a Mrs. Shaw(Susan French), who complains to him about a gang of muggers who have been stealing the proceeds from cashed Social Security checks; she denies having cashed her most recent one. He bids her do this in order to set a trap for the muggers, and springs the trap as Captain America. In the meantime, a free-lance revolutionary terrorist calling himself General Miguel(Christopher Lee), planning to fight an unspecified war, kidnaps a Professor Ian Ilson (Christopher Cary) and forces him to resume his research in manipulative gerontology. Ilson has managed to formulate both a chemical that accelerates aging and the antidote to the same chemical, and Miguel, posing as the warden of a prison in Oregon near Portland, plans to use the chemicals in question to hold Portland hostage for a multi-million-dollar ransom. Ultimately Brown's Captain America and Lee's General Miguel directly clash face-to-face, and when Miguel throws a glass bottle of the aging accelerant into the air, hoping it will shatter against Captain America's body, the Captain throws his shield into the air, where it shatters the bottle in such a manner that the aging accelerant splashes Miguel instead, aging him literally to death in less than a minute. The telefilm was directed by Ivan Nagy.
Both of these films were released on DVD for the first time together in 2011 from Shout! Factory.
- Spider-Man (1981): Guest-starred in one episode, "The Capture of Captain America". He was voiced by George DiCenzo.
- Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends (1981): He appeared in two episodes of this series, "7 Little Superheroes" and "Pawns of the Kingpin", where he was again voiced by DiCenzo.
- Captain America also appeared in a 1980 public service announcement on energy conservation, in which he battled the Thermal Thief, the Wattage Waster and the Cold Air Crook.
- X-Men (1992): Captain America appeared in one episode, "Old Soldiers". He is an American agent, sent along with Canadian agent Wolverine, to rescue a scientist kidnapped by the Red Skull and the Nazis. He is present in the episode only in flashbacks of Wolverine's. Captain America is voiced by Lawrence Bayne, who also provided voices for Cable and Erik the Red in the same series. The Red Skull was voiced by Cedric Smith, who also voiced Professor X throughout the series. Additionally, Captain America appears in a brief cameo in the episode "Red Dawn", before the awakening of his Russian counterpart, Omega Red.
- An alternate version of Captain America appeared in the episode "One Man's Worth". In a timeline in which Charles Xavier was murdered before founding the X-Men, Captain America is the leader of a taskforce of superhuman mutant hunters fighting a war against the Mutant Resistance led by Magneto.
- Spider-Man (1994): Captain America made a few appearances, where he was voiced by David Hayter:
- He first appeared in "The Cat" (Season #4 Ep 43) with a mere cameo when Peter Parker is narrating a flashback scene with John Hardeski witnessing the experiment that made Steve Rogers into Captain America. Red Skull also makes a cameo.
- He appeared in the last three episodes of the "Six Forgotten Warriors" saga. The third provides a flashback scene explaining Captain America's disappearance after World War II: he and the Red Skull were trapped in a dimensional machine for the last 50 years. In the last two episodes Captain America is released from the machine (with the Red Skull), and in the final installment he and the Red Skull fight and are, in the end, trapped in the machine once again.
- In the "Secret Wars" three-parter, Captain America was one of the heroes Spider-Man selected to lead against the villains, choosing him due to his past experience with the Red Skull.
- Captain America was one of several Avengers who made cameo appearances in the second season of the mid-1990s Fantastic Four series.
- The Avengers: United They Stand (1999): Captain America appears in one episode, "Command Decision". The story involves the Masters of Evil and a flashback to Captain America defeating Baron Zemo. He was voiced by Dan Chameroy.
- In the 1990s, a planned Captain America animated series from Saban Entertainment proposed that Captain America's true name was Tommy Tompkins, with "Steve Rogers" being a cover name assigned to him by the U.S. Army. Also appearing in the series was the Red Skull as the main antagonist.
- X-Men: Evolution (2000): Captain America (along with Nick Fury) appears in one episode, "Operation Rebirth". In this episode he is made into the super soldier during World War II through the use of a stasis tank chamber called Operation Rebirth, similar to the comics. He gains incredible physical prowess much like his comic book counterpart, but at a hefty price; a defect in the process causes eventual cellular breakdown, forcing Captain America to be put into stasis until a cure can be found. During World War II, he participates in a joint operation with Canadian soldier Logan to liberate a POW camp, where he saves a boy named Erik Lehnsherr, the future Magneto. When he begins to break down, he and Logan destroy Project Rebirth's stasis tank so that no one else will have to suffer through his condition. Logan later learns that another one was made and subsequently stolen by Magneto, as it has a fountain of youth-like effect on mutants. The episode ends with Wolverine visiting Captain America's stasis chamber, telling his old comrade that they will find a cure for his condition eventually, and also assuring him that they made a great team in their time.
