|Born||Carrie Frances Fisher
October 21, 1956
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
|Occupation||Actress, novelist, screenwriter, performance artist|
|Spouse(s)||Paul Simon (m. 1983–84)|
|Partner(s)||Bryan Lourd (1991–1994)|
Carrie Frances Fisher (born October 21, 1956) is an American actress, novelist, screenwriter, and performance artist. She is best known for her portrayal of Princess Leia Organa in the original Star Wars trilogy, and will reprise the character in Star Wars Episode VII. She is also known for her bestselling novel Postcards from the Edge and screenplay for a film of the same name, as well as her autobiographical one-woman play and the non-fiction book Wishful Drinking she based it on.
Fisher was born in Beverly Hills, California, the daughter of singer Eddie Fisher and actress Debbie Reynolds. Her father was Jewish, the son of immigrants from Russia, and her mother was raised a Nazarene, and is of Scots-Irish and English ancestry. Her younger brother is producer and actor Todd Fisher, and her half-sisters are actresses Joely Fisher and Tricia Leigh Fisher, whose mother is the singer and actress Connie Stevens.
When Fisher was two, her parents divorced after her father left Reynolds for her best friend, actress Elizabeth Taylor, the widow of her father's best friend Mike Todd. The following year, her mother married shoe store chain owner Harry Karl, who secretly spent Reynolds's life savings. She attended Beverly Hills High School, but she left to join her mother on the road. She appeared as a debutante and singer in the hit Broadway revival Irene (1973), which starred her mother.
In 1973, Fisher enrolled at London's Central School of Speech and Drama, which she attended for 18 months. She made her film debut in the Columbia comedy Shampoo (1975) starring Warren Beatty, Julie Christie and Goldie Hawn, with Lee Grant and Jack Warden as her character's parents. In 1977, Fisher starred as Princess Leia Organa in George Lucas's science fiction film Star Wars (later retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope) opposite Mark Hamill and Harrison Ford. At the time, she believed the script for Star Wars was fantastic, but did not expect many people to agree with her, and though her fellow actors were not close at the time, they bonded after the commercial success of the film. The huge success of Star Wars made her internationally famous and the character of Princess Leia became a merchandising triumph; small plastic action figures of the Princess were in toy stores across the United States.
In April 1978, she appeared as the love interest in Ringo Starr's 1978 TV special Ringo. The next month, she appeared alongside John Ritter (who had also played in Ringo) in the ABC-TV film Leave Yesterday Behind, as a horse trainer who helps Ritter's character after an accident leaves him a paraplegic. At this time, Fisher appeared with Laurence Olivier and Joanne Woodward in the anthology series Laurence Olivier Presents in a television version of the William Inge play Come Back, Little Sheba. That November, she appeared as Princess Leia in the 1978 made-for-TV film, Star Wars Holiday Special, and showed off her singing talent in the last scene.
Fisher later appeared in The Blues Brothers film as Jake's vengeful ex-lover; she is listed in the credits as "Mystery Woman". She appeared on Broadway in Censored Scenes from King Kong in 1980. That year, she reprised her role as Leia Organa in Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back. She made her final appearance as Leia Organa in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, for which she became a sex symbol due to her appearance wearing a golden metal bikini (the outfit Leia was forced to wear as a slave girl of Jabba the Hutt), which almost immediately rose to pop culture icon status. She is one of the few actors or actresses to star in films with both John and James Belushi, later appearing with the latter in the film The Man with One Red Shoe. She also was a replacement in the Broadway production of Agnes of God (1982). She appeared in the Woody Allen film Hannah and her Sisters in 1986.
In 1987, Fisher published her first novel, Postcards from the Edge. The book was semi-autobiographical in the sense that she fictionalized and satirized real-life events such as her drug addiction of the late 1970s and her relationship with her mother. It became a bestseller, and she received the Los Angeles Pen Award for Best First Novel. Also during 1987, she was in the Australian film The Time Guardian. In 1989, Fisher played a major supporting role in When Harry Met Sally, and in the same year, she appeared with Tom Hanks as his wife in The 'Burbs.
