|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2008)|
|Regional center||Butuan City|
|• Total||21,471 km2 (8,290 sq mi)|
|• Density||110/km2 (290/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|Languages||Surigaonon, Cebuano, Butuanon, Manobo, other minority languages|
Caraga is an administrative region of the Philippines, on the northeastern portion of the island of Mindanao, designated as Region XIII. The Caraga Region was created through Republic Act No. 7901 on February 23, 1995. The region is composed of five provinces: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur and Dinagat Islands; six cities: Bayugan, Butuan, Cabadbaran, Surigao, Tandag, Bislig; 67 municipalities and 1,311 barangays. Butuan City is the regional center.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geography
- 3 History
- 4 Political divisions
- 5 Demography
- 6 Poverty
- 7 Regional economy
- 8 Tourist attractions
- 9 Facilities
- 10 Social development
- 11 Infrastructure
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The etymology of the word "Caraga" is said to have originated from the native word "Kalag" which means "spirit of soul". Hence, the whole Provincia de Caraga of AD 1622 was called "region de gente animosa", that is "region of spirited men". Another fictional etymology of the name "Caraga" flows from a local legend as coming from the word "Cagang", a numerous small crabs matting the beach of Caraga, which is also known as "katang" to the native Caraguenos. Legend goes that the town was named as such because the first Spanish missionaries who came in the early years of 1600 found numerous small crabs matting the beach.
Caraga Region, situated in the northeast section of Mindanao, is between 8 00' to 10 30' N. latitude and 125 15' to 126 30' E. longitude. It is bounded on the north by the Bohol Sea; on the south by the provinces of Davao, Compostela Valley and Davao Oriental of Region XI; on the west by Bukidnon and Misamis Oriental of Region X; and on the east by the Philippine Sea and the Pacific Ocean.
The region has a total land area of 18,846.97 km². This represents 6.3% of the country's total land area and 18.5% of the island of Mindanao. 47.6% of the total land area of the region belongs to the province of Agusan del Sur. Of the total land area, 71.22% is forestland and 28.78% is alienable and disposable land. Major land uses include forestland comprising 31.36% and 23.98% of agricultural and open spaces.
The region is characterized by mountainous areas, flat and rolling lands. Mountain ranges divide Agusan and Surigao provinces and sub-ranges separate most of the lowlands along the Pacific Coast. The most productive agricultural area of the region lies along the Agusan River Basin. The famous Agusan Marsh sits in the middle of Agusan del Sur. Among the lakes in the region, Lake Mainit is the widest. It traverses eight municipalities: Alegria, Tubod, Mainit and Sison in the Province of Surigao del Norte and Tubay, Santiago, Jabango and Kitcharao in Agusan del Norte.
Caraga Region has Type II climate, with no pronounced wet and dry season. During the months of November to February, heavy rains are usually experienced in the region.
The "Kalagans", called "Caragans" by the Spaniards, occupied the district composed of the two provinces of Surigao, the northern part of Davao Oriental and eastern Misamis Oriental. The two Agusan provinces were later organized under the administrative jurisdiction of Surigao and became the independent Agusan province in 1914. In 1960, Surigao was divided into Norte and Sur, and in June 1967, Agusan followed suit. While Butuan then was just a town of Agusan, the logging boom in the 1950s drew business to the area. On August 2, 1950, by virtue of Republic Act 523, the City Charter of Butuan was approved. It is reported that during the early years of the Caraga region, its inhabitants came from mainland Asia, followed by Malayans, Arabs, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish and Americans. Migrants from the Visayan and Luzon provinces later settled in the area. Most of its inhabitants speak Cebuano and reside in the rural areas.
|Agusan del Norte||Cabadbaran City||332,487||1,773.2||187.5|
|Agusan del Sur||Prosperidad||656,418||8,966.0||73.2|
|Dinagat Islands||San Jose||126,803||3,009.27||42.1|
|Surigao del Norte||Surigao City||442,588||1,936.9||228.5|
|Surigao del Sur||Tandag City||561,219||4,552.2||123.3|
|Population census of Caraga|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
Based on the final results of the 2000 census, the total population of the region was 2,095,367 which was 7.86% higher than the 1995 population of 1,942,687. The annual population growth rate over the last five years was pegged at a manageable 1.63%, one of the lowest in the country.
