Carlos A. Peres

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Carlos Augusto Peres
Born 1963
Belém, Brazil
Residence Norwich, UK
Citizenship Brazilian
Nationality Brazil Brazilian
Fields Tropical conservation biology
Institutions University of East Anglia, UK
Alma mater Federal University of Pará
Duke University, US
Cambridge University, UK
Known for Line transect studies
Tropical forest conservation
and Brazil-nut study
Notable awards "Environmentalist Leader
for the New Millennium" by
Time Magazine (2000) &
"Biodiversity Conservation
Leadership Award" (1995)

Carlos Augusto Peres (Portuguese: [ˈkahluz ɐwˈɡuʃtu ˈpɛɾiʃ]) is a Brazilian field biologist and conservation biologist who works in the Amazon and other neotropical forest regions on questions involving wildlife and biological conservation. His interests are in (i) the large-scale patterns of large-bodied vertebrate diversity and abundance in Amazonian forests; (ii) the effects of different forms on human disturbance, including hunting, habitat fragmentation and wildfires, on Amazonian forest vertebrates; and (iii) reserve selection and design criteria in relation to regional gradients of biodiversity value and implementation costs. He currently co-directs three research programs on natural resource management in eastern, southern and western Amazonia focusing on the ecology of natural and heavily modified landscapes and their role in the retention of biodiversity.

Short Biography[edit]

Born in Belém, Brazil, in 1963, Carlos Peres was exposed to Amazonian natural history from early childhood, and his father's ranch in eastern Pará, consisting largely of primary forest, became a playground. For the last 25 years he has been studying wildlife community ecology in Amazonian forests, the biological criteria for designing nature reserves, and the population ecology of resource management within and outside protected areas. He currently is involved in four conservation ecology research programs in different parts of Amazonia. He has published over 200 papers on neotropical forest ecology and conservation at scales ranging from single populations to entire regional landscapes. In 1995 he received a "Biodiversity Conservation Leadership Award," and in 2000 he was elected an "Environmentalist Leader for the New Millennium" by Time Magazine. He is currently (2009) a Full Professor at the University of East Anglia, UK, and divides his time between Norwich and fieldwork in the Brazilian Amazon.

Academic History[edit]



  • Peres, C.A. and A. Cunha. 2011. Line-Transect Censuses of Large-Bodied Tropical Forest Vertebrates: A Handbook. Wildlife Conservation Society, Brasília, Brazil [in Portuguese].
  • Newton, P., E. Nichols, W. Endo and C.A. Peres. 2011. Consequences of actor level livelihood heterogeneity for additionality in a tropical forest PES program with an undifferentiated reward structure. Global Environmental Change.
  • Newton, P. W. Endo and C.A. Peres. 2011. Determinants of livelihood strategy variation in two extractive reserves in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Environmental Conservation.
  • Palminteri, S. and C.A. Peres. 2011. Habitat selection and use of space by bald-faced sakis, Pithecia irrorata, in southwestern Amazonia: lessons learned from a multi-year, multi-group study. International Journal of Primatology.
  • Gibson, L. T.M. Lee, L.P. Koh, B.W. Brook, T.A. Gardner, J. Barlow, C.A. Peres, C.J.A. Bradshaw, W.F. Laurance, T.E. Lovejoy, N.S. Sodhi. 2011. Biodiversity value of degraded tropical forests: there is no substitute for primary forests
  • Peres, C.A. 2011. Conservation in Sustainable Use Tropical Forest Reserves. Conservation Biology (December 2011).
  • Peres, C.A. and M. Schneider. 2011. Subsidized agricultural resettlements as drivers of tropical deforestation. Biological Conservation.