- Captain America appeared in the first episode of the animated series Black Panther, voiced by Adrian Pasdar. He traveled to Wakanda during World War II in search of Nazi invaders, facing T'Challa/Black Panther's father, T'Chaka.
- Captain America appears in The Super Hero Squad Show voiced by Tom Kenny. In this show he is seen as a leader who will often go rambling about the 1930s and 1940s, and occasionally even forgets he is no longer in the 1940s ("If that's Roosevelt calling, tell him I'm not here"). He also has a militaristic attitude and frequently shouts "Hup, hup, hup!"
- Captain America is featured in The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes, voiced by Brian Bloom. His frozen body is initially found and thawed out by the Avengers in the episode "Living Legend", and he joins the team at the end of the episode. At the end of the first season finale, "A Day Unlike Any Other", Captain America is captured and replaced by a Skrull. In season two of episode "Prisoner of War", Captain America was held captive in the Skrull ship for two months, after which Captain America freed and helps others captive to escape from the Skrull ship. In the episode "Secret Invasion", Captain America returns to Earth and assists the Avengers in battling the Skrulls. In "Code Red", Iron Man officially makes Captain America the leader.
- Captain America appears in the Ultimate Spider-Man episode "Not a Toy" voiced by Roger Craig Smith. He joins forces with Spider-Man to retrieve his shield from Doctor Doom, who is planning an Latverian invasion on the United States. He has a brief cameo in the episode "Guardians of the Galaxy", where he is voiced by Chris Cox.
- Captain America appears in Avengers Assemble, voiced once again by Roger Craig Smith. In the first episode, Captain America is apparently destroyed by his enemy Red Skull, but it is then revealed that Red Skull captured him so he could body switch with Captain America, since he was dying and needed to switch bodies with him because of the super-soldier serum in him worked. Captain America then re-becomes a member of the team after Red Skull's defeat.
- Captain America appears in Lego Marvel Super Heroes: Maximum Overload, voiced once more by Roger Craig Smith.
- Captain America has a brief cameo in the Hulk and the Agents of S.M.A.S.H. episode "Monsters No More".
Captain America (1944)
The 1944 serial Captain America has the main character District Attorney Grant Gardner, who is loosely based on the Marvel character Captain America. His nemesis is the Scarab and his love interest and sidekick is Gail Richards.
Captain America (1990)
The first feature-length depiction of Captain America was the 1990 film Captain America. It depicted the creation of Captain America from weak soldier Steve Rogers, his fight in World War II and subsequent apparent death, his being found decades later frozen in ice, and his realization and comprehension that our enemies from the war are now our allies, as well as the hero's battle against the Red Skull. Captain America was portrayed by Matt Salinger in the film.
- Chris Evans portrays Steve Rogers in Captain America: The First Avenger (2011), The Avengers (2012), and Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014).
- Evans is set to reprise the role in Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015) and Captain America: Civil War (2016).
- Captain America has been featured in both Ultimate Avengers and Ultimate Avengers 2 (an animated direct-to-video series that is an adaptation of the Ultimates produced by Marvel Entertainment and Lions Gate Films) voiced by Justin Gross. The character is based on the Ultimate Captain America and serves as the main protagonist in both films.
- In the 2008 direct-to-video film Next Avengers: Heroes of Tomorrow, Captain America and Black Widow's son, James Rogers (voiced by Noah C. Crawford), is the main protagonist. James is a skilled martial artist like his parents and, by the end of the film, is the de facto leader of the group. He wields a wrist device that projects energy constructs of his fathers shield, but it is destroyed by Iron Black Widow. James then takes and uses the original shield in the final battle with Ultron.
- Captain America is set to appear in the team-up film Iron Man and Captain America: Heroes United.
- Captain America is the protagonist in Captain America in: The Doom Tube of Dr. Megalomann (1987).
- He appeared in Spider-Man and Captain America in Doctor Doom's Revenge (1989).
- He is one of four playable characters in Captain America and the Avengers (1991).
