Carl Johan Cronstedt

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Carl Johan Cronstedt
CarlJohanCronstedt.jpg
Eighteenth century sketch
Born (1709-04-25)25 April 1709
Stockholm, Sweden
Died 9 November 1779
Stockholm, Sweden
Occupation Architect, inventor
Known for Swedish architect
Spouse(s) Countess Eva Margareta Lagerberg
Parents James Cronstedt (Olderman) / Margareta Beata Grundel

Carl Johan Cronstedt was a Swedish architect, inventor, Earl, noble, civil servant, scientist and bibliophile.[1][2]

Biography[edit]

Cronstedt "Coat of Arms"

Cronstedt was the son of Jakob Cronstedt (Olderman) and Margareta Beata Grundel. He was born in 1709 in Stockholm, Sweden.[2] He married Countess Eva Margareta Lagerberg in 1744.[2]

Cronstedt became a pupil of Christopher Polhem in 1729 and in 1733 was his apprentice.[2] He studied civil engineering under Carl Hårleman and in 1743 became his successor as superintendent.[2] He had this post to 1767 and carried out work at the following,

Drottningholm Palace in the 1740s following Hårleman's architectial drawings.[2]
Maria Magdalena Church restoration in Stockholm after the 1759 fire.[2]
Construction of the new Amiralitetskyrkan in Karlskrona in 1760.[2]
Involved in the construction of Drottningholmsteatern 1764 to 1765.[2]
Did various town plans and park designs with Kasko being 1765 example.[3]
Did the drawings to Saint Olai Church in Liverpool which opened in 1767.[2]

Positions[edit]

  • 1767 - President in Kammarrevisionen.[2]
  • 1769 - President in Kammarkollegium.[2]

Inventor[edit]

Kakelugn - tiled stove technology 1767 design by Carl Johan Cronstedt.
Main article: Masonry heater

In the mid-eighteenth century Cronstedt, working together with Fabian Wrede, increased the efficiency of the wood-burning stove roughly eightfold with a new technology and invention.[1][4][5][6] Their 1767 redesign of the traditional wood-burning stove directed the smoke and heated gases through long flues that wound up and down inside the stove. The stove and its flues were built of special masonry bricks that captured, and then radiated, more heat from the burning process.[1][4][5][6] The new technology changed the pattern designs of large interior building space for residences and other public buildings.[1][4][5][6] It allowed more rooms to be heated with the same amount of firewood.[1][4][5][6] It had significant social and economical consequences throughout Sweden and later throughout Europe and America up into the twentieth century.[1][4][5][6] Cronstedt's invention had significant environmental significance as well because it saved forests from excess usage.[4]

Cronstedt showed how in a ceramic designed wood burning stove that much more additional heat could be captured in a heavily tiled system of five long internal flues.[1][4] The innovation of his masonry stove system captured the heat from only periodic burning of wood. It would then spread out that heat over a longer period for a fairly constant temperature.[1][4] Because of this it only needed to be lit in the mornings and in the evenings.[1][4] This type of residential (or interior space) heating system is sometimes referred to as a kakelugn in a Swedish stove.[1][4] In England and America it is called a "tile stove" or masonry stove.[4] It is a type of "contra-flow stove" which the Chinese have made into a Kang bed-stove.[1]

Books written[edit]

Carl Johan Cronstedt's sketchbooks and notebooks from 1729.

Cronstedt wrote and had published several books. Among these were,

  • 1767 - On a new installation of stoves for firewood saving.

References[edit]

  • Carl Johan Cronstedts fullerösamling, Byggmästaren 1942, n. 9, p. 115-116
  • Okänd fransk konstnär:Arkitekten Carl Johan Cronstedt, Nationalmusei årsbok 1946, n.s. v. 16, p. 112
  • Carl Johan och F.A.U.:Cronstedts samlingar på det gamla Fullerö, Nationalmusei årsbok 1942/1943, n.s. v. 12, p. [39]-105
  • Hofberg, Herman, Heurlin, Frithiof, Millqvist, Viktor, Rubenson, Olof, Svenskt biografiskt handlexikon, 1906 - a source now in public domain.

Notes[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Quinn, Bradley et al., Scandinavian Style, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. 2003, ISBN 1-84091-325-8

External links[edit]