Captain Midnight, the Bush King
|Captain Midnight, the Bush King|
Screen shot from film
|Directed by||Alfred Rolfe|
|Produced by||Charles Cozens Spencer
Alan J. Williamson
|Based on||The Bush King
by W.J. Lincoln and Alfred Dampier
|Edited by||Ernest Higgins|
|Distributed by||E.J. Carroll (Qld)
Lennon, Hyman & Lennon (SA)
|9 February 1911|
Captain Midnight, the Bush King was a 1911 Australian silent drama film about the fictitious bushranger Captain Midnight which was the directorial debut of actor Alfred Rolfe. The film is based on the play of same name by W.J. Lincoln and Alfred Dampier. Captain Midnight, the Bush King is now considered lost.
Edgar Dalimore is the son of wealthy station owner Cecil Dalimore, who is persuaded to disinherit his son on false grounds by Cecil's villainous nephew Vincent Lennox. Lennox and an associate, John Stirling, rob a safe belonging to Cecil, resulting in the latter's death. Edgar is wrongfully accused of the murder and is given a life sentence.
He escapes with the help of Ned Harling, a bushman who worked for his father, and Ned's daughter Elsa, who loves Edgar.
Despite Elsa's affections, Edgar is in love with squatter's daughter Thelma Warren. A jealous Elsa betrays him to the police, but then changes her mind and helps him escape.
Elsa comes forward with evidence that he did not kill his father. The killers try to kill Elsa but Edgar rescues her. Edgar's name is cleared. Elsa is left "lonely and forsaken, finding consolation in the sympathy of her faithful horse."
The movie was broken into the following sections:
- The Quarrel between Edgar Dalmore and his Father.
- The Murder of Edgar's Father.
- The Accusation - Edgar accused of the crime, and his committal.
- The Escape - Escaping from prison, he joins Hellville's Gang as Captain Midnight.
- The Attack on the Gold Escort, and Midnight pursued by police.
- The Diplomat - Elsa draws them off the track, and her daring ride.
- The Jealousy - Elsa's jealousy forces her to betray Midnight.
- The Dive for Life - Midnight's pluck and success.
- The Dead Man's Gully - Elsa's terrible fight for life.
- The Rescue - Midnight ever gallant.
- The Justice - The murderer of old Dalmore brought to justice.
- The Innocent - Midnight made a free man.
- The Fate of Captain Midight
|The Bush King|
Poster from 1902 Hobart performance
|Written by||W.J. Lincoln
|Date premiered||6 November 1893 (Lincoln version)
26 January 1901 (Dampier version)
|Place premiered||Surrey Theatre, London (Lincoln version)
Criterion Theatre, Sydney (Dampier version)
W.J. Lincoln Version
The film was adapted from The Bush King, a play originally written by W.J. Lincoln
The play was about Roger Dalmore, a young English officer who argues with his father, a Cornish mine owner, then emigrates to Australia, where he discovers he is charged with murdering and robbing his father. Although the real culprit is his cousin, Dalmore flees to the bush, where he is rescued by cattle-stealing bushrangers and, due in part of his military experience, becomes their leader under the name Captain Dart.
Dart falls in love with a banker's daughter and another lady falls for him; the latter attempts to betray him to the police after she realises Dart does not love her, however the bushranger escapes. The cousin comes to Australia and becomes involved in defrauding investors in a worthless mine. The cousin plans to blow up the mine but is foiled by Dart who gets him to eventually confesses his crime. He is united with the captain's daughter.
The play debuted in London and over five months it played at three London theatres. "The whole thing is a libel on Australian life as it is," complained one critic. When Lincoln returned to Australia the play then ran in Melbourne for a week in 1894.
Lincoln did some further revisions and the play had a brief run at the Novelty Theatre in London in 1897.
Alfred Dampier Version
The play was rewritten by Alfred Dampier (Rolfe's father in law), writing as "Adam Pierre". He set the play entirely in Australia, changed the hero from being the son of a Cornish mine owner to the son of a wealthy Australian station owner, added a fifth act, renamed the hero Captain Midnight instead of Captain Dart, and added a role for himself as an old bushman, Ned Harling (In the original Harling was a publican but only in a small part). The play ends with Edgar marrying Thelma, leaving Elsa alone.
Lottie Lyell and Raymond Longford appeared in the movie as second leads. According to contemporary reports, the actors researched their roles for seven months - this may be a reference to the amount of time they had played the parts on stage.
Charles Cozens Spencer hired Englishman Alan J. Williamson to oversee production. Williamson later said that the script only came to half a dozen pages and was carefully written to not have any interior scenes as there were no studio facilities at the time. Shooting took place in the Sydney suburbs of Narrabeen and Frenchs Forest, as well as in the Blue Mountains, with an average of five or six scenes being filmed a day. Williamson claimed occasionally reshoots were needed but the actors were unavailable because of theatrical commitments, so they would just write a title to cover it. The budget was originally ₤300 but went up to ₤800.
