Tarcisio Bertone

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His Eminence
Tarcisio Bertone
SDB
Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church
Cardinal tarcisio bertone.JPG
See Frascati
Appointed 4 April 2007
Predecessor Eduardo Martínez Somalo
Other posts
Orders
Ordination 1 July 1960
by Albino Mensa
Consecration 1 August 1991
by Albino Mensa
Created Cardinal 21 October 2003
by John Paul II
Rank Cardinal-Priest (2003-2008) Cardinal-Bishop (2008-present)
Personal details
Birth name Tarcisio Pietro Evasio Bertone
Born (1934-12-02) 2 December 1934 (age 79)
Romano Canavese, Italy
Nationality Italian
Denomination Roman Catholic
Residence Vatican City
Previous post
Motto fidem custodire, concordiam servare (Protect Faith, Preserve Unity)
Signature
Coat of arms

Tarcisio Pietro Evasio Bertone, S.D.B. (born 2 December 1934) is an Italian prelate and a Vatican diplomat. A cardinal of the Catholic Church, he has served as Archbishop of Vercelli from 1991 to 1995, as Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, when Cardinal Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI, was Prefect, Archbishop of Genoa from 2002 to 2006, and as Cardinal Secretary of State from 2006 to 2013. Bertone was elevated to the cardinalate in 2003. On 10 May 2008, he was named Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati.

Cardinal Bertone has been serving as Camerlengo since 2007. In the period between Benedict XVI's resignation on 28 February 2013, and the election of Pope Francis, he served temporarily as the administrator of the Holy See and acting head of state of the Vatican City State. He was considered a contender to succeed Pope Benedict XVI.[1]

Besides his native Italian, Bertone speaks fluent French, Spanish, German and Portuguese. He has some knowledge of English, although he is not fluent, and he can read Polish, Latin, Greek and Hebrew.

Early life[edit]

Bertone was born in Romano Canavese, Piedmont, the fifth of eight children. Bertone has stated that his mother was a determined anti-fascist militant of the Italian People's Party, and later a Christian Democrat.

He professed his vows as a member of the Salesians on 3 December 1950, and was ordained a priest by Archbishop Albino Mensa on 1 July 1960. He holds a doctorate in canon law. His dissertation was entitled The Governance of the Church in the Thought of Pope Benedict XIV (1740–1758).[2] He served as Professor of Special Moral Theology at the Pontifical Salesian University from 1967 until his appointment as Professor of Canon Law in 1976, a post he held until 1991. He was a visiting professor of Public Ecclesiastical Law at the Institute Utriusque Iuris of the Pontifical Lateran University in 1978. In 1988 he was appointed to a group of experts that assisted Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger in negotiations with the excommunicated Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre. He was also commissioned by Pope John Paul II to assist Emmanuel Milingo, Archbishop Emeritus of Lusaka, Zambia, in returning to the Catholic Church in 2001. Milingo had left the Church to marry Maria Sung of the Moon sect.[3]

Archbishop and Cardinal[edit]

On 4 July 1991, Bertone was appointed Archbishop of Vercelli by Pope John Paul II. He was consecrated bishop one month later by Archbishop Mensa, who had also ordained him. He held this post until his resignation in 1995 upon being named Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith under Cardinal Ratzinger, who would later become Pope Benedict XVI. Appointed Archbishop of Genoa on 10 December 2002 and installed on 2 February 2003, Bertone was elevated to the College of Cardinals in the consistory of 21 October 2003, as Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria Ausiliatrice in Via Tuscolana. Then-Archbishop Angelo Amato succeeded Bertone as Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, before becoming the Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.

As a member of the Society of Don Bosco, he is considered a priest who has undertaken work with youth whom, in Pope John Paul's last words, he had sought throughout his papacy. Bertone's secretary once related a story that "Bertone once decided to take a public bus to the Apostolic Palace. As the Cardinal in his long black cassock and red fascia strode on to the bus, the people, especially a group of young people, stared in silence. Bertone immediately broke the ice with his 'characteristic' smile. By the time he reached his destination the prelate had engaged the youth in a deep conversation on love, sex, virginity, and chastity".[4]

He later specialized in the relationship between social morality, faith and politics. He also assisted with the revision of the 1983 Code of Canon Law, and undertook pastoral work in parishes. In the Jubilee Year 2000, Cardinal Bertone was entrusted by John Paul II with the publication of the third part of the secret of Fatima.