Among the four provinces, Agusan del Sur registered the largest population at 559,294, and Surigao del Norte was the smallest at 481,416. Surigao del Norte was the fastest growing province with an annual average growth rate of 1.84% over the last five years, while Surigao del Sur was the slowest at 1.35% over the same period.
Butuan and Surigao cities were included in the census tabulation in 2007 with total populations of 267,279 and 132,151, respectively. Butuan City registered an annual growth rate of 1.70% in the last five years, while Surigao City posted 2.65%.
Surigaonon is the primary language that is inherent to the region, is spoken by 33.21% of the households, followed by Butuanon by 15%; Kamayo, by 7.06%, and Manobo, by 4.73%. Cebuano is widely spoken by 33.79% of the households in the region. The rest speak Boholanon, by 5.87%; Hiligayon, by 2.87%; and other dialects by 7.20%.
Surigaonon is a local Philippine language spoken in the provinces of Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur and some portion of Agusan del Norte especially in towns near Mainit Lake.
The 1995 census revealed that the dominant religion in the region was Roman Catholic, with the population of 1,397,343 or 79% of the total household population in Caraga.
The majority of the inhabitants of the region are of Visayan heritage. The province is home to several minority groups, totaling 675,722 in 1995, representing 34.7% of the region's population. Most numerous were the Manobos with 294,284 or 43.55% of the total population of ethnic minorities. Other cultural groups in the region with significant population were the Kamayo, Higa-onon, Banwaon, Umayamnon, and Mamanwa.
Most members of these cultural groups reside in the province of Agusan del Sur.
Poverty in the region decreased by 1.7% from 44.7% in 1997 to 42.9% in 2000. Another positive development is the increase in the regional annual family income based on the 1997 and 2000 Family Income and Expenditure Survey, which increased by 13.65% from PhP 71,7126.00 in 1997 to PhP 81,519.00 in 2000. Regional annual family expenditures also posted a 16.65% increase, from PhP 61,815.00 in 1997 to PhP 72,108.00 in 2000. The average annual savings slipped by 5% from PhP 9,911.00 to PhP 9,411.00. Poverty incidence data for 2003 is not yet available.
On a national and Mindanao-wide perspective, Caraga Region is one of the most impoverished regions in the country. The region has the fourth highest poverty incidence level of families among all the regions in the country for years 1997 and 2000 while among Mindanao regions, Caraga has the third highest poverty incidence (in terms of incidence of families).
From 2001 to 2003, Caraga Region consistently maintained its performance vis-à-vis other regions in Mindanao. Caraga posted a 0.9% growth rate compared to the 9.5% growth rate of Region 12 and the 2.6% growth rate of the Autonomous Region for Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Caraga's growth rate in 2001-2002 and the 2002-2003 period was the same (0.9%). This was much less than the growth of the population. This performance was better however than the region's performance in the 2000-2001 period, where the region's economy declined by 1.4%.
The region's contribution to Mindanao's domestic product is 7.58% in 2003. Caraga has the second lowest per capital income among Mindanao regions and nationwide. In 2003, the region accounted for 1.35% of the country's GNP.
Gross regional domestic product (GRDP)
The region performed fairly well in terms of regional output contributing 8.01% in 1998, 8.25% in 1999 and 8.29% in 2000 to the Mindanao GRDP. The region contributed 1.44% in 1998, 1.48% in 1999 and 1.50% in 2000, to the Philippine economy. In terms of growth rate, the region accelerated faster and outpaced the other regions in Mindanao from 1998 to 2000, except for the Southern Mindanao Region which posted a 6.06% increase in 1999-2000. Caraga Region recorded a 5.42% increase during the same period.
GRDP in 2000 amounted to P14.336 billion as against the 1999 performance of P13.599 billion. The deceleration of the region's economy from 6.03% in 1999 to 5.42% in 2000 was attributed to the slowdown of the agriculture, fishery and forestry (AFF) and services sectors. The improved performance of the Industry sector, from 5.69% in 1999 to 6.69% in 2000, cushioned the effects of what could have been a slowdown of the region's economy.
From the 1.4% decrease in the GRDP in 2000-2001, the GRDP bounced back in 2001-2002 by a 0.9% growth. The positive trend was maintained in 2002-2003, with the region's GRDP growing by 0.9%, the same growth rate from the previous year.