  • Levi T, GH Shepard Jr, J Ohl-Schacherer, CC Wilmers, C.A. Peres, DW Yu. 2011. Spatial tools for modelling the sustainability of subsistence hunting in tropical forests. Ecological Applications 21:1802–1818
  • D.S. Wilkie, E.L. Bennett, C.A. Peres, Cunningham, A.A. 2011. The empty forest revisited. Annual Reviews of the New York Academy of Sciences 1223 :120–128
  • de las Heras; I. Lake; A. Lovett; C.A. Peres. 2011. Future deforestation drivers in an Amazonian ranching frontier. Journal of Land Use Science
  • Newton, P. Watkinson, A.R., Peres, C.A. 2011. Determinants of yield in a non-timber forest product: Copaifera oleoresin in Amazonian extractive reserves. Forest Ecology and Management, 2: 255-264
  • Parry, L., Day, B., Amaral, S., Peres, C.A., 2010. Drivers of rural exodus from Amazonian headwaters. Population and Environment. doi:10.1007/s11111-010-0127-8.
  • Galetti, M., 4 authors + C.A. Peres. 2010. Mudanças no Código Florestal e seu impacto na ecologia e diversidade dos mamíferos no Brasil. Biota Neotropica 10(4): 000-000
  • Michalski, F. Norris, D., C.A. Peres. 2010. No Return from Biodiversity Loss. Science 329:1282-83
  • Palminteri, S., Powell, G.V.N., Endo, W., Kirkby, C.A., Yu, D. & Peres, C.A. 2010. Usefulness of species range polygons for predicting local primate occurrences in southeastern Peru. American Journal of Primatology, 73: 53–61,
  • Tabarelli, M., Lopes, A.V., L.C. Girão, B.A. Santos and C.A. Peres. 2010. Pervasive pioneer hyper-abundance drives floristic shifts in long-term Atlantic Forest isolates. Conservation Biology, 24:1654–1663
  • Barlow J, J Louzada, L Parry, MIM Hernández, J Hawes, C.A. Peres, FZ Vaz-de-Mello, TA Gardner. 2010. Improving the design and management of forest strips in human-dominated tropical landscapes: A field test on dung beetles in the Brazilian Amazon. J Applied Ecology, 47, 779–788
  • Parry, L., C.A. Peres, B. Day and S. Amaral. 2010. Rural-urban migration brings conservation threats and opportunities to Amazonian watersheds. Conservation Letters 3: 251–259.
  • Bicknell, J. and C.A. Peres. 2010. Vertebrate population responses to reduced-impact logging in a neotropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 259: 2267–2275
  • Urquiza-Haas, P. Dolman and C.A. Peres. 2010. Large vertebrate responses to forest cover and hunting pressure in communal landholdings and protected areas of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Animal Conservation, (2010) 1–12
  • Norris, D., F. Michalski and C.A. Peres. 2010. Habitat patch size modulates terrestrial mammal activity patterns in Amazonian forest fragments. Journal of Mammalogy 91(3):551–560,
  • Gardner TA, J Barlow, N. Sodhi and C.A. Peres. 2010. Biodiversity conservation in human-dominated tropical forests. Biological Conservation, doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.05.017
  • Sampaio R, AP Lima, WE Magnusson and C.A. Peres. 2010. Long-term persistence of midsized to large-bodied mammals in Amazonian forest fragments. Biodiversity and Conservation, doi:10.1007/s10531-010-9848-3
  • Michalski F, JP Metzger and C.A. Peres. 2010. Rural property size drives patterns of upland and riparian forest retention in a tropical deforestation frontier. Global Environmental Change, 20: 705–712
  • Tabarelli T, AV Aguiar, MC Ribeiro, JP Metzger, C.A. Peres. 2010. Prospects for biodiversity conservation in the Atlantic Forest: Lessons from aging human-modified landscapes. Biological Conservation, 143:2328-41.
  • Louzada J, TA Gardner, C.A. Peres, J Barlow. 2010. A multi-taxa assessment of nestedness patterns across a multiple-use Amazonian forest landscape. Biological Conservation, 143 (2010) 1102–1109
  • Tuck, J.M., T. Haugaasen, C.A. Peres, R. Gribel and P. Wegge. 2010. Brazil nut seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents in a central Amazonian forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 26:251–262..