In 1990, Columbia Pictures released a film version of Postcards from the Edge, adapted for the screen by Fisher and starring Meryl Streep, Shirley MacLaine, and Dennis Quaid. Fisher appeared in the fantasy comedy film Drop Dead Fred in 1991, and played a therapist in Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery (1997). During the 1990s, Fisher also published the novels Surrender the Pink (1990) and Delusions of Grandma (1993).
In the film Scream 3 (2000), Fisher played an actress mistaken for Carrie Fisher. In 2001, Fisher played a nun in the Kevin Smith comedy Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back. She also co-wrote the TV comedy film These Old Broads (2001), of which she was also co-executive producer. It starred her mother, Debbie Reynolds, as well as Elizabeth Taylor, Joan Collins, and Shirley MacLaine. In this, Taylor's character, an agent, explains to Reynolds's character, an actress, that she was in an alcoholic blackout when she married the actress's husband, "Freddy".
Besides acting and writing original works, Fisher was one of the top script doctors in Hollywood, working on the screenplays of other writers. She did uncredited polishes on movies starting with The Wedding Singer and Sister Act, and was hired by the creator of Star Wars, George Lucas, to polish scripts for his 1992 TV series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles. Her expertise in this area was the reason she was chosen as one of the interviewers for the screenwriting documentary Dreams on Spec in 2007. However, during an interview in 2004, she said that she no longer did much script doctoring.
Fisher also voices Peter Griffin's boss, Angela, on the animated sitcom Family Guy and appeared in a book of photographs titled Hollywood Moms (2001) for which she wrote the introduction. Fisher published a sequel to Postcards, The Best Awful There Is, in 2004. In August 2006, Fisher appeared prominently in the audience of the Comedy Central's Roast of William Shatner. In 2007, she was a full-time judge on FOX's filmmaking-competition reality television series On the Lot.
Fisher wrote and performed in her one-woman play Wishful Drinking at the Geffen Playhouse in Los Angeles from November 7, 2006, to January 14, 2007. Her show played at the Berkeley Repertory Theater through April 2008, followed by performances in San Jose, California, in July 2008, Hartford Stage in August 2008 before moving on to the Arena Stage in Washington, D.C., in September 2008 and Boston in October 2008. Fisher published her autobiographical book, also titled Wishful Drinking, based on her successful play in December 2008 and embarked on a media tour. On April 2, 2009, Fisher returned to the stage with her play at the Seattle Repertory Theatre with performances through May 9, 2009. On October 4, 2009, Wishful Drinking then opened on Broadway in New York at Studio 54 and played an extended run until January 17, 2010. In December 2009, Fisher's audiobook recording of her best-selling memoir, Wishful Drinking, earned her a nomination for a 2009 Grammy Award in the Best Spoken Word Album category.
Fisher joined Turner Classic Movies host Robert Osborne on Saturday evenings for The Essentials with informative and entertaining conversation on Hollywood's best films. She guest-starred in the episode titled "Sex and Another City" from season 3 of Sex and the City with Sarah Jessica Parker. This episode also featured Vince Vaughn, Hugh Hefner, and Sam Seder in guest roles. On October 25, 2007, Fisher guest-starred as Rosemary Howard on the second season episode of 30 Rock called "Rosemary's Baby", for which she received an Emmy Award nomination. Her last line in the show was a spoof from Star Wars: "Help me Liz Lemon, You're my only hope!" On April 28, 2008, she was a guest on Deal or No Deal. In 2008, she also had a cameo as a doctor in the Star Wars-related comedy Fanboys.
In 2010, HBO aired a feature-length documentary based on a special live performance of Fisher's Wishful Drinking stage production. Fisher also appeared on the seventh season of Entourage in the summer of 2010.
In August 2013, she was selected as a member of the main competition jury at the 2013 Venice Film Festival.
Return to Star Wars
In an interview posted March 2013, Fisher said she would reprise her role as Princess Leia in Star Wars Episode VII, "Elderly. She’s in an intergalactic old folks’ home [laughs]. I just think she would be just like she was before, only slower and less inclined to be up for the big battle." After other media outlets reported this on March 6, 2013, her representative said the same day Fisher was joking and nothing has been announced.