The agriculture, fishery and forestry (AFF) sector is Caraga's banner economic sector, exhibiting an increasing growth trend of 3.8% and 6.8% growth rates in 2001 and 2003 respectively. Despite the decreasing growth trend of the agriculture and fishery subsectors, the sizeable growth rate of the forestry subsector more than compensated for the decrease. The forestry subsector grew by 36.3% in 2003, the highest growth rate for any subsector in the region. It is also important to note that Caraga region has the highest GVA in the forestry subsector among all regions in the Philippines.
The services sector is also one of the bright spots in the region's economy. After experiencing a decelerated growth rate in 2002 compared to the previous year's 6.1% growth rate, the sector bounced back in 2003 with a 5.6% growth rate. Moreover, the trade subsector continued to be the dominant subsector posting a 5.6%, 6.6% and 6.3% growth rate in 2001 to 2003 respectively. It is significant to note that all the subsectors posted positive growth rates in 2001 and 2003. The transportation, communication and storage sub-sector posted the highest growth rate of 8.4% among the sub-sectors in the services sector.
The industry sector was the worst performing sector of the regional economy with a continuous decline from 2001-2003. Although the sector's slide slightly decelerated in 2002 (-6.7% in 2002 from -13.3% decline in 2001), it contracted by -12.1% in 2003. The construction subsector had the largest decline of 16.6%, 11.3% and 33.5% in 2001, 2002 and 2003 respectively. The mining subsector also posted negative growth rates but the decreasing trend in this subsector decelerated. The manufacturing offset the decrease in the two sub-sectors by growing at 8.9% in 2003, making it the biggest contributor to this sector. It should be noted that even with the negative performance of the mining and quarrying sector, Caraga was the second highest producer of metallic minerals, with metallic mineral productions valued at PhP 1.25 billion in 2001 (Philippine Yearbook, 2003).
Exports and investments
The amount of exports from the region and investments pouring in the region are concrete indicators of a region's economic dynamism, progress and development. It also serves as an indirect indicator of the business climate in the region and a barometer of investor confidence in the region.
Investments in the region fell by 25.4% from PhP 6.3 billion in 2002 to PhP 4.6 billion in 2003. All provinces in the region posted a negative growth rate in investments, with Agusan del Sur posting the biggest year-on-year decline of 62.6% for the 2002-2003 period. Agusan del Norte's percentage share on investments increased from 64.8% to 79.5% despite an 8.5% decline. Per DTI Caraga's advise, the data on investments are partial at best and is not reflective of the whole investment level in the region. DTI Caraga's data does not include public investment figures.
Exports decreased by 19.08% in the 2000-2001 period and 57.52% in 2001-2002. Agusan Norte, Surigao Norte and Surigao Sur posted negative growth rates in the 2000-2001 period, with Surigao Sur posting the biggest decrease in exports (81.31%). In 2002, Agusan Norte posted an impressive 741.04% increase in exports, a harbinger of increased economic activity in the province. Surigao Norte posted the biggest decrease in exports for 2002 (63.17%).
It is of interest to note that Caraga's percentage contribution to Mindanao's exports has been erratic. In 2000, the region contributed 1.87% to Mindanao's exports; this expanded to 2.68% in 2001 only to decrease to 0.77% in 2002.
Rich in natural resources, the region has large tracts of land available for development. The region is noted for its wood based economy, its extensive water resources and its rich mineral deposits such as iron, gold, silver, nickel, chromite, manganese and copper. Its leading crops are palay, banana and coconut.
It has excellent tourism potentials because of its unspoiled and beautiful beaches, abundant and fresh seafood, ancient and historical landmarks, hot and cold springs, evergreen forests and balmy weather.
Its long stretch of shoreline promises abundance in production of fisheries and aquatic products. With its large tract of fertile lands, the region has a great capacity in producing varied commercial crops as well as livestock and poultry. Major agricultural products of the region are palay, corn, coconut, gold, banana, rubber, oil palm, calamansi, prawns, milkfish, crabs, seaweeds and mango. Caraga's proximity to Cebu and Manila makes it a favorable shipping point for products to and from these markets. Nasipit Port can serve as a secondary shipping hub to Cagayan de Oro when traffic volume from other points in Mindanao increases. With a roll-on, roll-off (RORO) ferry service now in place, Surigao City serves as a vital transportation link for trucks and buses bound for Luzon.
