|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Mol. mass||570.765 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Carbenoxolone (aka Carbenoxolone, CBX) is also used as a blocker of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD), of pannexon membrane channels (comprising 6 subunits of pannexin) and the related innexon channels (consisting of invertebrate innexins), and at higher concentrations, as a blocker of connexon channels ("hemichannels" made up of 6 connexin subunits each) and of gap junctions (2 connexons joined together). Animal and in vitro studies suggest that this blockade can increase insulin sensitivity.
This research started from an observation that long-term exposure to glucocorticoids may have negative effects on cognition. Carbenoxolone may decrease the amount of active glucocortocoid in the brain, because the drug inhibits 11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, an enzyme which regenerates cortisol, an active glucocorticoid, from inactive cortisone. In the research trial investigating this use of carbenoloxone, it was shown that the drug improved verbal fluency in elderly healthy men (aged 55–75). In type 2 diabetics aged 52–70, the drug improved verbal memory. However, potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride was co-administered with carbenoxolone, since carbenoxolone used by itself may cause hypertension by increasing cortisol in the kidneys.