On January 21, 2014, in an interview with TV Guide, Carrie Fisher confirmed her involvement and the involvement of the original cast in the upcoming sequels by saying "as for the next Star Wars film, myself, Harrison Ford and Mark Hamill are expected to report to work in March or April. I'd like to wear my old cinnamon buns hairstyle again but with white hair. I think that would be funny."
In March 2014, Fisher stated that she was moving to London for six months because that was where filming would take place. She also confirmed she would try to get in better shape for the role.
On April 29, 2014, the cast for Star Wars Episode VII was officially announced, and Fisher, along with original trilogy castmates Harrison Ford, Mark Hamill, Peter Mayhew, Anthony Daniels, and Kenny Baker have all been cast in their original roles for the upcoming film. New castmates include Andy Serkis, Domhnall Gleeson, Adam Driver, Oscar Isaac, John Boyega, Daisy Ridley, and Max von Sydow. The as yet unsubtitled Star Wars Episode VII is slated for release worldwide on December 18, 2015.
Fisher was briefly engaged to Canadian actor and comedian Dan Aykroyd, who proposed on the set of their film The Blues Brothers in 1980. She has stated: "We had rings, we got blood tests, the whole shot. But then I got back together with Paul Simon." Fisher dated musician Paul Simon from 1977 until 1983 and was then married to him from August 1983 to July 1984. They dated again for a time after their divorce. During their marriage, she appeared in Simon's music video for the song "Rene and Georgette Magritte with Their Dog after the War". Simon's song "Hearts and Bones" is about their relationship.
Subsequently, she had a relationship with Creative Artists Agency principal and casting agent Bryan Lourd. They had one child together, Billie Catherine Lourd (born July 17, 1992). Eddie Fisher states in his autobiography (Been There Done That) his granddaughter's name is Catherine Fisher Lourd and her nickname is "Billy". The couple's relationship ended when Lourd left to be in a relationship with another man. Though Fisher has described Lourd as her second husband in interviews, according to a 2004 profile of the actress and writer, she and Lourd were never legally married.
Fisher also had a close relationship with James Blunt. While working on his album Back to Bedlam in 2003, Blunt spent much of his time at Fisher's residence. Vanity Fair's George Wayne wanted Fisher to explain if their relationship was sexual. Fisher dismissed the suggestion: "Absolutely not, but I did become his therapist. He was a soldier. This boy has seen awful stuff. Every time James hears fireworks or anything like that, his heart beats faster, and he gets 'fight or flight.' You know, he comes from a long line of soldiers dating back to the 10th century. He would tell me these horrible stories. He was a captain, a reconnaissance soldier. I became James’s therapist. So it would have been unethical to sleep with my patient."
On February 26, 2005, R. Gregory "Greg" Stevens, a lobbyist, was found dead in Fisher's California home due to an overdose of OxyContin compounded by obstructive sleep apnea. In an interview, Fisher claimed that Stevens's ghost haunted her mansion, which unsettled her: "I was a nut for a year", she explained, "and in that year I took drugs again."
Fisher has described herself as an "enthusiastic agnostic who would be happy to be shown that there is a God". She was raised Protestant, but often attends Jewish services, the faith of her father, with Orthodox friends. She was a spokesperson for Jenny Craig, Inc. television ads that aired in January 2011.
Bipolar disorder and drug problems
Fisher has publicly discussed her problems with drugs, her struggle with bipolar disorder, and her overcoming an addiction to prescription medication, most notably on ABC's 20/20 and The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive with Stephen Fry for the BBC. She discussed her 2008 memoir Wishful Drinking and various topics in it with Matt Lauer on NBC's Today on December 10, 2008 and also revealed that she would have turned down the role of Leia Organa had she realized it would give her the celebrity status that made her parents' lives difficult. This interview was followed by a similar appearance on The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson on December 12, 2008, where she discussed her electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatments. She has said that she receives ECT every six weeks to "blow apart the cement" in her brain.
