Carlo Maria Giulini
|Carlo Maria Giulini|
May 9, 1914|
|Died||June 14, 2005
Giulini was born in Barletta, Italy, to a father born in Lombardy and a mother born in Naples; but he was raised in Bolzano, which at the time of his birth was part of Austria (it was given to Italy in the Treaty of London (1915)). Therefore, most of the neighbors spoke a dialect of German, and the local music he heard tended to be Austrian/ Tyrolean. He recalled being transfixed by the town band.
Giulini was given a violin for Christmas in 1919, when he was five, and progressed rapidly with local instructors, notably a Bohemian violinist (and local pharmacist) whom he called "Brahms.":2 In 1928, the distinguished Italian violinist/composer Remy Principe (1889–1977) gave a recital in Bolzano, and auditioned Giulini; he invited Giulini to study with him at Italy's foremost conservatory, the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome. Giulini undertook his studies there two years later, at the age of 16. He studied viola with Principe, composition with Alessandro Bustini (1876–1970), and conducting with Bernardino Molinari.
At the age of 18, in order to supplement his family's income (which had been depleted by the Great Depression), he auditioned for the viola section of the Orchestra dell'Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, at the time Italy's foremost orchestra. He recalled crying for joy when informed that he had won the audition and would be the orchestra's last-desk violist.:5 Among the guest conductors he played under were Bruno Walter, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Richard Strauss, Victor de Sabata, Fritz Reiner, Pierre Monteux, Igor Stravinsky, and Otto Klemperer. His first public performance was the First Symphony of Brahms under Walter. Giulini told interviewers that he detested the dictatorial, often demeaning manner of Molinari, the orchestra's music director, but loved the gentle manner of Walter, who he said had a gift for making every musician feel important.
In 1940, Giulini won a conducting competition, whose prize was the chance to conduct the St. Cecilia orchestra, but before the concert, Giulini was drafted into the Italian army, made a second lieutenant, and sent to the front in Croatia. However, because of his commitment to pacifism and intense opposition to fascism and to Benito Mussolini, he did not fire his gun at human targets. In 1942, on a 30-day break in Rome, he married Marcella de Girolami (1921–1995), his girlfriend since 1938; they remained together until her death 53 years later. In September 1943, the Armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces was signed, but the Nazi occupation refused to abandon Rome, and Giulini's Italian commander ordered his troops to fight with the Nazis. Giulini chose instead to go into hiding, living for nine months in a tunnel underneath a home owned by his wife's uncle, along with two friends and a Jewish family which was avoiding Nazi arrest and deportation. Posters around Rome with his face and name instructed that he be shot on sight.:9-12
After the Allies liberated Rome on June 4, 1944, Giulini - who was among the few conductors not tainted by associations with Fascism - was chosen to lead the Accademia's first post-Fascist concert, held on July 16, 1944. On the program was the Brahms Symphony No. 4, which he had studied while in hiding. It became the work he conducted most frequently over the course of his career, with a total of 180 performances.:122
Giulini began working with the Chamber Orchestra of Rome in 1944, and was made its music director in 1946. He worked with Milan Radio from 1946 to 1954, and also with the RAI's Rome orchestra. He conducted a staged opera for the first time in 1950 in Bergamo - La traviata, with Maria Callas and Renata Tebaldi alternating in the role of Violetta. He also revived several obscure operas, including works by Alessandro Scarlatti. His work in Bergamo came to the attention of Arturo Toscanini, when the latter heard his radio broadcast of Debussy's La mer (not Haydn's Il mondo della luna as has often been reported). Toscanini asked to meet the young conductor, and the two men formed a deep bond. Toscanini recommended Giulini for the musical directorship at La Scala; Giulini had also won the attention and support of Victor de Sabata, the principal conductor of La Scala. Sabata suffered a heart attack in 1953 and left the position, which went to Giulini. Though highly admired, he resigned after members of the audience jeered Maria Callas during a run of operas from February, 16 to April 27, 1956.