|Agusan Del Norte||Agusan Del Sur||Surigao Del Norte||Surigao Del Sur|
|rice, coconut, corn, mango, bananas, palm oil, vegetables, and prawns||gold||Ironwood, nickeliferous laterite ore, gold, chromite, lode ore, and laterite ore; limestone, silica deposits, guano, rock phosphate, sand, and gravel; chromate; Marlin, tuna, lapu-lapu, mollusks, crabs, even squids, stingrays, and octopuses||palay, corn, coconut, abaca, soybeans, coffee, and other high value crops; prawns, milkfish, and crabs; are Narra, red and white Lauan, Mayapis, Almon, Apitong, Yakal, Bagtikan, Tanguile, Rattan and Bonbon|
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Lying at the edge of the Philippine archipelago, Siargao is reputed as the surfing capital of the Philippines, and hosts an annual international surfing event. Its waves combine the best features of top-rated waves of Hawaii's fabled "pipeline" and the top-billed waves of Indonesia. The huge and powerful "pacific rollers" have been ranked among the top five breaks in the world, including the "Cloud Nine" which is considered one of the world's top surfing waves. Other excellent breaks, which offer the adventurous surfer top-class exploratory surfing without crowds, are found in the towns of Cantilan, Tandag and Lanuza.
Hop from island to island while you discover the picturesque landscapes and feast on the rich marine delights like the fresh blue marlin, crabs, squids, seaweeds, giant clams and lobsters. Once in Caraga, you can take your pick of which to visit. The alluring islets and islands of Guyam, Daku, Naked or Pansukian, La Janosa, Pig-ot, Dinagat, Bucas Grande,Britania and the General island in Cantilan have white-sand beaches and are ringed by teeming coral reefs that are ideal for swimming and snorkelling.
The region's tropical treats include a boat ride along the naturally-carved water channels amidst the jade-colored lush of mangrove forest in Barangay Manjagao; a journey to the floating village of Barangay Dayasan, and to Buenavista Cave; and a visit to the tropical island paradise of white sand beach, deep blue crystal water in Sagisi island. The Britania in San Agustin-Surigao del Sur hosts 25 unspoiled islets and islands of sugary-white sand and clusters of limestones hills, much like the fabled hundred islands in pangasinan. After having enough sightseeing, swimming and snorkeling, you can spread your picnic blankets in the sand and eat with gusto amidst the serenade of slashing waves and the whispering winds. But you have to bring your food and drinks since there are no restaurants yet in the islands.
Great trails run all around the Cities of Butuan and Surigao, Surigao del sur, Agusan del Norte and Siargao. There are regular cross-country and downhill competitions done in these areas which are participated by local and international bikers. Caraga has an active and hospitable biking scene. Butuan or Surigao-based bikers regularly tour the rugged terrain of the region and are eager to show their routes to newcomers.
Mt. Mas-ai and Mt. Hilong-Hilong are the best sites for trekking or mountain climbing. The views from the mountains are superb, taking in the full scope of the vast lower Agusan Valley. Close to Mt. Mas-ai lies the picturesque Lake Mainit, which is considered the fourth-largest lake in the country, with a total land area of 147 km². Through the years, the lake has been a known lair for pidjanga, tilapia, kasili, banak, haw-an, gingaw, saguyon and igi. Migratory birds, pagosi and tabokali flowers are its intermittent added attractions. From the coastal areas of Lake Mainit to the hills of Jabonga, Tubay, and Santiago, hikers are offered the opportunity to explore the quiet and interesting life of these places. There are a few established treks in the region, but everywhere else you will be hiking in areas virtually untouched by tourism.
Surigao first became famous for its surf, so kayakers who like big waves enjoy it very much. There are also mangrove swamps in the island where you can paddle both in the main channel and through narrow passages in the mangroves while seeing some wildlife and enjoying the serenity of the place. The first is just behind the Pansukian Tropical Resort while the other one is in del Carmen, where the largest contiguous mangrove forest in the Philippines is located. The "must see" place in Caraga where you can paddle around spectacular limestone formations to a point where you can enter a narrow channel which soon becomes a cave is in Sohoton Cave and Lagoon in Bucas Grande Island, which is more than an hour boat ride from Siargao. Since the sport is new here, only Pansukian Tropical Resort offers kayak tours in several locations around Siargao. Aside from sea kayaking, Masao & Agusan Rivers, Lake Mainit and the Agusan Marshland have tremendous potential for paddling using wooden canoes.