While she was in Sydney, Australia, Fisher revealed in another interview that she had a cocaine addiction during the filming of The Empire Strikes Back, and also survived an overdose. "Slowly, I realized I was doing a bit more drugs than other people and losing my choice in the matter", she said in an interview.
|1977||Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope||Princess Leia Organa|
|1977||Come Back, Little Sheba||Marie||Videotaped TV drama|
|1978||Leave Yesterday Behind||Marnie Clarkson||TV movie|
|1978||Star Wars Holiday Special||Princess Leia Organa||TV movie|
|1980||Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back||Princess Leia Organa|
|1980||Blues Brothers, TheThe Blues Brothers||Mystery Woman|
|1981||Under the Rainbow||Annie Clark|
|1982||Laverne & Shirley||Cathy||TV series, episode: "The Playboy Show"|
|1983||Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi||Princess Leia Organa|
|1984||Faerie Tale Theatre||Thumbelina||TV series, episode: "Thumbelina"|
|1984||Garbo Talks||Lisa Rolfe|
|1985||From Here to Maternity||Veronica||TV short|
|1985||Man with One Red Shoe, TheThe Man with One Red Shoe||Paula|
|1985||George Burns Comedy Week||TV series, episode: "The Couch"|
|1985||Happily Ever After||Alice Conway||Voice only, TV movie|
|1986||Hannah and Her Sisters||April|
|1986||Hollywood Vice Squad||Betty Melton|
|1986||Liberty||Emma Lazarus||TV movie|
|1986||Sunday Drive||Franny Jessup||TV movie|
|1987||Amazing Stories||Laurie McNamara||TV series, episode: "Gershwin's Trunk"|
|1987||Amazon Women on the Moon||Mary Brown||segment "Reckless Youth"|
|1987||Time Guardian, TheThe Time Guardian||Petra|
|1988||Appointment with Death||Nadine Boynton|
|1989||The 'burbs||Carol Peterson|
|1989||Two Daddies||Alice Conway||Voice only, TV movie|
|1989||When Harry Met Sally...||Marie|
|1989||Trying Times||Enid||TV series, episode: "Hunger Chic"|
|1990||Sibling Rivalry||Iris Turner-Hunter|
|1991||Drop Dead Fred||Janie|
|1991||Soapdish||Betsy Faye Sharon|
|1991||Hook||Woman kissing on bridge||Uncredited role|
|1992||This Is My Life||Claudia Curtis|
|1994||Super Star Wars: Return of the Jedi||Princess Leia||Video game|
|1995||Present Tense, Past Perfect||TV short|
|1995||Frasier||Phyllis||TV series, episode "Phyllis", voice only|
|1997||Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery||Therapist||Uncredited role|
|1997||Gun||Nancy||TV series, episode: "The Hole"|
|1998||Dr. Katz, Professional Therapist||Roz Katz||TV series, episode: "Thanksgiving"|
|1999||Return of the Ewok||short subject, filmed in 1983|
|2000||Sex and the City||Herself||TV series, episode: "Sex and Another City"|
|2001||These Old Broads||Hooker||TV movie|
|2001||Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back||Nun|
|2002||Midsummer Night's Rave, AA Midsummer Night's Rave|
|2002||Nero Wolfe Mystery, AA Nero Wolfe Mystery||Ellen Tenzer||TV series, two-part episode: "Motherhunt"|
|2003||Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle||Mother Superior|
|2003||Good Morning, Miami||Judy Silver||TV series, episode: "A Kiss Before Lying"|
|2004||Jack & Bobby||Madison Skutcher||TV series, episode: "The First Lady"|
|2005||Smallville||Pauline Kahn||TV series, episode: "Thirst"|
|2005||Romancing the Bride||Edwina||TV movie|
|2005–present||Family Guy||Angela||TV series, episodes: "Jungle Love",
"The Courtship of Stewie's Father",
"Hell Comes to Quahog",
"Whistle While Your Wife Works",
"It Takes a Village Idiot, and I Married One",
"Tales of a Third Grade Nothing",
"Baby, You Knock Me Out",
"Road to the North Pole",
"Friends of Peter G.",
"It's a Trap!"
