|Carl Albrecht Oberg|
Pierre Laval (on left) and Carl Oberg in Paris
|Born||27 January 1897
|Died||3 June 1965
|Sentenced to death by hanging, commuted to life imprison, later released.|
|Conviction(s)||Crimes against humanity|
General Carl Albrecht Oberg (27 January 1897 – 3 June 1965) was the Higher SS and Police Leader (HSSPF) of France during the Second World War. Oberg deported well over 40,000 Jews from France. After the war he was twice sentenced to death by two different courts. However, in 1958 the death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment and later reduced to 20 years hard labor. Oberg was pardoned and released on 28 November 1962.
He joined the NSDAP (Nazi Party) on 1 April 1931 and the SS on 7 April 1932. After meeting Reinhard Heydrich in May, 1933, he asked Heydrich for a job and joined the SD. Oberg was later promoted to an SS-Oberführer and made the police administrator for Hanover. He served in that capacity from September, 1938 until January 1939. Next, Oberg served as Police President of Zwickau until late 1941. He served as SS-und Polizeiführer (SS and Police Leader - SSPF), "Radom" from August 1941 to May, 1942. Oberg was promoted to SS-Brigadeführer on 20 April 1942.
From May 1942 to November 1944, Oberg served as Higher SS and Police Leader (Höherer SS-und Polizeiführer, HSSPF) "Frankreich" (France) over all German police forces in France, including the SD and Gestapo. He was the supreme authority in France for managing anti-Jewish policy and the battle against the French Resistance. He thus drove the rounding up of Jews in the Paris Velodrome d'Hiver ("la rafle du Vel d'hiv") in 1942. On Heydrich's orders, Oberg deported over 40,000 Jews from the country.
By 1943, however, he was resisting some of the orders issued by Himmler and Hitler. On January 18, Himmler demanded a cleansing of Marseilles with 100,000 arrests and explosive demolition of the city's crime district. Working with the French police, Oberg supervised a "minimalist" response of 6,000 arrests, 20,000 people displaced, and partial destruction of the harbour area. In 1944, Oberg blocked an attempt to establish an Einsatzkommando of the Waffen-SS in France.
Post-war trial, sentence, and reprieve
Oberg was arrested by the US military in June, 1945 and sentenced to death by a British court before receiving another death sentence from the French in October, 1954. In 1958, the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment by French President René Coty, and later reduced to 20 years hard labor. Oberg was pardoned and released on 28 November 1962.
Ranks and positions
- June 1935 - promoted to SS-Standartenführer.
- November 1935 - January 1937. Commander for 22.SS-Standarte, "Mecklenburg", in Schwerin.
- January 1937 - December 1938. Stabsführer for SS-Abschnitt IV, Hannover.
- September 1938 - January 1939. Police administrator for Hannover.
- January 1939 - September 1941. Police President for Zwickau.
- Spring 1942 - promoted to SS-Brigadeführer and Generalmajor der Polizei.
- August 1941 - May 1942. SS and Police Leader "Radom".
- May 1942 - November 1944. Higher SS and Police Leader "Frankreich".
- April 1943 - promoted to SS-Gruppenführer and Generalleutnant der Polizei.
- September 1944 - promoted to SS-Obergruppenführer.
- March 1945 - promoted to General der Waffen-SS.
- Yerger (1997), p 103.
- Yerger (1997), pp 51, 103.
- According to the Spartacus Educational Website, "Oberg was also responsible for applying the Final Solution in France. This action resulted in 75,000 Jews being deported from France to extermination camps in Nazi Germany and Poland." Simkin, Carl Oberg
- Longerich (2012), pp 650-653
- Time (1958).
- Yerger (1997), pp 103, 180-181.
- Yerger (1997), p 124.
- Yerger (1997), p 51.
- Yerger (1997), pp 55, 103.
- (German) Birn, Ruth Bettina, Die höheren SS- und Polizeiführer. Himmlers Vertreter im Reich und in den besetzten Gebieten Düsseldorf 1986 (Seite 252ff, 341)
- (German) Lappenküper, Ulrich Der "Schlächter von Paris". Carl-Albrecht Oberg als Höherer SS- und Polizeiführer in Frankreich (1942-1944) in: Deutschland und Frankreich im Krieg (Nov. 1942 - Herbst 1944). Okkupation, Kollaboration, Résistance Hg. S. Martens, M. Vaisse, Bonn: Bouvier, 2000 (Seite 129-143)
- (German) Die faschistische Okkupationspolitik in Frankreich (1940-1944) Dokumentenauswahl. Hg. und Einl. Ludwig Nestler. Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1990 (Orts-, Personenregister) ISBN 3-326-00297-1 (zahlreiche Einträge im Index)
- Simkin, John. "Carl Oberg: Nazi Germany". Spartacus Educational Website. Retrieved 20 February 2009.
- (German) Weiß, Hermann (Hrsg.): Biographisches Lexikon zum Dritten Reich, Frankfurt 2002 ISBN 3-596-13086-7
- Yerger, Mark C. (1997). Allgemeine-SS: Commands, Units and Leaders of the General SS. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 0-7643-0145-4.
- "Sparing the Butcher's Life". Time. 5 May 1958. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-965174-0.