|Group:||Group IV ((+)ssRNA)|
|Carnation latent virus
Carlavirus, also known as the "Carnation latent virus group", is a genus of virus that infects plants (plant pathogens), in the Betaflexiviridae family of single-stranded positive sense RNA plant viruses.
Carlavirus is described in the 9th report of the ICTV (2009). The genus is characterised by having six ORFs (Open Reading Frames) including a TGB (Triple Gene Block). The viruses are transmitted by insects.
The genus was first proposed in the first report of the ICTV in 1971, as the 'Carnation latent virus group' but was renamed in 1975 as the 'Carlavirus Group', and as the genus Carlavirus in 1995 (6th report). In 2005 (8th report) it was placed in the Flexiviridae family, having previously been unassigned. The current position in the 9th report (2009) as a genus of the Betaflexiviridae family derives from the subsequent subdivision of Flexiviridae.
- Aconitum latent virus
- American hop latent virus
- Blueberry scorch virus
- Butterbur mosaic virus
- Cactus virus 2
- Caper latent virus
- Carnation latent virus
- Chrysanthemum virus B
- Cole latent virus
- Coleus vein necrosis virus
- Cowpea mild mottle virus
- Cucumber vein-clearing virus
- Dandelion latent virus
- Daphne virus S
- Elderberry symptomless virus
- Garlic common latent virus
- Helenium virus S
- Helleborus mosaic virus
- Helleborus net necrosis virus
- Hippeastrum latent virus
- Honeysuckle latent virus
- Hop latent virus
- Hop mosaic virus
- Hydrangea chlorotic mottle virus
- Hydrangea latent virus
- Kalanchoë latent virus
- Ligustrum necrotic ringspot virus
- Lilac mottle virus
- Lily symptomless virus
- Melon yellowing-associated virus
- Mirabilis jalapa mottle virus
- Mulberry latent virus
- Muskmelon vein necrosis virus
- Narcissus common latent virus
- Nerine latent virus
syn. Narcissus symptomless virus
- Passiflora latent virus
- Pea streak virus
- Phlox virus B
- Phlox virus M
- Phlox virus S
- Poplar mosaic virus
- Potato latent virus
- Potato virus M
- Potato virus P
- Potato virus S
- Red clover vein mosaic virus
- Shallot latent virus
- Sint-Jan's onion latent virus
- Strawberry pseudo mild yellow edge virus
- Sweet potato C6 virus
- Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus
- Verbena latent virus
The virions are non enveloped, filamentous, 610–700 nanometers (nm) and 12–15 nm in diameter.
The linear 5.8–9 kilobase genome is positive sense, single-stranded RNA. The 3’ terminus is polyadenylated. In some species the 5’ end is capped. The genome encodes 3 to 6 proteins including a coat protein located at the 3' end and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase located at the 5' end of the genome.
Infection is at times spread by aphids in a semi-persistent mode, that is, the vector is infective for a number of hours.(Pimentel) Some species are transmitted by Bemisia tabaci in a semi-persistent mode or through the seed. Most species infect only a few hosts and cause infections with few or no symptoms, for example, American hop latent virus and lily symptomless virus. Some, such as blueberry scorch virus and poplar mosaic virus, cause serious illnesses. (Foster)
- King 2012.
- Adams, M. J.; Antoniw, J. F.; Bar-Joseph, M.; Brunt, A. A.; Candresse, T.; Foster, G. D.; Martelli, G. P.; Milne, R. G.; Fauquet, C. M. (2 May 2004). "Virology Division News: The new plant virus family Flexiviridae and assessment of molecular criteria for species demarcation". Archives of Virology 149 (5). doi:10.1007/s00705-004-0304-0. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- ICTV Virus Taxonomy: 2013 Release
- Astier S. Principles of Plant Virology p78
- Martelli, Giovanni P.; Saldarelli, Pasquale (2012). "Carlavirus". In Tidona, Christian; Gholamreza, Darai. The Springer index of viruses (2 ed.). New York, NY: Springer. pp. 521–532. ISBN 038795919X. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Astier, S. Principles of Plant Virology
- Foster, Gary. "Carlavirus Isolation and RNA Extraction." Foster, Gary D. and Sally C. Taylorin. Plant Virology Protocols: From Virus Isolation to Transgenic Resistance. Page 145. 1998. Humana Press. Online. February 13, 2008.
- Pimentel, David. Encyclopedia of Pest Management.Page 407. CRC Press. 2002. ISBN 0824706323/ Google Books. Online February 13, 2008.
- King, Andrew M. Q.; et al., eds. (2012). "Carlavirus". Virus taxonomy : classification and nomenclature of viruses : ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. London: Academic Press. p. 924. ISBN 0123846846. Retrieved 9 December 2014.