Carl Gustav recoilless rifle
|Carl Gustav Recoilless Rifle|
A Carl Gustav recoilless rifle of the Norwegian Army, on display in September 2010.
|Type||Multi-role (anti-armor, anti-fortification, anti-personnel, illumination)|
|Place of origin||Sweden|
|Used by||See Users|
War in Afghanistan
Eelam War IV
Libyan civil war
Syrian civil war
2013 Lahad Datu standoff
|Designer||Hugo Abramson, Sigfrid Akselson and Harald Jentzen|
|Manufacturer||Saab Bofors Dynamics (formerly Bofors Anti-Armour AB), Howa (license)|
|Weight||Rifle: 8.5 kg (19 lb)
Mount: 0.8 kg (1.8 lb)
|Length||Overall: 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in)|
|Crew||Two (gunner and loader), but may be used by a single operator at a reduced rate of fire.|
|Cartridge||84×246 mm R|
|Caliber||84 mm (3.31 inches)|
|Rate of fire||6 rounds per minute|
|Muzzle velocity||230–255 m/s (750–840 ft/s)|
|Feed system||Hinged breech|
|Sights||Open (iron) sights; optical 3×; laser rangefinder; image intensification system|
The Carl Gustav (also Carl-Gustaf and M2CG; pronounced "Carl Gustaf"[needs IPA]) is a 84 mm man-portable reusable multi-role recoilless rifle produced by Saab Bofors Dynamics (formerly Bofors Anti-Armour AB) in Sweden. The first prototype of the Carl Gustaf was produced in 1946, and while similar weapons of the era have generally disappeared, the Carl Gustaf remains in widespread use today.
In its country of origin it is officially named Grg m/48 (Granatgevär or grenade rifle, model 48). British troops refer to it as the Charlie G, while Canadian troops often refer to it as the 84, Carl G or Carlo. In U.S. military service it is known as the M3 Multi-role Anti-armor Anti-tank Weapon System (MAAWS) or Ranger Antitank Weapons System (RAWS), but is often called the Gustav or the Goose or simply the Carl Johnson by U.S. soldiers. In Australia it is irreverently known as Charlie Gusto or Charlie Gutsache (guts ache, slang for stomach pain).
The Carl Gustav was developed by Hugo Abramson and Harald Jentzen at the Royal Swedish Arms Administration (KAFT) and produced at Carl Gustav Stads Gevärsfaktori from where it derives its name. The weapon was first introduced into Swedish service in 1948 as the 8,4 cm Granatgevär m/48 (Grg m/48), filling the same anti-tank role as the U.S. Army's Bazooka, British PIAT and German Panzerschreck. Unlike these weapons, however, the Carl Gustav used a rifled barrel for spin-stabilizing its rounds, as opposed to fins used by the other systems.
The use of the recoilless firing system allowed the Carl Gustav to use ammunition containing considerably more propellant, firing its rounds at 290 m/s, as opposed to about 105 m/s for the Panzerschreck and Bazooka and about 75 m/s for the PIAT. The result was superior accuracy at longer ranges. The Carl Gustav can be used to attack larger stationary targets at up to 700 m, but the relatively low speed of the projectile restricts attacks on moving targets to a range of 400 m or less.
The Carl Gustav was soon sold around the world and became one of the primary squad-level anti-tank weapons for many West European armies. An improved version (M2) was introduced in 1964 and quickly replaced the original version. The current M3 version was introduced in 1991, using a thin steel liner containing the rifling, strengthened by a carbon fiber outer sleeve. External steel parts were replaced with aluminium alloys or plastics, reducing the empty weapon weight considerably—from 16.35 kg to 10 kg.
In recent years, the weapon has found new life in a variety of roles. The British Special Air Service, United States Special Forces and United States Army Rangers use M3s in bunker-busting and anti-vehicle roles, while the German Bundeswehr maintains a small number of M2s for battlefield illumination. Many armies continue to use it as a viable anti-armor weapon, especially against 1950s- and 1960s-era tanks and other armored vehicles still in use worldwide.
The Carl Gustav was used against Taliban defensive fortifications by soldiers of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry in operations in Afghanistan. They developed a new system for firing at night in which a spotter with a night-scope fires tracer ammunition to mark the target for the Carl Gustav gunner.
In November 2011, the U.S. Army began ordering the M3 MAAWS for regular units deployed in Afghanistan. Soldiers were being engaged with RPGs at 900 meters, while their light weapons had effective ranges of 500–600 meters. The Carl Gustaf allows airburst capability of troops in defilade out to 1,250 meters, and high explosive use out to 1,300 meters. While the weapon provides enhanced effectiveness, its 21 pound weight burdens troops. On 28 March 2013, USSOCOM announced a call for sources to develop a kit to lighten the M3 MAAWS. A minimum of 3 lbs must be cut, with a desired reduction of 5 lbs. A 3 inch reduction in overall length is also sought. The reductions must not affect the weapon's center of gravity or ruggedness, including air delivery and salt water submersion. A kit with production configuration is to be delivered within 16 months. Saab has developed a weight-reduced version prior to the SOCOM release. It weighs approximately 15 lbs and is 2 inches shorter. Live fire tests have demonstrated no decrease in performance, no increase in recoil, and nearly equivalent barrel life. It will be ready for government testing in 2014. Saab has also developed a new high explosive round that has a direct fire range of 1500 meters when using a fire control system.