"Into Harmony's Way"
|2007||Suffering Man's Charity||Reporter|
|2007||Cougar Club||Glady Goodbey|
|2007||Odd Job Jack||Dr. Finch||TV series, episode: "The Beauty Beast"|
|2007||Weeds||Celia's attorney||TV series, episode: "The Brick Dance"|
|2007||Side Order of Life||Dr. Gilbert||TV series, episode:" Funeral for a Phone"|
|2007||30 Rock||Rosemary Howard||TV series, episode: "Rosemary's Baby"|
|2008||Women, TheThe Women||Bailey Smith|
|2008||Robot Chicken: Star Wars Episode II||Princess Leia, Mon Mothma, Krayt Dragon's Mother||TV movie, voice only|
|2008||Bring Back... Star Wars||Herself||One-off TV episode|
|2009||Sorority Row||Mrs. Crenshaw|
|2010||Wright vs. Wrong||Joan Harrington||TV movie|
|2010||Entourage||Anna Fowler||TV series, episode "Tequila and Coke"|
|2010||Family Guy||Mon Mothma||TV series, episode: "It's a Trap", voice only|
|2010||A Quiet Word With ...||Herself||Australian TV conversation series, season 1, episode 2|
|2011||The Talk||Herself||TV series, November 15|
|2012||It's Christmas, Carol!||Eve||Hallmark TV movie|
|2012||Comedy Central Roast||Herself||The Roast of Roseanne Barr|
|2014||Maps to the Stars||Herself||Post-Production|
|2014||The Big Bang Theory||Herself|
|2014||QI||Herself||Filmed, Yet to be Broadcast|
|2015||Star Wars: Episode VII||Princess Leia Organa Solo||Filming|
- Postcards from the Edge, 1987, ISBN 0-7434-6651-9
- Surrender the Pink, 1990, ISBN 0-671-66640-1
- Delusions of Grandma, 1993, ISBN 0-684-85803-7
- Hollywood Moms, 2001, (introduction)
- The Best Awful There Is, 2004, ISBN 0-7434-7857-6
- Postcards from the Edge, 1990
- These Old Broads, 2001
- E-Girl (2007)
- doctored screenplays for Hook (1991), Sister Act (1992) and The Wedding Singer (1998)
- Byrne, James Patrick. Coleman, Philip. King, Jason Francis. Ireland and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: A Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia. Volume 2. P. 804. ABC-CLIO, 2008. ISBN 978-1-85109-614-5.
- de Vries, Hilary (April 24, 1994). "Q & A Hollywood Times Three Debbie Reynolds and Carrie Fisher discuss Hollywood families, not-so-fictional novels—and baby Billie's there to chaperone". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 7, 2010. "I was raised Protestant but I'm half-Jewish—the wrong half."
- Carrie Fisher's Wild Ride[dead link], Baltimore Jewish Times
- 'Jewish Sinatra' tells all, Jewish News of Greater Phoenix, October 15, 1999
- Mike Douglas Show, Jul 20, 1977 - Carrie Fisher talks about quitting high school
- Wayne, George (November 2006). "The Princess Diaries". Vanity Fair. "I would be remiss if I didn’t ask how you ended up in Star Wars. I slept with some nerd. I hope it was George. You weren’t sure? No … I took too many drugs to remember"
- Needles, Tim. "Carrie Fisher Dishes on Her Career, Her One-Woman Show Wishful Drinking, and More". Short and Sweet NYC. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- "You're Sixteen – Ringo Starr". YouTube. February 28, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
- "The Official Ringo Starr Site". Ringostarr.com. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
- Carrie Fisher Biography Yahoo Movies. Retrieved December 12, 2008.[dead link]
- Interview with Josh Horowitz The Inner View – Carrie Fisher. MoviePoopShoot, February 27, 2004. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
- Waxman, Sharon (November 15, 2006). "Comedic Postscripts From the Edge". The New York Times. Retrieved March 14, 2007.