Bertone was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 2005 papal conclave that selected Pope Benedict XVI. He also participated as a cardinal elector in the 2013 papal conclave that elected Pope Francis. Cardinal Bertone is eligible to vote in any future conclaves that begin before his 80th birthday on 2 December 2014.

On 15 March 2005, Bertone was in the news for "breaking the Church's silence" and sharply criticizing Dan Brown's 2003 novel The Da Vinci Code, saying the book was "shameful and unfounded lies", and that believers should boycott the book. Both Bertone and official Vatican spokespeople insisted that Bertone was not speaking as an official representative of the Church, but it was also noted that Bertone's high placement within the Church hierarchy (his name was often cited as a potential candidate for the next pontiff) gave his words considerable weight, such that his comments were often reported by various media as an official statement from the Vatican.[5] In 2006, the NBC news program Dateline described his statement as "a high-ranking Vatican Cardinal called for a boycott of the film."

Cardinal Secretary of State[edit]

Styles of
Tarcisio Bertone SDB
Coat of arms of Tarcisio Bertone.svg
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken style Your Eminence
Informal style Cardinal

On 22 June 2006, Benedict XVI appointed Cardinal Bertone to replace Angelo Sodano as the Cardinal Secretary of State, assuming the office on 15 September of that same year. On 26 June 2006 Cardinal Bertone was awarded the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic.[6]

It was revealed on the following 31 August that Cardinal Bertone had a dream in which Pope John Paul II spoke to him saying "do not be afraid" to the Cardinal as he prepared to take his new job.[7]

On 4 April 2007, Benedict XVI also appointed Cardinal Bertone as Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (or Chamberlain). The duties of the Camerlengo are largely confined to administration during the vacancy of the Holy See.[8] On 10 May 2008 he was promoted to the rank of Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati.[9]

Bertone is known to study the problem at hand before taking action. One such example is when after he was named Archbishop of Vercelli he "locked himself in his room all night and studied the life of Saint Eusebius, who was bishop of the city back in 345 AD".[4]

When Pope Benedict XVI resigned on February 28, 2013, Cardinal Bertone as Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church was the acting head of state for Vatican City and administrator for the Holy See during the sede vacante. He was the second most senior cardinal-elector in order of precedence among the cardinal-electors who participated in the 2013 conclave that elected Pope Francis--the only cardinal-elector with more seniority was the presiding cardinal Giovanni Battista Re.[10][11] Cardinal Bertone himself was seen as a contender to succeed to the papacy,[1][12] although his chances as a papabile were seen to be diminished due to the perception of him being a "potential scandal in the making".[12] At Pope Francis' inauguration, Cardinal Bertone was one of the six cardinals who made the public act of obedience on behalf of the College of Cardinals.[a][13][14]

Coat of arms of cardinal Bertone as camerlengo.

He is a member of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Congregation for the Clergy, Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Congregation for the Oriental Churches, Congregation for Bishops and Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. He will hold these memberships until his 80th birthday on 2 December 2014.

Evaluation of dicasteries[edit]

Two weeks before entering office, Bertone was interviewed and asked his opinion about reforms of the Roman Curia. Bertone remarked, "After almost two decades, an evaluation of how the dicasteries are organised is more than comprehensible, in order to reflect on how to make the existing structures more efficient for the mission of the Church and eventually to consider whether all of them should be maintained".[15]

Church and sports[edit]

Cardinal Bertone suggested in December 2006 that the Holy See "could, in future, field a team that plays at the top level, with Roma, Internazionale, Genoa and Sampdoria." He continued by saying, "If we just take the Brazilian students from our Pontifical universities we could have a magnificent squad".[16] However, only hours later he said, "I've got much more to do than cultivating a football squad for the Vatican", and explained that his earlier remark was not intended to be taken seriously.[17]

Defence of Pius XII[edit]

On 5 June 2007, at a conference announcing the release of a new biography of Pope Pius XII, Bertone defended Pius against claims of indifference toward the Jews during The Holocaust. The Cardinal condemned this accusation as a "black legend" and "an attack on good sense and on rationality", which has "become so firmly established that even to scratch it is an arduous task".[18] Although he admitted that Pius XII had been "cautious" in condemning Nazi Germany, Bertone stated that Nazi forces would have intensified its program of genocide had the Pope been more outspoken.

Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy[edit]

On 16 September 2006, Cardinal Bertone, after only one day in his job as Cardinal Secretary of State, released a declaration explaining that the "position of the Pope concerning Islam is unequivocally that expressed by the conciliar document Nostra Aetate" and that "the Pope's option in favour of inter-religious and inter-cultural dialogue is equally unequivocal."[19]

As for the opinion of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Paleologus which he quoted during his Regensburg talk, the Holy Father did not mean, nor does he mean, to make that opinion his own in any way. He simply used it as a means to undertake—in an academic context, and as is evident from a complete and attentive reading of the text—certain reflections on the theme of the relationship between religion and violence in general, and to conclude with a clear and radical rejection of the religious motivation for violence, from whatever side it may come. [The Pope] sincerely regrets that certain passages of his address could have sounded offensive to the sensitivities of the Muslim faithful and should have been interpreted in a manner that in no way corresponds to his intentions.[20][21] (emphasis as in original)

Comments by Patriarch Alexius II[edit]

On 5 December 2006, Patriarch Alexius II accused the Holy See of an "extremely unfriendly policy"[22] when he said that the Catholic Church was poaching converts in Orthodox lands in Russia and other ex-Soviet republics. In response, Cardinal Bertone said, "We do not want to engage in proselytism in Russia".[23]

Le Figaro interview[edit]

On 31 March 2007, Cardinal Bertone confirmed Pope Benedict's impending publication of the long-expected motu proprio extending the indult for the celebration of the Tridentine Mass in an interview with the French newspaper Le Figaro.[24][25][26]

In the same interview, Bertone "blasted the media for highlighting the Vatican's views on sex while maintaining a 'deafening silence' about charity work done by thousands of Catholic organisations around the world."[27] He continued by saying, "I see a fixation by some journalists on moral topics, such as abortion and homosexual unions, which are certainly important issues but absolutely do not constitute the thinking and work of the Church."

Proposed excommunication of drug dealers[edit]

On 14 January 2009, Cardinal Bertone suggested that the Church would consider taking much stronger action against drug dealers. This action might possibly include excommunication. He made a statement about the Church's alarm at the "disaster" of drug-fuelled violence on the eve of a trip to Mexico.[28]

Support for universal and free access to anti-AIDS drugs[edit]

On Friday 22 June 2012, in an online news story article by Cindy Wooden of Catholic News Service (CNS), it was reported that, in a conference in Rome on the prevention of the transmission of AIDS from mothers to children sponsored by the lay Community of Sant'Egidio (which runs the DREAM project, a free AIDS prevention/treatment program in 10 African countries), the Cardinal Secretary of State urged that full and easy access to antiretroviral drugs be made free worldwide (these are drugs, such as AZT, that can treat, and in some cases, can prevent people from getting, AIDS; they do not presently cure AIDS once it has infected someone). Cardinal Bertone acknowledged that the only way this would be remotely feasible, especially in Africa- where the efforts would be most needed and focused- would be through a collaborative effort involving aid groups, governments, donors, medical groups, pharmaceutical companies, and churches.[29]

Vatican leaks[edit]

See also: Vatileaks

Cardinal Bertone is the main target of much of the leaks in the Roman Curia. Cardinal Bertone blamed the scandal over leaked Vatican documents on unethical journalists and a spirit of hostility toward the Catholic Church. "Many journalists play at imitating Dan Brown," said Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, in an interview with the Italian magazine Famiglia Cristiana. "They continue to invent fables or repeat legends." Cardinal Bertone made his remarks as Vatican judges were investigating leaks to Italian journalists of dozens of documents, including letters to the pope and encrypted cables from Vatican embassies around the world, several of which hint at power struggles among officials of the Holy See. "The truth is that there is a malicious will to produce division" among the collaborators of Pope Benedict XVI, he said.[30]

Ash Wednesday speech[edit]