  • Barlow J, TA Gardner, J Louzada, C.A. Peres. 2010. Measuring the Conservation Value of Tropical Primary Forests: The Effect of Occasional Species on Estimates of Biodiversity Uniqueness. PLoS ONE 5(3):1-8.
  • Lees, A.C. and C.A. Peres. 2010. Habitat and life history determinants of antbird local extinction in variable-sized Amazonian forest fragments. Biotropica 42:614–621.
  • Endo, W., C.A. Peres, E. Salas, S. Mori, G.H. Shepard, V. Pacheco, D.W. Yu. 2010. Game vertebrate densities in hunted and nonhunted forest sites in Manu National Park, Peru. Biotropica 42(2): 251–261.
  • Peres, C.A., Gardner, T.A., Barlow, J., Zuanon, J., Michalski, F., Lees, A.C., Vieira, I.C.G., Moreira, F.M.D., Feeley, K., 2010. Biodiversity conservation in human-modified Amazonian forest landscapes. Biological Conservation 143:2314-28.
  • Silva-Júnior, W.M., Meira-Neto, J.A., Silva Carmo, F.M., Melo, F., Moreira, L., Barbosa, E., Dias, L.G., Silva, Peres, C.A. 2009. Habitat quality of the woolly spider monkey (Brachyteles hypoxanthus). Folia Primatologica 80: 295-308.
  • Peres, C.A. 2009. Overexploitation. In Conservation Biology for All (eds. N. S. Sodhi & P. R. Ehrlich), pages 107-130. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Stork, N.E., Coddington, J.A., Colwell, R.K., Chazdon, R.L., Dick, C.W., Peres, C.A., Sloan, S., Willis, K. 2009. Vulnerability and resilience of tropical forest species to land-use change. Conservation Biology 23: 1438-1447.
  • Haugaasen, T. and C.A. Peres (2009). Interspecific primate associations in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Primates 50: 239-251.
  • de Thoisy, B., C. Richard-Hansen and C.A. Peres (2009). Impacts of Subsistence Game Hunting on Amazonian Primates, In Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, 389:389-412. Springer, New York. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-78705-3_15.
  • Levi, T., Shepard Jr, G.H., Ohl-Schacherer, J., Peres, C.A., Yu, D.W. 2009. Modelling the long-term sustainability of indigenous hunting in Manu National Park, Peru: Landscape-scale management implications for Amazonia. Journal of Applied Ecology: 46 804-814.
  • Parry, L., J. Barlow and C.A. Peres. 2009. Hunting for sustainability in tropical secondary forests. Conservation Biology. 23: 1270-1280.
  • Parry, L., J. Barlow and C.A. Peres. 2009. Allocation of hunting effort by Amazonian smallholders: Implications for conserving wildlife in mixed-use landscapes. Biological Conservation 142: 1777-1786.
  • Barlow, J., Gardner, T.A., Louzada, J.N.C., C.A. Peres. in review. Measuring the biodiversity uniqueness of tropical primary forests: effects of occasional species on estimates of habitat irreplaceability. Biological Conservation.
  • Lees, A.C. and C.A. Peres. 2009. Gap-crossing movements predict species occupancy in Amazonian forest fragments. Oikos 118:280-290.
  • Lopes, A.V., L.C. Girão, B.A. Santos, C.A. Peres and M. Tabarelli. 2009. Long-term erosion of tree reproductive trait diversity in edge-dominated Atlantic forest fragments. Biological Conservation 142: 1154-1165.
  • Nichols, E., T.A. Gardner, C.A. Peres and S. Spector. 2009. Co-declining mammals and dung beetles: an impending ecological cascade. Oikos 118:481-487.