The scene of Captain Midnight leaping off a cliff on horseback into a river and swimming away admit a hail of bullets was well received and "soon became obligatory for bushrangers in Australian cinema folklore." It has been suggested this scene was inspired by a similar moment in Alfred Dampier's 1891 Wild West drama The Scout.
There is hardly a moment but is associated with some exciting incident, and the audience last night followed the picture with repeated bursts of cheering and applause, which found echo in the unrestrained appreciation manifest at its termination. Sensational horsemanship and thrilling adventure have been woven into a plot plausible in its entirety and of absorb ing interest.
The Sydney Morning Herald declared it:
A splendid series of bushranging incidents... It might be wished that Australian reproductions of melodramatic subjects were less frequently identified with the murderous doings of ruffians whitewashed but being in such demand Captain Midnight will be recognized as a cleverly contrived example of its class. Miss Lily Dampier and Mr Alfred Rolfe figured to much advantage... a long series of beautiful bush spaces... gave realism and distinction to the story.
Charles Cozens Spencer would later make three other films based on Alfred Dampier play adaptations of novels set in colonial Australia, Captain Starlight, or Gentleman of the Road (1911), The Life of Rufus Dawes (1911) and The Romantic Story of Margaret Catchpole (1912). The first two were directed by Alfred Rolfe, but the third was made by Raymond Longford, whose early career was sponsored by Spencer.
The movie was released in England, where it received enthusiastic reviews.
A copy of a script adapted from the play by Rolfe is available at the National Archives of Australia dated 1920. This script does not have the main character turn bushranger. It is likely it is a script for a proposed remake, considering the ban on bushranger films that had been in force in New South Wales since 1912.
- "Raymond Longford", Cinema Papers, January 1974 p51
- "Advertising.". The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 25 February 1911. p. 2. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- "Advertising.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia). 9 February 1911. p. 2. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- "BREVITIES.". Independent (Footscray, Vic. : 1883 - 1922) (Footscray, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 20 May 1911. p. 2. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- Graham Shirley and Brian Adams, Australian Cinema: The First Eighty Years, Currency Press 1983 p 29
- Andrew Pike and Ross Cooper, Australian Film 1900–1977: A Guide to Feature Film Production, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1998, p 14
- "Captain Midnight.". Clarence and Richmond Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915) (Grafton, NSW: National Library of Australia). 22 April 1911. p. 11. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- "GENERAL GOSSIP.". Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939) (Sydney, NSW: National Library of Australia). 8 February 1911. p. 16. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "LYCEUM—"CAPTAIN MIDNIGHT.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia). 8 February 1911. p. 8. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "GENERAL GOSSIP.". Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939) (Sydney, NSW: National Library of Australia). 8 February 1911. p. 16. Retrieved 19 November 2014. Download
- "PLAYS AND PLAYERS.". The Caulfield and Elsternwick Leader (North Brighton, Vic. : 1888 - 1902) (North Brighton, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 23 December 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "ANGLO-COLONIAL GOSSIP.". South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 16 December 1893. p. 9. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- "THE THEATRE ROYAL.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 1 October 1894. p. 6. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- "THEATRE ROYAL.". The Coburg Leader (Vic. : 1890 - 1913) (Vic.: National Library of Australia). 6 October 1894. p. 1. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- W.J. Lincoln at Australian Variety Theatre Archive. Accessed 8 September 2013
- Fotheringham p54
- "AMUSEMENTS.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia). 28 January 1901. p. 4. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- "CRITERION THEATRE - THE BUSH KING" The Sydney Morning Herald 16 Oct 1905: 3 accessed 26 November 2011
- "AMUSEMENTS.". The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 18 March 1911. p. 23. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- From his unpublished memoirs, in Graham Shirley * Andree Wright, "Kelly: Hit or Myth", Cinema Papers, July 1987 p16-18
- Fotheringham p 58
- "THE [?].". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia). 13 February 1911. p. 4. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- "ACADEMY OF MUSIC.". Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900 - 1954) (Launceston, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 29 March 1911. p. 3 Edition: DAILY. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Fotheringham, Richard, "Introduction", Robbery Under Arms by Alfred Dampier and Garnet Walch, Currency Press 1985
- Captain Midnight, the Bush King at the Internet Movie Database
- Captain Midnight at National Film and Sound Archive
- Digital copy of script dated 1920 at National Archives of Australia (registration required)
- Captain Midnight the Bush King at AustLit (subscription required)
- The Bush King (original play) at AustLit