The basic weapon consists of the main tube with the breech-mounted Venturi recoil damper, with two grips near the front and a shoulder mount. The weapon is fitted with iron sights, but is normally aimed with the attached 3x optical sight with a 17 degree (300 mrad) field of view. The most modern variants fielded to Swedish rifle companies have been fitted with the Swedish aimpoint sighting system. Luminous front and rear sight inserts are available for the iron sights when aiming at night, and an image intensification system may also be used.
The Carl Gustav can be fired from the standing, kneeling, sitting or prone positions, and a bipod may be attached in front of the shoulder piece. An operating handle called the "Venturi lock" is used to move the hinged breech to one side for reloading. The weapon is normally operated by a two-man crew, one carrying and firing the weapon, the other carrying ammunition and reloading.
- Calibre: 84 mm rifled (24 lands, progressive twist)
- Crew: 2 optimal, 1 minimal
- Weights: 14.2 kg (M2); 8.5 kg (M3); 0.8 kg (mount)
- Length: 1.065 m
- Breech: Hinged
- Rate of fire: 6 rounds per minute
- Sights: Iron sights, optical 3x, laser rangefinder, image intensification system
The M3 Multi-role Anti-armor Anti-tank Weapon System (MAAWS) is the U.S. military designation for the Carl Gustaf M3 recoilless rifle. It is primarily used by USSOCOM forces such as the Army Special Forces, 75th Ranger Regiment, Navy SEALS, Delta Force, DEVGRU and MARSOC. When in use with the 75th Ranger Regiment it is known as the Ranger Anti-tank Weapons System (RAWS).
In the late 1980s, the Special Operations Forces Modernization Action Plan indicated need for a Ranger Anti-Armor/Anti-Personnel Weapon System (RAAWS) to replace the M67 recoilless rifle in use by the 75th Ranger Regiment. A market survey in 1987 indicated that the Carl Gustaf M3 was the best candidate for satisfying RAAWS requirements. On 29 September 1988, the M3 was selected as the RAAWS from candidate proposals submitted in response to the market survey compiled by ARDEC. A subsequent review of the contractor-supplied fatigue test data determined that the data did not meet U.S. Army requirements. Benét Laboratories conducted fatigue test of 2 tubes to establish an interim safe service life for the weapon. Tests were conducted in 1993. The manufacturer’s recommended life for the weapon was 500 rounds, but bore surfaces showed no indications of erosion until 2,360 rounds. The U.S. Navy SEALs became interested in the program and moved it to a Joint Integrated Product Team. The program name subsequently changed from the RAAWS to the Multi-Role Anti-Armor/Anti-Personnel Weapon System (MAAWS).
The M3 MAAWS fires the following ammunition:
- High Explosive Dual Purpose (HEDP) round
- High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) round
- High Explosive (HE) round
- Illumination round
- Smoke round
- Area Defence Munition (ADM) flechette round
In late 2012, the Army fielded 58 M3s and 1,500 rounds of ammunition to units deployed to Afghanistan to destroy enemy targets out to 1,000 meters. This was because RPG and machine gun teams could attack 900 meters away, while existing weaponry like the M141 Bunker Defeat Munition, M72 LAW, M136 AT-4 and MK153 SMAW had effective ranges of only 500 meters. The AT-4 is lighter and cheaper but is made of reinforced fiberglass, while the M3's rifled metal/carbon fiber launch tube allows for reloading. Employing the 22 lb M3 is easier than the 50 lb FGM-148 Javelin with its launcher with missile and reusable command launch unit, is faster than waiting on mortars, and is cheaper than the Javelin and artillery shells for engaging targets in hard cover.
Improvements to the ammunition have been continual. While the older HEAT rounds are not particularly effective against modern tank armor, the weapon has found new life as a bunker-buster with an HEDP round. In addition, improved HEAT, high explosive (HE), smoke and illumination (star shell or flare) ammunition is also available. For full effectiveness, illumination rounds have to be fired at a very high angle, creating a danger for the gunner as the backblast from firing can burn him. For this reason several armies have retired the illumination rounds, while the U.S. Army requires that they be fired from a standing position.
Note that the following are Canadian designations (other countries use similar terminology, replacing the "FFV")
- FFV441 is an HE round, useful in a "lobbed" trajectory to 1,000m, which can be fused to either detonate on impact or as an airburst.