  • Galetti, M., R.S Bueno, SCS Bernardo, RS Bovendorp, CA Steffler, P Rubim, SK Gobbo, RM Marques, RA Nobre, CI Donatti, RA Begotti, F Meirelles, HC Giacomini, AG Chiarello and C.A. Peres. 2009. Conservation priorities and regional scale determinants of medium and large mammal abundance across the Atlantic forest. Biological Conservation 142: 1229-1241
  • Chazdon, R.L., C.A. Peres, D. Dent, D. Sheil, A.E. Lugo, D. Lamb, N.E. Stork and S. Miller. 2009. Where are the wild things? Assessing the potential for species conservation in tropical secondary forests. Conservation Biology. 23: 1406-1417.
  • Gardner¬¬, T.A., J. Barlow, R. Chazdon, R. Ewers, C.A. Harvey, C.A. Peres and N. Sodhi. 2009. Prospects for tropical forest biodiversity in a human-modified world. Ecology Letters 12:561-582
  • Nichols, E., Gardner, T.A., Peres, C.A., Spector, S. 2009. Co-declining mammals and dung beetles: An impending ecological cascade. Oikos 118: 481-487.
  • Hawes, J., C. Silva Motta, W.L. Overal, J. Barlow, T.A. Gardner and C.A. Peres. 2009. Diversity and composition of Amazonian moths in primary, secondary and plantation forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 25: 281-300
  • Cunningham, A.A., E.L. Bennett, C.A. Peres and D.S. Wilkie. in press. The empty forest revisited. Conservation Biology
  • Haugaasen, T. and C. A. Peres (2008). Population abundance and biomass of large-bodied birds in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests, Bird Conservation International 18: 87-101.
  • Urquiza-Haas, T.; C.A, Peres; PM. Dolman. 2009. Regional scale effects of human density and forest disturbance on large-bodied vertebrates throughout the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Biological Conservation 142:134 –148
  • Tabarelli, M., A.V. Lopes and C.A. Peres. 2008. Edge-effects drive tropical forest fragments towards an early-successional system. Biotropica 40:657–661
  • Michalski, F., C.A. Peres and I.R. Lake. 2008. Deforestation dynamics in a fragmented region of southern Amazonia: evaluation and future scenarios. Environmental Conservation 35:93-103
  • Hawes, J.E., J. Barlow, T. A. Gardner, and C.A. Peres. (2008) The value of forest strips for understorey birds in an Amazonian plantation landscape. Biological Conservation 141:2262-2278
  • Haugaasen, T. & C.A. Peres (2008) Associations between primates and other mammals in a central Amazonian forest landscape. Primates 49:219-222
  • Barlow, J., I.S. Araujo, W.L. Overal, T.A. Gardner, F. da Silva Mendes, I.R. Lake, and C.A. Peres. (2008) Factors affecting the abundance and richness of fruit-feeding butterflies in tropical Eucalyptus plantations. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 1089-1104. doi:10.1007/s10531-007-9240-0
  • Gardner, T.A., M.A. Ribeiro-Júnior, J. Barlow, A. Grant, and C.A. Peres. in press. Improving inference in ecology: the challenge of defining species-environment relationships. Ecological Monographs
  • Gardner, T.A., M.M.I. Hernández, J. Barlow, and C.A. Peres. (2008) Understanding the biodiversity consequences of habitat change: the value of secondary and plantation forests for neotropical dung beetles. Journal of Applied Ecology doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01454.x
  • Gardner, T. A., J. Barlow, I. S. Araujo, T. C. S. Avila-Pires, A. B. Bonaldo, J. E. Costa, M.C. Esposito, L. V. Ferreira, J. Hawes, M. I. M. Hernandez, M. Hoogmoed, R. N. Leite, N.F. Lo-Man-Hung, J. R. Malcolm, M. B. Martins, L. A. M. Mestre, R. Miranda-Santos, A.L. Nunes-Gutjahr, W. L. Overal, L. T. W. Parry, S. L. Peters, M. A. Ribeiro-Junior, M. N.F. da Silva, C. da Silva Motta, and C.A. Peres. 2008. The cost-effectiveness of biodiversity surveys in tropical forests. Ecology Letters 11:139–150
  • Norris, D., C.A. Peres, F. Michalski and K. Hinchsliffe. 2008. Terrestrial mammal responses to edges in Amazonian forest patches: a study based on track stations. Mammalia 72: 15–23
  • Barlow, J., and C.A. Peres. (2008) Fire-mediated dieback and a compositional cascade in Amazonian forests. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 363: 1787–1794.