On 13 February 2013, at the last public Mass of Pope Benedict XVI before his resignation would take effect on 28 February, Cardinal Bertone praised Pope Benedict, "We would not be honest, Your Holiness, if we said that this evening there is not a hint of sadness in our hearts. In recent years, your teaching has been a window open onto the Church and the world, which let in the rays of truth and love of God, to enlighten and warm our journey, even and especially at times when clouds gathered in the sky". Cardinal Bertone went on to say "All of us have realized that it is precisely the deep love that Your Holiness has for God and the Church that prompted you to make this act, revealing that purity of mind, that strong and demanding faith, that strength of humility and meekness, along with great courage, that have marked every step of your life and your ministry".[31]

Homosexuality to blame for child abuse in the Catholic Church[edit]

Gay rights groups condemned Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, for claiming that the Catholic church's sexual abuse crisis was linked to homosexuality and paedophilia and not celibacy among priests. As reported in the Guardian on April 13th 2010 "Bertone, sparked the controversy on a visit to Chile when he suggested gay sexuality was to blame for the church's child abuse scandals".

Suspicions[edit]

During the Vatican leaks scandal and later Tarcisio Bertone was widely blamed for cronyism, failing to address corruption, [32] failing to prevent many financial and ethical scandals under Benedict XVI. [33]

Retirement[edit]

Cardinal Bertone's retirement as Secretary of State was announced on 31 August 2013 and became effective on 15 October of the same year. Pope Francis designated Pietro Parolin as his successor. [33]

Cardinal Bertone has reportedly angered Pope Francis with his plans to move into a luxury 6,500 square foot apartment as the pope urges clergy to adopt a more modest lifestyle. According to the Italian daily La Repubblica, Cardinal Bertone's lavish restructure of an apartment in the San Carlo Palace. The flat is located next door to St Martha's Residence.[34] The cardinal is combining two apartments, one measuring 4,300 square feet formerly inhabited by the head of the gendarmerie and another flat where a Vatican monsignor lived, the article claimed. Three nuns who worked with him while he was Vatican secretary of state are also to live in his new residence.

Investigation[edit]

During an inflight news conference on his return to Rome from the Holy Land in May 2014, Pope Francis confirmed reports the Vatican is investigating charges against its former secretary of state misappropriated $20 million from the Vatican bank. The pope also was asked about reports that Cardinal Bertone, mishandled 15 million euro (about $20.5 million) in funds held by the Institute for the Works of Religion, commonly known as the Vatican bank. "It's something being studied, it's not clear," the pope said. "Maybe it's the truth, but at this moment it's not definitive."[35] This money was transferred from to a private company, Lux Vide when Bertone was in charge under Benedict XVI. [36]

Awards and honors[edit]

In February 2010 president Lech Kaczyński of Poland conferred on the cardinal the country's highest decoration for foreign nationals, the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of Poland, "for the lofty merits acquired in the development of the collaboration between the Republic of Poland and the Holy See and for the work carried out in favor of the Church in Poland."