- FFV441B is an HE round with an effective range against personnel in the open of 1,100 m. The round arms after 20 to 70 m of flight, weighs 3.1 kg, and is fired at a muzzle velocity of 255 m/s.
- FFV469 is a smoke round fired like the FFV441, with a range of about 1,300 m. The 3.1 kg round is also fired at 255 m/s.
- FFV502 is an HEDP round with the ability to be set to detonate either on impact or one-tenth of a second afterwards. Effective range is 1,000 m against dispersed soft targets such as infantry in the open, 500 m against stationary targets and 300 m against moving targets. Minimum range is 15 to 40 m to arm the warhead. Penetration exceeds 150 mm of rolled homogeneous armour (RHA). Ammunition weight is 3.3 kg and muzzle velocity is 230 m/s.
- FFV545 is an illuminating star shell, fired up to 2,300 m maximum range, but with an effective envelope of 300 to 2,100 m. Suspended by parachute, the star shell burns for 30 seconds while producing 650,000 candela, providing a 400 to 500 m diameter area of illumination.
- FFV551 is the primary HEAT round and is a rocket-assisted projectile (RAP). Effective range is up to 700 m (400 m against moving targets) and penetration up to 400 mm of RHA. Ammunition weight is 3.2 kg and muzzle velocity is 255 m/s.
- FFV552 is a practice round with the same ballistics as the 551.
- FFV651 is a newer HEAT round using mid-flight rocket assistance for ranges up to 1,000m. In theory, it has less penetration than the FFV551, but it includes a stand-off probe for the fuse to improve performance against reactive armour.
- FFV751 is a tandem-warhead HEAT round with an effective range of 500 m and ability to penetrate more than 500 mm of armour. Weight is 4 kg.
- Australia: M2 replaced by M3 variant.
- Burkina Faso
- Czech Republic
- Denmark: M2 called M/79, M3 called M/85. Commonly referred to as "Dysekanon" in the army.
- Estonia: M2, M3.
- India: A modified version has also been developed by the DRDO which is significantly lighter due to use of advanced composites.
- Indonesia: Used by the Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group and Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group.
- Japan: M2 called 84 mm Recoilless Rifle., M3 called multi-purpose gun (多用途ガン)'
- Lithuania: Lithuanian Armed Forces.
- Myanmar: Used by divisional heavy weapon companies in bunker busting/infantry support/light artillery role for counter-insurgency campaigns.
- New Zealand
- Pakistan: Used by the Pakistan Army.
- Poland: Used by special forces.
- Portugal: Used by the Portuguese armed forces.
- Sierra Leone
- Tamil Eelam: Used by the Tamil Tigers during the Final Eelam War.
- United Arab Emirates
- United Kingdom: M2 variant was used from the 1970s until the early 1990s.
- United States of America: Used by USSOCOM, U.S. Army Ranger battalions and some regular U.S. Army infantry units in the War in Afghanistan.
- Panzerfaust (Nazi German, 1943, man-portable)
- Panzerfaust 3(German, man-portable)
- RPG-2 (USSR, 1947 , man-portable)
- 55 S 55 (Finland, 1947, man-portable)
- M40 recoilless rifle (USA, 1947 , tripod mounted)
- B-10 recoilless rifle (USSR, 1954 , tripod mounted)
- "84mm無反動砲「カール・グスタフ」" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2009-11-04.
- "Exhibision (sic) of Equipments". Retrieved on July 29, 2008.
- Navy News - The Falklands Conflict - 3rd April 1982 - The Defence of Grytviken.
- SOCOM Seeks Lighter Carl Gustaf - Defensemedianetwork.com, 22 April 2013
- OPFOR Worldwide Equipment Guide, U.S. Army TRADOC DCSINT Threat Support Directorate, January 1999.
- Saab to Supply Carl-Gustaf 84mm Recoilless Rifle System to the U.S. Army - SAdefensejournal.com, 19 June 2013
- Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
- "DIRECT FIRE SUPPORT WEAPONS LAND 40 PHASE 2". Defence Material Organisation. October 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- "Kopassus & Kopaska - Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- "Pakistan Army".
- Owen, William F. (2007). "Light Anti-Armour Weapons: Anti-Everything?". http://asianmilitaryreview.com - Asian Military Review. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- THE WORLD DEFENCE ALMANAC 1996-97 page 32
- Robinson, Spc Nigel (2011-10-27). "Carl Gustav Recoilless Rifle". 7th Mobile Public Affairs Detachment. Defense Video and Imagery Distribution System. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- US Army Orders Additional Carl-Gustaf Weapon System - Defensetalk.com, 27 September 2012
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carl Gustaf.|
- Saabs Bofors - manufacturer's product page
- Instructors Manual - Canadian Forces
- Video of loading and firing drill for Carl Gustaf recoilless rifle
- Video of a Carl Gustaf recoilless rifle being fired
- M3 MAAWS at GlobalSecurity.org
- Carl Gustaf antitank recoilless rifle (Sweden) - Modern Firearms