Scuba diving is a new sport in the region, the coasts of Surigao offer interesting dive site while the islands of Sagisi and Corregidor are excellent for snorkelling activities. Scuba diving with Surigao Dive Club and Mabua dive center in Surigao City offers diving lessons, equipment rental and dive safaris. The Blue Cathedral in Siargao is worth exploring.
The limestone karst bedrock of some areas in Surigao and Agusan provinces (particularly in the towns of San Agustin, Tagbina, Lianga, Rosario, and Bislig) features dozens of caves, but none of these are regular destinations for recreational cavers. Located within the towns of Tagbina and Bislig, Banbow and Tatol caves (which are ranked the 6th and 9th longest caves in the Philippines) have recently been declared by the Japanese cave explorers as the third longest cave in the country. Further expeditions are expected as more cave systems are discovered. Some of the most frequently visited and accessible caves in the region are Buenavista and Silop Caves in Surigao City and Libas Cave in Jabonga-Agusan del Norte. These caves have impressive limestone formations and naturally carved stalagmites, stalactites and columns.
The Agusan Marsh in Agusan del Sur is the biggest marsh in the country and is host to diverse species of birds.
Events and festivals
The events and festivals offer an experience in color and character, giving a good view of the rich culture that makes up Caraga's heritage. Whatever time of the year, there will always be an event or festival to experience and enjoy, like Naliyagan of Agusan del Sur,Kahimunan, Balangay, Kaliguan Festival of Cagwait in Surigao del Sur, Lisagan and Bonok-Bonok Maradjao Karadjao festivals. Surfers from around the world converge in Siargao to pit their skills against each other during the annual international surfing competition.
The entire region is connected by roads from and to the major commercial, trading and processing centers of Cagayan de Oro and Davao. Butuan City is being developed as the regional center with modern facilities. There are secondary seaports and airports in the region. It has an increasing number of telecommunication facilities and the presence of the Nasipit International Seaport in Nasipit, Agusan del Norte as the major baseport in the region.
Education and skills development
The region's literacy rate of 93% in 1990 was marginally higher than the National Average of 92.57%. Supporting the education of the region in 1997 were the 1,478 public and 49 private elementary schools, 110 public and 71 private secondary schools, 26 secondary school annexes, and 7 vocational schools.
The region has a total of 49 higher education institutions comprising 45 private Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and 4 State Universities and Colleges (SUCs). Among the Higher Education Institutions, San Nicolas College (now St. Paul University-Surigao and first university established in the entire region) is identified as the center for development in teacher education and the regional center for Gender and Development, it being the seat of CARAGA Women's resources center. While one of the SUCs, the Caraga State University (CSU) formerly known as Northern Mindanao State Institute of Science and Technology (NORMISIST), is the seat of the CARAGA center for environmental studies and management (CCESM), acts as the focal point of capability building and coordination for environmental efforts in the region.
The oldest school in Caraga, the Urios College, was founded by Caraga's most loved Spanish missionary, Fr. Saturnino Urios S.J. in 1901. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) recognized Urios College as one of the best schools in the region producing topnotchers in national board examinations in Nursing, Engineering and Accountancy. Its performance in the Licensure Examinations for Teachers (LET) and the Philippine Bar (BAR) is also relatively high. On July 12, 2006, Urios College formally announced its elevation into a University and is now renamed Fr. Saturnino Urios University (FSUU), the first home-grown university in Caraga.
For the school year 1996–1997, the participation rate for public elementary schools was 93.65%. Public secondary schools registered a lower rate, 56%. The teacher-to-pupil ratios for both levels were within the standard of one teacher per 40 pupils. Cohort survival rates were considered low for both the elementary and secondary levels at 66.23% and 68.93%, respectively. For the school year 1996–97, dropout rate at the secondary level was high, especially in Butun City (9.5%) and Surigao Del Sur (7.8%). This can be one of the causes why the majority of the population finished only up to the elementary school level.
Health and nutrition
All the vital health indicators from 1992–1997 showed a decreasing trend except for maternal mortality rate. The crude birth rate decreased from the 1992-1996 five-year average of 21.02 to 18.71 in 1997. The crude death rate also decreased from 3.60 in the 1992–1996 average to 3.0 in 1997. The infant mortality rate increased from an average of 1.33 in 1992–1996 to 1.56 in 1997.
