Caput Mundi

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"The Capital of the World" redirects here. For the short story, see The Capital of the World (short story).

Caput Mundi is a Latin phrase taken to mean "capital of the world" (literally: "head of the world";[1] see capital, capitol). It originates out of a classical European understanding of the known world: Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia. Because of the enduring power of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire, and the Roman Catholic Church, in this sphere, the city of Rome has been known for centuries as Caput Mundi.

Rome[edit]

Rome's influence in the ancient world began to grow around the 2nd century BC as the Republic expanded across Southern Europe and North Africa. For the next five centuries, Rome would govern much of the known world. The cultural influence of the local language of Rome (Latin) as well as Roman art, architecture, religion and philosophy was immense.

Constantinople[edit]

Constantinople was built as the second Rome by Emperor Constantine in 330 AD.

The Byzantine Empire lasted for over a thousand years with the center always at Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was centered in the capitals of Nicaea, Trebizond, and Arta. The city was seen as the "Capital of the World" because of its prime trading position in the center of the medieval world. This privileged position continued even as the capital of the Ottoman Empire. The city was also the center of half of the Christian world as the seat of the Patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox church. Thus as the world center for commerce, diplomacy, religion, education,[citation needed] it could well have been said that during the city's heyday, Constantinople was indeed the capital of the world. Napoleon Bonaparte is quoted as saying, "If the Earth were a single state, Constantinople would be its capital." Today, the city's name is Istanbul.

London[edit]

The capital of the British Empire was London - though the empire has since passed, London is one of the world's leading business, financial, and cultural centres, and its influence in politics, education, technology, entertainment, media, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as a major global city. Many of the world's largest corporations have their headquarters in London, the city taking a central role as a part of the wider global economy. In addition London in time and on maps is on the Prime Meridian, running directly through Greenwich (also known as the Greenwich Meridian), with its time zone as GMT+0 (UTC+0). The decision made at the International Meridian Conference was due to the dominance of the British Empire; for logistical reasons, and because the United Kingdom and London remain a major global influence[citation needed], the position remains.

Several sources claim that within the last few years, London has eclipsed New York City as a financial centre, establishing itself as the financial capital of the world.[2][3][4][5]

The situation of numerous iconic landmarks, such as Tower Bridge, the Houses of Parliament, Buckingham Palace, as well as modern architecture such as the Gherkin, Tower 42, the London Eye and the O2 drawing approximately 15 million international tourists in 2010. London was the most visited city in the world for international tourists in 2009.[6]

Berlin[edit]

Adolf Hitler, the dictator of the Third Reich, as part of his proposed New Order, planned to make Berlin the "Caput Mundi", directing Albert Speer to formulate the Welthauptstadt Germania--a plan to rebuild Berlin in an Imperial architectural style. The central edifice of Berlin would have been the Volkshalle, from which Hitler would have issued his Imperial decrees as the absolute ruler of Europe.

New York City[edit]

New York City, the most populous city in the United States of America, is sometimes described by the Latin phrase "Novum Caput Mundi" ("New Capital of the World"); or more commonly by the English phrase, "Capital of the World".[7][8][9] A leading global city, New York exerts a powerful influence over global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. As the home of the United Nations Headquarters,[10] it is an important center for international affairs, despite not being the modern capital of the United States or even of New York State, and is often deemed the cultural capital of the world.[11][12][13][14][15] As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York City, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.[16]

Numerous national and international private corporations have headquarters in New York City. New York City's financial district, anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, is claimed to function as the financial capital of the world[17][18][19][20][21] and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization of its listed companies.[22] In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association.[23] The New York City metropolitan region is defined by both the Metropolitan Statistical Area (19.9 million residents in 2013)[24] and the Combined Statistical Area (23.5 million residents in 2013).[25] In 2012, the MSA had a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of over US$1.33 trillion, while the CSA[26] had a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion, both ranking first nationally by a wide margin and behind the GDP of only twelve nations and eleven nations, respectively.[27]

New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists.[28][29] Tourism is vital to New York City, with approximately 55 million annual visitors.[30] Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world.[31][32][33] Times Square, at the hub of the Broadway theater district, is nicknamed "The Crossroads of the World".[34][35][36][37]

Washington, D.C.[edit]