In 1955 he had made his American debut with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, leading to a 23-year association with the orchestra; he was its Principal Guest Conductor from 1969 to 1972, although he continued to appear with them regularly until March 18, 1978. In 1956, he began his association with the Philharmonia Orchestra of London and the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden
In 1958, Giulini conducted a highly acclaimed production of Verdi's Don Carlos at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. During the 1960s, he was in great demand as a guest conductor of leading orchestras around the world, and made numerous well-received recordings with the Philharmonia Orchestra of London and several others.
After 1968 Giulini abandoned opera, not wanting to compromise his artistic vision, and concentrated on orchestral works. In addition to his role in Chicago, he was music director of the Vienna Symphony from 1973 to 1976. From 1978 to 1984, he served as principal conductor and Music Director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, launching his tenure there with performances of Beethoven's 9th Symphony. In 1982 he returned once more to opera, conducting a widely acclaimed production of Verdi's Falstaff with the Los Angeles Philharmonic.
Giulini's most notable opera recordings include the 1959 Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus versions of Mozart's operas The Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni for EMI, as well as his live 1955 recording of Verdi's La traviata with Maria Callas. He also made recordings of Verdi's Requiem and the Four Sacred Pieces, which were highly praised. Admired orchestral records include Debussy's La mer and Nocturnes, Dvořák's 9th Symphony and Tchaikovsky's 6th Symphony with the Philharmonia Orchestra, Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition, Brahms's 4th Symphony and Mahler's 1st and 9th symphonies with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Beethoven's 3rd and 5th Symphonies, and Schumann's 3rd Symphony with the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra, Mahler's Das Lied von der Erde with the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Brahms's four Symphonies, Bruckner's 7th, 8th and 9th symphonies with the Vienna Philharmonic, and Dvořák's 7th and 9th Symphonies with the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra of Amsterdam. Most of these discs were recorded for the Deutsche Grammophon label. His live recording of Britten's War Requiem made in the Royal Albert Hall in 1969 which is available as a BBC Legends recording was a Gramophone Award winner.
Awards and recognitions
- Gramophone Award
- Grammy Award for Best Choral Performance
- Grammy Award for Best Classical Album
- Grammy Award for Best Engineered Album, Classical
- Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist Performance
- Grammy Award for Best Orchestral Performance
- Honorary Member of the Royal Academy of Music (1972)
- "Carlo Maria Giulini: discography and concert register", by John Hunt, London, 2002 (en)
- "3 Italian conductors, 7 'Viennese' sopranos: discographies", by John Hunt, London 1991 (en)
- "Carlo Maria Giulini, 1914-2005", by T. Allen and A. Blyth, in: "Opera-London", vol. 56 n. 8, 2005, pp. 911–914 (en)
- "Carlo Maria Giulini", by Jean-Yves Bras, 2006, Bleu Nuit Editeur, ISBN 2-913575-81-1 (fr)
- "Carlo Maria Giulini", by Alessandro Zignani, 2009, Zecchini Editore, ISBN 978-88-87203-77-6 (it)
- "Carlo Maria Giulini", by Angelo Foletto, 1997, Edizioni San Paolo, ISBN - 88-215-3492-8 (it)
- "Concert in memory of Carlo Maria Giulini". Orchestra Filarmonica della Scala directed by Myung-whun Chung. Concert notes by Gian Mario Benzing. Milano, Teatro alla Scala, 24 April 2006 (it)
- Thomas D. Saler (2010). Serving Genius: Carlo Maria Giulini. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-03502-9. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "Carlo Maria Giulini Obituary". The Guardian. 2005-06-16. Retrieved 2007-04-13.
- "Carlo Maria Giulini, Master Italian Conductor, Dies at 91". The New York Times. 2005-06-16. Retrieved 2010-10-07.
- "1949-1959". Mapage.noos.fr. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- "Carlo Maria Giulini Obituary". Telegraph. 2005-06-16. Retrieved 2007-04-13.
- "1981 Gramophone Awards". Infoplease.com. 2007-01-11. Retrieved 2007-01-11.
- "Honours - About the Academy - About us - Royal Academy of Music". Ram.ac.uk. 1976-07-20. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- Carlo Maria Giulini at AllMusic
- Gramophone Award Listings, 1977–2002
- Complete Discography (French)
- Times article about Giulini
- Conducting the Los Angeles Philharmonic in the first movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony
Victor de Sabata
|Musical Directors, La Scala, Milan