All of the leading causes of morbidity from 1992–1997 were communicable diseases, and showed a reduction in rates for every 1,000,000 population, except for pneumonia (836.30 to 1,200.23), diarrhea (1,059.40 to 1,133.11), influenza (655.36 to 926.74), and malaria (216.80 to 366.5). With regards to the leading causes of mortality, lifestyle-related diseases like cardiovascular diseases and cancer top the list, replacing the communicable diseases.
The region is faced with problems of endemic diseases like schistosomiasis and malaria. Although there was a slight reduction in its prevalence for the past three years, still Caraga ranked as number two in schistosomiasis cases and number six in malaria cases nationwide.
Malnutrition rates were posted at 49.25%, of which 34.05% were classified as mildly underweight, 11.66% as moderately underweight, 1.43% as severely underweight and 3.60% as overweight.
Life expectancy for the region, based on the 1995 census, was 65.73 years old for males and 70.98 years old for females.
As of 1997, there were 62 hospitals in the region, of which 35 were government and 27 were private. Out of the 27 private hospitals, 20 were primary, 4 secondary and 3 tertiary. Out of the 35 government hospitals, 18 were primary, 14 were secondary and 3 were tertiary. There were 73 main health centers, 489 barangay health stations manned by 76 doctors, 147 nurses, 35 medical technologists, 45 dental aides, 52 dentists, 608 midwives and 137 sanitary inspectors. All of these were devolved to the local government units in accordance with the 1991 local Government code.
Social welfare services
In 1996, Caraga had 1,619 welfare facilities of which 1,238 were Day care Centers; 8 were Senior Citizens' Center; 3 were Productivity Skills capability Building for Disadvantaged Women (PSCBDW); and with 1 each were the child Learning and Resource Center, Women Center, Home for the Girls, Regional Rehabilitation Center for Youth, Lingap Center, Balay Silongan, Foster Home for Exploited Children And Women, and Halfway Home for Improved Mental Patients.
On the community-based services, only the PSCBDW is being managed by DSWD while the rest are managed by the LGUs.
The region had unique housing profile in 1990. While other areas complained of housing shortage, a significant number of houses, particularly in Agusan del Norte and Surigao del Norte were vacant. However, available statistics do not give the magnitude of substandard of units to be replaced and current housing backlog. Currently, the cities of Butuan and Surigao and other municipalities are not spared from housing problems, i.e. squatters bought by urbanization.
Roads and bridges
The region is connected to the major centers of its neighboring regions by the Maharlika Highways that runs from Davao City to Butuan, Cagayan de Oro and Surigao Cities. The provinces are interlinked with concrete roads, except for Surigao del Sur. Total road length of the region runs to 7,515.596 km. Road density was at 0.3988 as of 1995. There were 1,325.558 km classified as national roads in the region and 1,289.774 km of city and provincial roads. The total municipal road length for the region was 696.46 km.
The region had bridges with the combined length of 23,775.49 meters linear. Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur had the longest bridge length 9,288.520 m linear and 7,853,4 m linear, respectively.
Ports and airports
As the overland gateway to Visayas and Luzon, the region is accessible by sea through the baseport of Nasipit in Agusan del Norte and Surigao City, Lipata Ferry Terminal in Surigao city that connects the neighboring province of southern Leyte. Other terminal ports are in Dapa in Siargao, San Jose in Dinagat Islands, Tandag City and Bislig City. Fast craft ferry services ply Surigao-Cebu everyday. Private ports can also be found in the different municipalities of the region, however, only three of these 42 ports are operational.
The region is serviced by commercial flights to and from Manila and Cebu through the airports of Butuan, Surigao and Siargaoin Surigao del Norte. The Bislig airport used to serviced commercial flights before its operation were suspended. There are six other private owned airports in the region. The ports and airports are supported by the road networks that connect the provinces within and outside the region.
All provincial centers have access to domestic and international telephone facilities, both landlines and cellular phones. Four telephone companies serve the region: BAYANTEL, TETCO, PLDT and PHILCOM. The three cellular phone companies in the Philippines (Globe, Smart and Sun) have facilities in the region. There are four Internet service providers serving Butuan City and in Surigao City.
- "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities". 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- Final results - 2010 Census of Population
- Caraga Regional Development Plan 2004-2010
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