  • Lees, A. & C.A. Peres. 2008. Avian life history determinants of local extinction risk in a hyper-fragmented neotropical forest landscape. Animal Conservation 11: 128-137
  • Lees, A. & C.A. Peres. (2008). Conservation value of remnant riparian forest corridors of varying quality for Amazonian birds and mammals. Conservation Biology 22:439–449.
  • Lees, A.C., Davis, B., Oliveira, A.V.G. & C.A. Peres (2008) Avifauna of a structurally heterogenous forest landscape in the Serra dos Caiabis, Mato Grosso, Brazil: a preliminary assessment. Cotinga 29: 149–159.
  • Santos, B.A. C.A. Peres, M.A. Oliveira, A. Grillo, C.P. Alves-Costa, M. Tabarelli. 2007. Drastic functional erosion of tree assemblage attributes in Atlantic forest fragments of northeastern Brazil. Biological Conservation 141: 249-260
  • Barlow, J., T.A. Gardner, I.S. Araujo, T.C.S. Avila-Pires, A.B. Bonaldo, J.E. Costa, M.C. Esposito, L.V. Ferreira, J. Hawes, M.I.M. Hernandez, M. Hoogmoed, R.N. Leite, N.F. Lo-Man-Hung, J.R. Malcolm, M.. Martins, L.A.M. Mestre, R. Miranda-Santos, A. L. Nunes-Gutjahr, W. L. Overal, L.T.W. Parry, S.L. Peters, M.A. Ribeiro-Junior, M.N.F. da Silva, C. da Silva Motta, and C.A. Peres. (2007). Quantifying the biodiversity value of tropical primary, secondary and plantation forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 47: 18555–18560.
  • Nichols, E., Gardner, T., Spector, S., Bell, K., Philips, T.K., and C.A. Peres (2007) Declining large mammals and dung beetles: a case study of an impending ecological cascade. Conservation Biology, in press.
  • Haugaasen, T. & C.A. Peres. (2007). Vertebrate responses to fruit production in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Biodiversity and Conservation 16:4165–4190
  • Urquiza-Haas, T.; C.A, Peres; PM. Dolman (2007) Regional scale variation in forest structure and biomass in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico: effects of forest disturbance. Forest Ecology and Management 247:80-90
  • Parry, L., J. Barlow, and C.A. Peres. 2007. The conservation value of secondary forests for large vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23:653–662.
  • Gardner, T., J. Barlow, C.A. Peres. 2007. Rainforest renewed. New Scientist 194(2607):26
  • Michalski, F., Nishi, I. & Peres, C.A. (2007). Disturbance-mediated drift in tree functional groups in Amazonian forest fragments. Biotropica 39(6): 691–701
  • Barlow, J., T. A. Gardner, L. V. Ferreira, and C. A. Peres. 2007. Litter fall and decomposition in primary, secondary and plantation forests in the Brazilian Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management. 247:91-98.
  • Barlow, J., W. L. Overal, I. S. Araujo, T. A. Gardner, and C. A. Peres. 2007. The value of primary, secondary and plantation forests for fruit-feeding butterflies in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Applied Ecology 44:1001-1012
  • Michalski, F. & C.A. Peres. (2007). Disturbance-Mediated Mammal Abundance-Area Relationships in Amazonian Forest Fragments. Conservation Biology 21: 1626-1640
  • Peres C.A. & E. Palacios (2007) Basin-Wide Effects of Game Harvest on Vertebrate Population Densities in Amazonian Forests: Implications for Animal-Mediated Seed Dispersal. Biotropica 39: 304-315.
  • Stoner, K.E.; Vulinec, K.; Wright, S. Joseph; Peres, C.A. 2007. Hunting and Plant Community Dynamics in Tropical Forests: A Synthesis and Future Directions Biotropica, 39: 385-392.
