Capture of Bahia

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Capture of Bahia
Part of the Dutch-Portuguese War
Date May 8, 1624
Location Salvador da Bahia, present-day Brazil
Result Dutch victory
Belligerents
 Dutch Republic Portugal Portuguese Empire
Commanders and leaders
Jacob Willekens
Pieter Heyn
Diogo de Mendonça Furtado
Strength
6,500 3,000
Casualties and losses
50 killed or wounded



The city of Salvador da Bahia on the coast of Brazil was captured by the Dutch in 1624, as part of the Groot Desseyn plan of the Dutch West India Company. Although the Dutch intentions were reported to the Spanish, no counter-action was taken.

Prelude[edit]

On December 22, 1623, a Dutch fleet under the command of Admiral Jacob Willekens and Vice Admiral Pieter Heyn and consisting of 35 ships, sailed from Texel carrying 6,500 men.[1] 13 were owned by the United Provinces, while the rest belonged to the WIC; these vessels were en route to Cape Verde,[2] where they arrived after being scattered by a storm. There Willekens revealed his objective, which was the capture of the city of Salvador da Bahia. The Dutch plans to invade Brazil were soon reported by Spanish spies in the Netherlands to the court of Madrid, but Count-Duke of Olivares did not give them credit.[3]

On May 8 the Dutch fleet appeared off Salvador. The main objective of the expedition was the capture of the port to use it as a commercial base to ensure Dutch trade with the East Indies.[4] In addition, they would control much of the sugar production in the region, as Salvador was a major center for the substance.[5]

The Portuguese governor of Salvador, Diogo de Mendonça Furtado, tried to organize the defense of the town with 3,000 men who had been hastily recruited[6] as a mostly Portuguese militia from peasant levees and black slaves, all of them resentful of Spanish rule.[4] The port was protected by the sea and two forts: Fort Santo António in the east and Fort São Filipe in the west. Additionally, a six-gun battery was erected on the beach and the streets were barricaded.[citation needed]

Capture[edit]

The Dutch fleet entered the bay divided into two squadrons. One sailed towards the beach of Santo António and disembarked soldiers commanded by Colonel Johan van Dorth. The other anchored off the town and opened fire on the coastal defenses, which were quickly neutralized. At dawn the city was surrounded by more than 1,000 Dutch soldiers with two pieces of artillery.[4] Intimidated, the Portuguese militia threw their weapons away and fled, leaving Mendonça with 60 loyal soldiers.[4] Salvador had been captured at a cost of 50 casualties among the attackers.[4]

Willekens and Heyn installed a garrison under the command of Dorth before departing on new missions, according to the orders they had received. Four ships were sent back to Holland carrying booty and news,[4] and also instructions to call for reinforcements to secure Salvador.[7] The defenses of the city were reinforced and expanded with moats and ramparts and the garrison was soon increased to 2,500 men with numerous Portuguese slaves seduced by promises of freedom and land.[4]

Aftermath[edit]

However, the Dutch garrison soon began to be harassed by the local guerrillas, led by Bishop Dom Marcos Teixeira, who had escaped inland. He managed to assemble a force of 1,400 Portuguese and 250 Indian auxiliaries.[8][9] They built fortifications and organized ambushes against the Dutch in woodland. Dorth himself was killed in an attempt to drive off the attackers from the outskirts and morale sagged. He was replaced by Albert Schoutens, who also perished in another ambush, being replaced by his brother Willem.[citation needed]

The Portuguese would return the next year and recapture the post.[citation needed]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Duro p.57
  2. ^ Pérez p.233
  3. ^ Southey p.148
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Marley p.108
  5. ^ Fernández p.512
  6. ^ Duro p.47
  7. ^ Duro p.48
  8. ^ Calvo p.45
  9. ^ Solano p.245

References[edit]

  • Fernández Duro, Cesáreo (1898). Armada española desde la Unión de los Reinos de Castilla y de León. Madrid: Est. tipográfico "Sucesores de Rivadeneyra".
  • Fausto, Boris (1999). A concise history of Brazil. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-56526-4
  • James, Herman G. (2007). Brazil After a Century of Independence. READ BOOKS. ISBN 978-1-4067-5586-2
  • Marley, David (1998). Wars of the Americas: a chronology of armed conflict in the New World, 1492 to the present. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-87436-837-6
  • Santos Pérez, José Manuel; Cabral de Souza, George F. (2006). El desafío holandés al dominio ibérico en Brasil en el siglo XVII. Universidad de Salamanca. ISBN 978-84-7800-467-6
  • Southey, Robert; Pinheiro, Fernandes (1862). Historia do Brazil, Volumen 2. Rio de Janeiro: B. L. Garnier.
  • Calvo, Carlos (1862). Colección histórica completa de los tratados: convenciones, capitulaciones, armisticios, cuestiones de límites y otros actos diplomáticos de todos los estados, comprendidos entre el golfo de Méjico y el cabo de Hornos : desde el año de 1493 hasta nuestros dias. Paris: A. Durand.
  • Solano Constancio, Francisco (1839). Historia do Brasil, desde o seu descobrimento por Pedro Alvares Cabral até a abdicação do imperador Pedro i. Paris: J.P. Aillaud.
  • Céspedes y Meneses, Gonzalo de (1631). Primera parte de la historia de D. Felippe el IIII., rey de las Espanas. Lisboa: Con licencia la imprimio Pedro Craesbeeck.
  • Avendaño y Vilela, Francisco de (1625). Relación del viaje y suceso de la armada en Brasil. Sevilla.
  • R. Prud'Homme Van Reine (2003). Admiraal Zilvervloot – Biografie van Piet Hein. De Arbeiderspers.