- "Berkeley Repertory Theatre". Berkeleyrep.org. April 12, 2008. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
- Carrie Fisher Stars in Wishful Drinking at Hartford Stage Hartford Stage : Media. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
- Wishful Drinking listing arenastage.org. Retrieved July 12, 2009.
- Tench, Megan (October 5, 2008). "Boston Globe". Boston Globe. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
- Wishful Drinking listing seattlerep.org
- Brantley, Ben (October 5, 2009). "Just Me and My Celebrity Shadows". The New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2009.
- BroadwayWorld Newsdesk (December 17, 2009). "Debbie Reynolds Joins Daughter Carrie Fisher On Stage in WISHFUL DRINKING". Broadwayworld.com. Retrieved December 29, 2009.
- Grammy (December 3, 2009). "52nd Grammy Awards Nominees". Grammy.com. Retrieved December 3, 2009.
- Carrie Fisher Emmy Award Winner
- "Carrie Fisher to Team Up with HBO for Wishful Drinking Special; Appear on Entourage". TVGuide.com.
- "QI - Christmas Special: Episode Fourteen". British Comedy Guide.
- Pfaff, Jennifer. "Q&A with Carrie Fisher". Palm Beach Illustrated (Florida). Archived from the original on March 7, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- "Carrie Fisher as an 'elderly' Princess Leia? Not so fast". CNN. March 6, 2013. Archived from the original on March 7, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- "Keck's Exclusives First Look: Carrie Fisher Visits Legit and Big Bang". TVGuide.com. January 20, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Niles, Jon (March 10, 2014). "'Star Wars 7' Casting News, Rumors: Carrie Fisher plans for London filming schedule, confirms Princess Leia reprisal in 'Episode VII'". mstarz.com. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Knight Jr., Richard. "Celebrity Interview: Carrie Fisher's razorlike wit dissects her various realities". Chicago Tribune, December 19, 2008.
- The open Paul Simon biography
- Avins, Mimi (January 25, 2004). "Carrie Fisher takes reality for a spin". Los Angeles Times,. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
- "The Princess Diaries | Culture". Vanity Fair. October 20, 2009. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
- Halbfinger, David M.; McDougal, Dennis (April 26, 2005). "The Mystery of Hollywood's Dead Republican". The New York Times. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- Q&A by George Wayne (October 20, 2009). "The Princess Diaries | Culture". Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
- "spirituality: page 2". Talentdevelop.com. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
- "j. – Been there, drank that: Carrie Fisher’s solo play swills it all". Jewishsf.com. January 31, 2008. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
- "Valerie Bertinelli: I Would Love to Flaunt Bikini Bod With Carrie Fisher". NBC. January 24, 2011. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
- "Carrie Fisher: I wish I’d turned down ‘Star Wars’". MSNBC. December 10, 2008. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
- "The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson: Carrie Fisher/Julie Benz". TV.com. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
- "Carrie Fisher: Electroshock Therapy Helps My Whacked Psyche" US Magazine, February 16, 2011.
- "Carrie Fisher: I did so much cocaine on Star Wars set that even John Belushi told me I had a problem". Daily Mail (London). October 12, 2010.
- Purdie, Ross (October 12, 2010). "Princess Leia actress Carrie Fisher did cocaine on set of The Empire Strikes Back". AAP.
- Carrie Fisher: Not an Icon Retrieved March 5, 2012
- "A Quiet Word With Carrie Fisher". Official site. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
- Carrie Fisher Biography Yahoo! Movies
- Wishfull Drinking San Jose Repertory Theatre, archived on December 1, 2008 from the original
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carrie Fisher.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Carrie Fisher|
- Official website
- Carrie Fisher at the Internet Movie Database
- Carrie Fisher at the Internet Broadway Database
- Carrie Fisher at the TCM Movie Database
- Carrie Fisher at AllMovie
- Working the Edge, a 1990 Entertainment Weekly cover story profiling Fisher
- Works by or about Carrie Fisher in libraries (WorldCat catalog)