  • Wright, S.J.; Stoner, K.E.; Beckman, N.; Corlett, R.T.; Dirzo, R.; Muller-Landau, H.C.; Nuñez-Iturri, G.; Peres, C.A.; Wang, B.C. 2007. The Plight of Large Animals in Tropical Forests and the Consequences for Plant Regeneration. Biotropica 39: 289-291.
  • Barlow, J., L. A. M. Mestre, T. A. Gardner, and C. A. Peres. 2007. The value of primary, secondary and plantation forests for Amazonian birds. Biological Conservation 136:212-231.
  • Gardner, T. A., J. Barlow, L. T. W. Parry, and C. A. Peres. 2007. Predicting the Uncertain Future of Tropical Forest Species in a Data Vacuum. Biotropica 39:25-30.
  • Gardner, T. A., J. Barlow, and C. A. Peres. 2007. Paradox, presumption and pitfalls in conservation biology: consequences of habitat change for amphibians and reptiles. Biological Conservation 138:166-179.
  • Gardner, T. A., M. A. Ribeiro Jr, J. Barlow, T. A. S. Ávila-Pires, M. Hoogmoed, and C. A. Peres. 2007. The biodiversity value of primary, secondary and plantation forests for a neotropical herpetofauna. Conservation Biology 21:775-787.
  • Urquiza-Haas, T.; C.A, Peres; P.M. Dolman. 2007. Regional scale variation in forest structure and biomass in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico: effects of forest disturbance. Forest Ecology and Management 247: 80–90.
  • Ohl-Schacherer, J., G.H. Shepard Jr., H. Kaplan, C.A. Peres, T. Levi & D.W. Yu. (2007) The sustainability of hunting by Matsigenka native communities in Manu National Park, Peru. Conservation Biology XX:XXX-XXX.
  • Lees, A.C. and Peres, C.A. (2006) Rapid avifaunal collapse along the Amazonian deforestation frontier, Biological Conservation, 133, 198-211.
  • Barlow, J. and Peres, C.A. (2006) Effects of single and recurrent wildfires on fruit production and large vertebrate abundance in a central Amazonian forest, Biodiversity and Conservation 15, 985-1012.
  • Barlow, J. Peres, C.A. Henriques, L.M.P. Stouffer, P.C. and Wunderle, J.M. (2006) Avifaunal Responses to Forest Fragmentation, Logging and Wildfires: an Amazonian Synthesis, Biological Conservation 128, 182-192.
  • Peres, C.A. and Nascimento, H.S. (2006) Impact of game hunting by the Kayapó of southeastern Amazonia: implications for wildlife conservation in tropical forest indigenous reserves, Biodiversity and Conservation 15, 2627-2653.
  • Peres, C.A, Barlow, J. and Laurance, W. (2006) Detecting anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests, Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21, 227-229.
  • Michalski, F. Boulhosa, R.L.P. Faria, A. and Peres, C.A. (2006) Human–wildlife conflicts in a fragmented Amazonian forest landscape: determinants of large felid depredation on livestock, Animal Conservation 9, 179-188.
  • Haugaasen, T. and Peres C.A. (2006) Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristrics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purus region of central Amazonia, Brazil, Acta Amazonica, 36, 1, 25-36.
  • Palacios, E. and Peres, C.A. (2005) Primate Population Densities at Three Amazonian Terra Firme Forests of Southeastern Colombia, Folia Primatologica, 76, 3, 135-145.
  • Peres, C.A. (2005) Porque precisamos de megarreservas na Amazônia, Natureza and Conservação 3, 1, 8-16.
  • Haugaasen, T. and Peres, C.A. (2005) Primate assemblage structure in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests, American Journal of Primatology 67, 243-258.
  • Haugaasen, T. and Peres, C.A. (2005) Tree Phenology in Adjacent Amazonian Flooded and Unflooded Forests, Biotropica, 37, 620-630.
