Carbon paste electrode

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A carbon-paste electrode (CPE) is made from a mixture of conducting graphite powder and a pasting liquid.[1] These electrodes are simple to make and offer an easily renewable surface for electron exchange. Carbon paste electrodes belong to a special group of heterogeneous carbon electrodes. These electrodes are widely used mainly for voltammetric measurements; however, carbon paste-based sensors are also applicable in coulometry (both amperometry and potentiometry).

Advantages[edit]

In general, CPEs are popular because carbon pastes are easily obtainable at minimal costs and are especially suitable for preparing an electrode material modified with admixtures of other compounds thus giving the electrode certain pre-determined properties. Electrodes made in this way are highly selective sensors for both inorganic and organic electrochemistry. Carbon paste, glassy carbon paste, glassy carbon etc. electrodes when modified are termed as chemically modified electrodes. Chemically modified electrodes have been employed for the analysis of organic molecules (viz., Paracetamol, aspirin, caffeine, phenol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, dopamine, L-dopa, epinephrine, nor epinephrine, methyl parathion, ethyl parathion, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, imipramine, trimipramine, desipramine etc.) as well as metal ions (bismuth, antimony etc.).[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Disadvantages[edit]

The biggest disadvantage of CPEs, which limits their applicability in practical analysis, is that success in working with carbon paste-based electrodes depends on the experience of the user. While this is true for any type of solid electrodes, CPEs are rather an exceptional case. In contrast to commercially available solid electrodes for which basic electrochemical characteristics are comparable for almost all products from each manufacturer, each carbon paste unit is an individual, where the physical, chemical and electrochemical properties may differ from one preparation to another. For this reason each probe must be calibrated individually. While this may not be an issue in a research environment, it would be a considerable burden in production service.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Grygar, Tomáš; Marken, Frank; Schröder, Uwe; Scholz, Fritz (2002), "Electrochemical Analysis of Solids. A Review", Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications 67: 163, doi:10.1135/cccc20020163 
  2. ^ Sanghavi, Bankim; Srivastava, Ashwini (2010). "Simultaneous voltammetric determination of acetaminophen, aspirin and caffeine using an in situ surfactant-modified multiwalled carbon nanotube paste electrode". Electrochimica Acta 55: 8638–8648. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2010.07.093. 
  3. ^ Sanghavi, Bankim; Mobin, Shaikh; Mathur, Pradeep; Lahiri, Goutam; Srivastava, Ashwini (2013). "Biomimetic sensor for certain catecholamines employing copper(II) complex and silver nanoparticle modified glassy carbon paste electrode". Biosensors and Bioelectronics 39: 124–132. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2012.07.008. 
  4. ^ Sanghavi, Bankim; Srivastava, Ashwini (2011). "Simultaneous voltammetric determination of acetaminophen and tramadol using Dowex50wx2 and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon paste electrode" 706. pp. 246–254. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2011.08.040. 
  5. ^ Sanghavi, Bankim; Srivastava, Ashwini (2011). "Adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetric determination of venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine employing Nafion–carbon nanotube composite glassy carbon electrode". Electrochimica Acta 56: 4188–4196. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2011.01.097. 
  6. ^ Sanghavi, Bankim; Hirsch, Gary; Karna, Shashi; Srivastava, Ashwini (2012). "Potentiometric stripping analysis of methyl and ethyl parathion employing carbon nanoparticles and halloysite nanoclay modified carbon paste electrode". Analytica Chimica Acta 735: 37–45. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2012.05.029. 
  7. ^ Mobin, Shaikh; Sanghavi, Bankim; Srivastava, Ashwini; Mathur, Pradeep; Lahiri, Goutam (2010). "Biomimetic Sensor for Certain Phenols Employing a Copper(II) Complex". Analytical Chemistry 82: 5983–5992. doi:10.1021/ac1004037. 
  8. ^ Gadhari, Nayan; Sanghavi, Bankim; Srivastava, Ashwini (2011). "Potentiometric stripping analysis of antimony based on carbon paste electrode modified with hexathia crown ether and rice husk". Analytica Chimica Acta 703: 31–40. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2011.07.017. 
  9. ^ Gadhari, Nayan; Sanghavi, Bankim; Karna, Shashi; Srivastava, Ashwini (2010). "Potentiometric stripping analysis of bismuth based on carbon paste electrode modified with cryptand 2.2.1 and multiwalled carbon nanotubes". Electrochimica Acta 56: 627–635. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2010.09.100. 
  10. ^ Sanghavi, Bankim; Srivastava, Ashwini (2013). "Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of imipramine, trimipramine and desipramine employing titanium dioxide nanoparticles and an Amberlite XAD-2 modified glassy carbon paste electrode". Analyst. doi:10.1039/C2AN36330E.