The capital of the United States of America and the seat of the U.S. federal government, Washington, D.C. also holds the headquarters of important international organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Organization of American States. The signing of the North Atlantic Treaty took place in Washington;,[38][39] establishing NATO which took part in the Cold War, and by its end, Washington was dubbed by the Washington Post as the capital of the world.[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dictionary of Latin Phrases and Proverbs: C". Latin-phrases.co.uk. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  2. ^ "Layout 1" (PDF). Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  3. ^ "City faces struggle to stay world financial capital". Evening Standard. London. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  4. ^ http://www.mastercard.com/us/company/en/insights/pdfs/2008/MCWW_WCoC-Report_2008.pdf
  5. ^ "London is the world capital of the 21st century...". Evening Standard. London. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  6. ^ "Euromonitor International’s top city destinations ranking – Analyst Insight from Euromonitor International". Euromonitor.com. 6 January 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  7. ^ "Showcase Destinations New York City: Capital of the World". Mpiweb.org. 22 September 1924. Retrieved 13 June 2011. 
  8. ^ "About New York City". The City of New York. Retrieved 13 June 2011. 
  9. ^ Eugene J. Sherman. "FORWARD New York – Capital of the Modern World". Copyright The Weissman Center for International Business. Retrieved 13 June 2011. 
  10. ^ "United Nations Visitors Centre". Copyright United Nations 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  11. ^ "Consulate General of Iceland New York Culture". Consulate General of Iceland New York. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  12. ^ "Introduction to Chapter 13: Culture". Copyright The Weissman Center for International Business, Baruch College/CUNY 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  13. ^ "Cultural capital of the world". Copyright 2000–2011, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  14. ^ "NYU’s Cultural Capital program". Copyright 2011 New York University. All rights reserved. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  15. ^ "New York, culture capital of the world, 1940–1965 / edited by Leonard Wallock ; essays by Dore Ashton ... [et al.]". NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  16. ^ Roberts, Sam (28 April 2010). "Listening to (and Saving) the World’s Languages". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  17. ^ "Xinhua-Dow Jones International Financial Centers Development Index (2011) - Page 11". CFC Holding Company, Ltd., Index Center and CME Group Index services LLC(Dow Jones Indexes). 8 July 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 
  18. ^ "UBS may move US investment bank to NYC". Copyright e-Eighteen.com Ltd. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  19. ^ "Table 1 GFCI 15 Ranks and Ratings - Page 7". Qatar Financial Centre Authority and Z/Yen Group. March 2014. Retrieved March 26, 2014. 
  20. ^ "JustOneMinute – Editorializing From The Financial Capital Of The World". Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  21. ^ "Top 8 Cities by GDP: China vs. The U.S.". Business Insider, Inc. July 31, 2011. Retrieved June 22, 2014. 
  22. ^ "Market highlights for first half-year 2010". World Federation of Exchanges. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  23. ^ David Enrich, Jacob Bunge, and Cassell Bryan-Low (2013-07-09). "NYSE Euronext to Take Over Libor". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-07-10. 
  24. ^ "The 10 Largest Metro Areas on July 1, 2013". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 27, 2014. 
  25. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013 - Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 28, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas". Executive Office of the President - Office of Management and Budget. p. 106. Retrieved June 28, 2014. 
  27. ^ "U.S. Metro Economies (note CSA 2012 GMP total includes sum of New York, Bridgeport, New Haven, Allentown, Trenton, Poughkeepsie, and Kingston MSA 2012 GMP values cited)". IHS Global Insight, The United States Conference of Mayors, and The Council on Metro Economies and the New American City. November 2013. pp. 9 through 18 in Appendix Tables. Retrieved June 28, 2014. 
  28. ^ Simon Kennedy (April 13, 2014). "Beijing Breaks Into Top Ten in Rankings by A.T. Kearney". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved May 2, 2014. 
  29. ^ Michelle Kaske (March 12, 2012). "New York City Tops Global Competitiveness, Economist Report Says". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved May 2, 2014. 
  30. ^ Michael Howard Saul (December 10, 2013). "New York City Sees Record High Tourism in 2013". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 23, 2014. 
  31. ^ DL Cade (Dec 27, 2013). "Google Maps Out the Most Photographed Places in the World". PetaPixel. Retrieved January 23, 2014. 
  32. ^ DL Cade (Dec 13, 2013). "Most Instagrammed Locations and Cities of 2013 Revealed, as Well as Most-Liked Photo". PetaPixel. Retrieved January 23, 2014. 
  33. ^ Sean O'Neill (June 12, 2011). "The 25 most photographed places on Earth". NBCNews.com. Retrieved January 23, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Big Apple History Arts and Entertainment The Crossroads of the World". Thirteen/WNET New York 2005 Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  35. ^ "CROSSROADS OF THE WORLD TIMES SQUARE THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF TIMES SQUARE". Times Square District Management Association, Inc. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  36. ^ "Times Square New York, NY Times Square". 2011 NYCTourist.com. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  37. ^ "TIMES SQUARE Crossroads of the World New York City Info". Dataware Corporation. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  38. ^ "North Atlantic Treaty". Truman Library. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  39. ^ "NATO – Official text: The North Atlantic Treaty, 04-Apr. 1949". Nato.int. 9 December 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  40. ^ Broder, David S. "Nation's Capital in Eclipse as Pride and Power Slip Away", The Washington Post, 18 February 1990. Retrieved 18 October 2010. "In the days of the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan and the creation of NATO, [Clark Clifford] said, we saved the world, and Washington became the capital of the world."