- He later appeared in Capcom's Marvel Super Heroes and the subsequent Marvel vs. Capcom series, voiced by Cathal J. Dodd until Marvel vs. Capcom 3, where he is now voiced by Brian Bloom.
- He appeared in Spider-Man and Venom: Maximum Carnage
- He appeared in Avengers in Galactic Storm
- He appeared in Spider-Man and Venom: Separation Anxiety
- He is a playable character in Marvel Super Heroes: War of the Gems.
- He appeared in the Spider-Man video game, Venom and Black Cat call him in to rescue Spider-Man after he escapes from Doctor Octopus' undersea base.
- In Spider-Man 2: Enter Electro, an article in the Daily Bugle newspaper reporting the events of the last game gave Captain America credit to stopping "Doctor Octopus and Spider-Man's plot."A
- Captain America had a cameo in The Amazing Spider-Man 2 for Game Boy
- He had a cameo in the home-console versions of Electronic Arts' Marvel Nemesis: Rise of the Imperfects, in which he is captured by aliens; he appeared as a playable character in only the PSP version of this game.
- He appeared as a playable character in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance, voiced by Trev Broudy. He is seen mostly in the cut scenes with Spider-Man, Thor, and Wolverine. His costumes include his classic, Ultimate, WWII, and U.S. Agent outfits. A simulation disk has Captain America preventing Winter Soldier from launching missiles from the S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier. In the cut-scenes, he wears his Ultimate counterpart's costume.
- He is a playable character in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2, voiced by David Kaye.
- He is a playable character in Marvel Super Hero Squad and its sequel, voiced by Tom Kenny.
- Captain America is available as downloadable content for the game LittleBigPlanet, as part of "Marvel Costume Kit 3".
- He is the protagonist of the 2011 game Captain America: Super Soldier, which is the movie tie-in for the film Captain America: The First Avenger, and features the voice of Chris Evans, reprising his role from the film.
- Captain America is a playable character in Marvel Super Hero Squad Online.
- Captain America is a playable character in Marvel Super Hero Squad: Comic Combat voiced by Tom Kenny.
- Captain America is briefly mentioned by Amazing Spider-Man in Spider-Man: Edge of Time.
- Captain America is a playable character in the Facebook game Marvel: Avengers Alliance.
- Captain America is mentioned in The Amazing Spider-Man video game (based on the 2012 The Amazing Spider-Man). Sometimes if Spider-Man picks up an escaped mental hospital inmate they will say "Thanks for picking me up Captain America!" to which Spider-Man says "Wrong person."
- Captain America is the playable character in the game Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty on the iOS platform, in which the player attempts to rescue several of the Captain's comrades from their Nazi captors behind enemy lines, and defeat Cap's nemesis the Red Skull. The controls are gesture-based, and the game is a platformer with up-and-down as well as side-to-side motion. The game offers both combat and "widget-hunt" elements, as well as achievements and unlockable costumes for Cap to wear and unlockable Captain America comic book cover art to view.
- Captain America appears as a playable character in the 2012 fighting game Marvel Avengers: Battle for Earth.
- Captain America is a playable character in the Avengers Initiative mobile app game for Android and iOS.
- Captain America is a playable character in the MMORPG Marvel Heroes, voiced by Brian Bloom.
- Captain America is a playable character in Lego Marvel Super Heroes voiced by Roger Craig Smith.
- Captain America is a playable character in Marvel Avengers Alliance Tactics.
- Captain America is a playable character in Disney Infinity: Marvel Super Heroes.
- Captain America appears in the Spider-Woman motion comics. In this series, he is voiced by Jeffrey Hedquist.
- In February 2011, Marvel Comics launched an eight issue digital comic titled Captain America: First Vengeance, the same day as the first trailer for Captain America: The First Avenger aired during the Super Bowl XLV telecast. Written by Fred Van Lente and featuring a rotation of artists, the story is set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Each of the eight issues focuses on a specific character from the movie, heroes and villains alike, and what brought them to the point where the movie begins.
Captain America was the subject of Marvel's second foray into prose book licensing: The Great Gold Steal by Ted White in 1968, following an Avengers novel in 1967. This novel presented a different version of Captain America. The novel adds a further element to the Super-Soldier process wherein Rogers' bones are plated with stainless steel. The character later appears in Captain America: Holocaust For Hire by Joseph Silva published by Pocket Books in 1979 and Captain America: Liberty's Torch by Tony Isabella and Bob Ingersoll published in 1998, in which the hero is put on trial for the imagined crimes of America by a hostile militia group.
