Siege of Érsekújvár (1663)
|Siege of Érsekújvár|
|Part of Austro-Turkish War (1663-1664)|
Plan of Érsekújvár in the 17th century
|Holy Roman Empire||Ottoman Empire|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Ádám Forgách||Fazıl Ahmet Pasha|
In the first half of the 17th century, a stalemate was reached between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Austria. But after peaceful years, border clashes began. John Kemény the Habsburg candidate to Transylvania (modern west Romania) throne, was trying to defeat the Ottoman vassal Michael I Apafi. Although Apafi won the throne with Ottoman support, Austrians captured the forts of Kolozsvár (modern: Cluj-Napoca in Romania) and Székelyhíd (modern: Săcueni in Romania). They also built the fort of Zrínyiújvár (in Croatian Novi Zrin) facing the Ottoman fort of Kanije (now Nagykanizsa in Hungary). Meanwhile, the Ottoman army was already marching to Dalmatia in the scope of Cretan War (1645-1669) against Venice. Ottoman sultan Mehmet IV gave the priority to Austrian front and the army changed its course.
The commander of the Ottoman army was grand vizier Fazıl Ahmet Pasha (a member of Köprülü family). He began marching to Austrian front. The Austrians appealed for peace. There were three series of talks, the first in Belgrad (now capital of Serbia), the second in Eszék (modern Osijek in Croatia) and the third in Budapest (now capital of Hungary). The Ottoman side asked for reparations (200,000 florins) and the withdrawal of the Austrian army, which the Austrian side rejected.
Fazıl Ahmet Pasha decided to march to Érsekújvár (Nové Zámky, Turkish: Uyvar). Uyvar was a major fort in Northern Hungary (now in Slovakia). It was fortified and in the 16th century several times the Ottomans had tried to capture it in vain. The popular saying "Strong (insistent) as a Turk in front of Nové Zámky", reflects the memory of conquest determination of the Ottomans. Before the army reached to Érsekújvár on August 7 the commander of Érsekújvár Ádám Forgách tried to raid the Ottoman camp. But this attempt was disastrous to Austrian side. The siege began in August and the fort was captured on 13 September. According to the treaty of surrender, the residents of Érsekújvár were given free passage to Austria and a letter was written to the Austrian government to certify that the fort was defended bravely.
Fazıl Ahmet Pasha further captured Nógrád (Northern Hungary). Uyvar and the neighbouring area was declared a seat of beylerbey, as the Uyvar Eyalet (Turkish: Uyvar Beylerbeyliği) of the Empire. The subsequent clashes in the winter of 1663-1664 and in 1664 ended with the Peace of Vasvár.
- Nicolae Jorga: Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches IV, (trans. by Nilüfer Epçeli),İstanbul 2009, ISBN 975-6480-17-3 p.100-109
- Prof. Yaşar Yüce-Prof. Ali Sevim: Türkiye tarihi Cilt III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, İstanbul, 1991 p 162-163
- Sadık Müfit Bilge:Ottoman administration in Hungary p.36 (Turkish)