Cardinal Bertone also received the Gaudium et Spes Award at the Knights of Columbus Supreme Convention in 2007. It is the order's highest honor.[37]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The other five cardinals were Giovanni Battista Re, Joachim Meisner, Jozef Tomko, Renato Raffaele Martino and Francesco Marchisano. Cardinal-Camerlengo Bertone himself along with Cardinal Re (the presiding cardinal at the conclave) represented the cardinal-bishops; Cardinals Meisner and Tomko represented the cardinal priests; and Cardinals Martino and Marchisano represented the cardinal-deacons.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Staking a wager on the next pope". CNN. 
  2. ^ Zenit. Cardinal Bertone Prefers Activity to Study 15 September 2006
  3. ^ "Archbishop Milingo Criticizes Moon Sect". ZENIT. 27 August 2001. 
  4. ^ a b Whispers in the Loggia. The Faithful Secretary 18 August 2006
  5. ^ BBC News. Church Fights Da Vinci Code Novel 15 March 2006
  6. ^ "Presidenza della Repubblica". Quirinale.it. 26 June 2006. 
  7. ^ Whispers in the Loggia. Bertone: "I Had a Dream" 31 August 2006
  8. ^ Press Office of the Holy See RINUNCE E NOMINE, 04.04.2007
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ "Cardinal electors – Conclave of March 2013 – Arranged in alphabetical order". Salvador Miranda. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 
  11. ^ "Conclave of March 2013". Salvador Miranda. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  12. ^ a b "One Of These Men Will Be The Next Pope". Business Insider. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  13. ^ Rolandi, Luca (2013-03-19). "Il giorno di Papa Francesco: La messa di inizio pontificato in Piazza San Pietro" (in Italian). Retrieved 2013-10-15. 
  14. ^ Inaugural Mass of the Pontificate (Vatican video of Pope Francis' papal inauguration on YouTube
  15. ^ CathNews. Cardinal Bertone Wants to be Secretary of Church Not State 31 August 2006
  16. ^ Telegraph. Vatican Wants to Play Priests in Serie A 20 December 2006
  17. ^ David Willey (19 December 2006). "Vatican plays down soccer 'joke'". BBC News. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  18. ^ Catholic World News. Strong Defense of Pius XII by Cardinal Bertone 6 June 2007
  19. ^ Libreria Editrice Vaticana'. "Traduzione In Lingua Inglesse" 16 September 2006
  20. ^ Reuters. "Pope apologises to Muslims", 16 September 2006
  21. ^ Associated Press. "Pope 'sincerely regrets' he offended Muslims" 16 September 2006
  22. ^ KYIV Post[dead link]
  23. ^ Zenit. Cardinal Bertone: We Don't Proselytize 5 December 2006
  24. ^ Le Figaro. Bertone: "Foi et raison ne s'opposent pas" – in French 2 April 2007
  25. ^ Rortate Cæli. Breaking News: Bertone Confirms Motu Proprio 31 March 2007
  26. ^ Catholic World News. Media Distort Church Statements, Cardinal Bertone Charges 2 April 2007
  27. ^ Moora. Pope's Aide Blasts Church Media Coverage 1 April 2007
  28. ^ "Cardinal flags excommunication for drug traffickers". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 14 January 2009. 
  29. ^ "Top Vatican official calls for free universal access to AIDS therapy". Catholicnews.com. 
  30. ^ "Denouncing leaks, top Vatican official likens journalists to Dan Brown". Catholicnews.com. 
  31. ^ "Farewell address to the Holy Father". Zenit.org. 13 February 2013. 
  32. ^ This Growing Scandal Could Bring Down The Second Most Important Person In The Vatican
  33. ^ a b Vatican official blamed for spate of scandals leaves office
  34. ^ [2]
  35. ^ [3]
  36. ^ Pope Francis Contemplates Retirement
  37. ^ "Cardinal Bertone receives Gaudium et Spes award from Knights". catholicnewsagency. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 

External links[edit]


Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Roberto Giannatelli
Rector Magnificus of Salesian Pontifical University
1 June 1989–4 June 1991
Succeeded by
Raffaele Farina
Preceded by
Albino Mensa
Roman Catholic Archbishop of Vercelli
4 June 1991–13 June 1995
Succeeded by
Enrico Masseroni
Preceded by
Alberto Bovone
Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
13 June 1995–10 December 2002
Succeeded by
Angelo Amato SDB
Preceded by
Dionigi Tettamanzi
Roman Catholic Archbishop of Genoa
10 December 2002–15 September 2006
Succeeded by
Angelo Bagnasco
Preceded by
Pio Laghi
Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria Ausiliatrice in Via Tuscolana pro hac vice Title
21 October 2003–10 May 2008
Succeeded by
Paolo Sardi
Preceded by
Angelo Sodano
President of Interdicasterial Commission on Particular Churches
15 September 2006–15 October 2013
Succeeded by
Pietro Parolin
President of Interdicasterial Commission for the Church in Eastern Europe
15 September 2006–15 October 2013
Protector of Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy
15 September 2006–15 October 2013
Preceded by
Eduardo Martínez Somalo
Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church
4 April 2007–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Alfonso López Trujillo
Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati
10 May 2008–present
Political offices
Preceded by
Angelo Sodano
Cardinal Secretary of State
15 September 2006–15 October 2013
Succeeded by
Pietro Parolin