- Captain America was the ninth figurine in the Classic Marvel Figurine Collection.
- Captain America was also featured as a Mego figure in the 1970s.
- Captain America was featured in many lines over the years including the famous Marvel Legends line, and hasa 4 different Marvel Universe line figures (modern looking version, original appearance, black and white, and a 4 pack that was available at the 2010 SDCC, which featured Captain America, Namor the Sub-Mariner, Red Skull, and the Human Torch, the pack was based on the invaders and was featured in an exclusive box.
- Captain America had his own line of toys in the Captain America: The First Avenger movie that included many incarnations of Captain America, as well as US Agent, Bucky, Crossbones, Red Skull, vehicles, and role play items.
- Captain America is featured as a Lego minifigure in the Lego Marvel Super Heroes sets.
- Captain America has also been included in the Avengers movie toyline with over 10 figures and role play sets.
- Captain America is included as a collectible figure from the board game Heroscape featured in a Marvel crossover set.
Captain America references in media
||This section may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may only interest a specific audience. (February 2013)|
- In the 1969 film Easy Rider, one of the motorcycles is a Harley Davidson Captain America and the character Wyatt (Peter Fonda) is nicknamed "Captain America".
- In the 1987 film The Princess Bride a Captain America action figure can be seen in the grandson's bedroom as his grandfather reads to him the story.
- In the 1995 film The Net, when Angela confronts Jack Devlin at the convention catwalk he reminds her while she was surfing the net that she was looking for a "Captain America" type of guy and instead found him.
- During the initiation process in the 1997 film, Men in Black, Will Smith's character laughs at one of the other potential recruits, referring to him as "Your boy Captain America over here."
- In the 2006 film The Pursuit of Happyness Will Smith's son is seen carrying around a Mego Captain America action figure throughout a majority of the movie.
- In the 2006 film Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby, young Ricky is seen wearing a Captain America shirt.
- Captain America and Black Widow's son, James Rogers, is in the 2008 film Next Avengers: Heroes of Tomorrow.
Marvel Cinematic Universe
Captain America is referenced in several films in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, which share continuity with Captain America: The First Avenger, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, and the upcoming 2016 film Captain America: Civil War.
- In the 2008 film Iron Man, Captain America's shield can be seen in Tony Stark's (Robert Downey, Jr.) workshop when JARVIS is removing his armor and Pepper Potts (Gwyneth Paltrow) spots him.
- In the 2008 film The Incredible Hulk, General Ross (William Hurt) mentions to Emil Blonsky (Tim Roth) that there was a World War II program that created a supersoldier serum. The supersoldier serum is shown as well as Dr. Reinstein referenced as its inventor (in the comics, Dr. Reinstein was a pseudonym for Dr. Erskine to avoid Nazi persecution). Bruce Banner (Edward Norton) was involved in an experiment combining the serum with gamma radiation, which resulted in his transformation into the Hulk. Blonsky is then injected with the serum in order to take on the Hulk, the subsequent combination of the serum and Banner's blood transforming Blonsky into the Abomination. In the film's deleted opening, Bruce Banner goes to the Arctic to commit suicide but transforms into the Hulk, smashing a glacier. A buried human figure and shield are visible, who are meant to be Rogers and his shield.
- In the 2010 film Iron Man 2, S.H.I.E.L.D. agent Phil Coulson (Clark Gregg) discovers an incomplete replica of Captain America's shield inside a box. When he asks Tony Stark if he knows what it is, Tony tells him that it's "just what I need" and places the Shield underneath his particle collider to level it. There is also a Captain America comic book (which made an appearance in Captain America: The First Avenger) in Howard Stark's crate delivered to Tony from Nick Fury.
- The 2013 Marvel One-Shot short film Agent Carter features the exploits of Peggy Carter (Hayley Atwell) one year after the events of Captain America: The First Avenger, and features a flashback of Carter's final communication with Steve Rogers (Chris Evans).
- In the 2013 film Thor: The Dark World, Chris Evans makes an uncredited cameo appearance as Loki masquerading as Captain America.
- The singer Jimmy Buffett published a song titled "Captain America" on his 1970 album Down to Earth.
- A 1979 song by The Kinks, "Catch Me Now I'm Falling", uses Captain America as the embodiment of the band's views on the government and the economic hardships in the 1970s.
- In 1985, a musical about Captain America was announced for Broadway. The piece, written by Mel Mandel and Norman Sachs, never actually premiered, although recordings of the score have surfaced.
- During the 1987 song "Paradise City" by Guns N' Roses, Captain America is mentioned in the last verse, before the chorus that segues to the fast, final part: "Captain America's been torn apart now/he's a court jester with a broken heart, he said/turn me around and take me back to the start/I must be losin' my mind, are you blind?/I've seen it all a million times".
- The Scottish Indie rock band Eugenius was formerly known as Captain America and released the Wow (1991) and Flame On (1992) eps under that name. The threat of legal action by Marvel Comics made the band change its name.
- The opening line of the song "Arcadia" by the band Clutch is, "Captain America, where are you now?" It is featured on the 1991 EP, Pitchfork.
- The MU330 song "Captain" (1994) is sung through the perspective of a now out-of-work and overweight Captain America. Feeling forgotten and unappreciated, the Captain is eventually coaxed out of retirement to save the planet from Red Skull, re-establishing his status as a national hero. The song opens with the chant "Captain America, America still needs YOU!".
- The 1994 song "Happy Time" by singer/songwriter Daniel Johnston mentions Johnston's childhood love for "the comic books...my favorite was Captain America".
- In 2000, the progressive band moe. released a live version of their song "Captain America" on the album L. They followed the release later that year with a studio cut of the song on the Dither album.
- The band Styx has a song entitled "Captain America" on its 2003 album Cyclorama.
- In 2005, the collaboration album known as Roadrunner United, the song on track 15, "I Don't Wanna Be (A Superhero)" contains the line "Captain America is going to die".
- In 2007, independent artist Will Kouf released a story-based album or rock opera, based around the origin of Captain America.
- In 1979 the Super Sentai series Battle Fever J was originally to be an adaptation of Captain America.
- In the 1995 Iron Man animated series episode "Distant Boundaries", when Tony seems troubled by his actions, Julia Carpenter reminds him he's not Captain America.
- In an episode of the Canadian TV series The Associates (2001–2002), two brothers fight legally for a Golden Age Captain America comic book, which they received as an inheritance from their late father. In the end, the comic book is destroyed during a discussion between the two men.
- In the 2004 episode of the television series Angel called "Why We Fight", during a flashback to World War II, while two sailors are talking about Angel's abilities, one sailor says "Maybe he's a super-soldier, you know, like Steve Rogers or Captain America." To which the other sailor says "Steve Rogers IS Captain America, idiot."
- In the 2005 episode of Criminal Minds entitled "The Tribe", when the FBI shows up after an attempted massacre at a school, Agent Hotchner says "There are five people tied up inside," after which Blackwolf says "There was a sixth, but Captain America here shot him."
- What was described by Marvel Comics Editor in Chief Joe Quesada as "one of Captain America's shields" after Steve Rogers' death was presented to Stephen Colbert on his show The Colbert Report on March 12, 2007, and it continues to hang on the wall of the Colbert Report set.
- In the show Castle (2009), Rick, feeling annoyed with the detective Tom Demming, compares him to Captain America.
- During the 2009 episode of Criminal Minds, "100", Agent Hotchner's son wears a Captain America shirt throughout the episode. Also, while his wife and son are being watched by the serial killer The Reaper, he taunts Agent Hotchner by asking "Does your son like Captain America because of you?"
- Captain America is mentioned in the 2011 episode, "Ghost in the Machine" of Iron Man: Armored Adventures on a history test Tony Stark takes.
- At WrestleMania XXVII, in 2011 Rey Mysterio was dressed like Captain America
- During the fourth episode of the third season of Warehouse 13, "Queen for a Day," Pete Lattimer states, "You think that guy looks like me with the hair, and the square jaw, and the Captain America attitude."
- Captain America was mentioned in the pilot episode of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. In November 2013, Jed Whedon, the co-creator of the television series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., said that there are plans to reference events from Captain America: The Winter Soldier into the show. In March 2014, a promotional logo for Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. surfaced which features an image of Captain America's shield, teasing the series of episodes dubbed "Uprising".
- Captain America has been confirmed to appear on the upcoming Meet the Thompsons web series set to release in 2012. He will be competing in a superhero fight tournament called the Meta-Brawl.
- In the online MMORPG World of Warcraft (2004), the paladin character class has an attack called the "Avenger's Shield" where the character appears to throw its shield at enemies in a Captain America-like fashion.
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