  • Jorge, M.L. and Peres, C.A. (2005) Population density and home range size of red-rumped agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina) within and outside a natural Brazil nut stand in southeastern Amazonia, Biotropica, 37, 317-321.
  • Peres, C.A. (2005) Porque precisamos de megareservas na Amazônia, Magadiversidade 1, 1, 174-180.
  • Peres, C.A. (2005) Why we need mega-reserves in Amazonian forests. Conservation Biology, 19, 728-733.
  • Michalski, F. and Peres, C.A. (2005) Anthropogenic determinants of primate and carnivore local extinctions in a fragmented forest landscape of southern Amazonia, Biological Conservation, 124, 383-396.
  • Haugaasen, T. and Peres, C.A. (2005) Mammal assemblage structure in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests, Journal of Tropical Ecology, 21, 133-145.
  • Barlow, J. and Peres, C.A. (2004) Avifaunal responses to single and recurrent wildfires in Amazonian forests, Ecological Applications, 14, 1358-1373.
  • Barlow, J. and Peres, C.A. (2004) Ecological responses to El Niño-induced surface fires in central Amazonia: management implications for flammable tropical forests, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 359, 367-380.
  • Peres, C.A. Baider, C. Zuidema, P.A. Wadt, L.H.O. Kainer, K.A. Gomes-Silva, D.A.P. Salomão, R.P. Simões, L. Franciosi, L.E. Cornejo R.N. Valverde, F. Gribel, R. Shepard Jr. G.H. Kanashiro, M. Coventry, P. Yu, D.W. Watkinson, A.R. and Freckleton, R.P. (2003) Demographic Threats to the Sustainability of Brazil Nut Exploitation, Science, 302, 2112-2114.
  • Haugaasen, T. Barlow, J. and Peres, C.A. (2003) Effects of surface fires on understorey insectivorous birds and terrestrial arthropods in central Brazilian Amazonia, Animal Conservation, 6, 299-306.
  • Milner-Gulland, E.J. Bennett, E.L. Peres, C.A. et al. (2003) Wild meat: the bigger picture, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18, 351-357.
  • Cristoffer, C. and Peres, C.A. (2003) Elephants vs. Butterflies: the ecological role of large herbivores in the evolutionary history of two tropical worlds, Journal of Biogeography, 30, 1357-1380.
  • Horton, B. Colarullo, G. Bateman, I.J. and Peres, C.A. (2003) Evaluating non-user willingness to pay for a large-scale conservation programme in Amazonia: a UK/Italian contingent valuation study, Environmental Conservation, 30, 139-146.
  • Barlow, J. Lagan, B.O. and Peres C.A. (2003) Morphological correlates of tree mortality induced by surface fires in a central Amazonian forest, Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19, 291-299.
  • Haugaasen, T. Barlow, J. and Peres, C.A. (2003) Surface wildfires in central Amazonia: short-term impact on forest structure and carbon loss, Forest Ecology and Management, 179, 321-331.
  • Barlow, J. and Peres, C.A. (2003) Fogo rasteiro: nova ameaça na Amazônia, Ciência Hoje, 34, 24-29.
  • Barlow, J. Peres, C.A. Lagan, B. and Haugaasen, T. (2003) Forest biomass collapse following Amazonian wildfires, Ecology Letters, 6, 6-8.
  • Jerozolimski, A. and Peres, C.A. (2003) Bringing home the biggest bacon: a cross-site analysis of the structure of hunter-kill profiles in Neotropical forests, Biological Conservation, 111, 415-425.
  • Peres, C.A. and Lake, I.R. (2003) Extent of non-timber resource extraction in tropical forests: accessibility to game vertebrates by hunters in the Amazon basin, Conservation Biology 17, 521-535.
  • Peres, C.A. Barlow, J. and Haugaasen, T. (2003) Vertebrate responses to surface fires in Amazonian forests, Oryx, 37, 97-109.
  • Barlow, B.J. Haugaasen, T. and Peres, C.A. (2002) Avifaunal responses to understorey wildfires in Amazonian forests, Biological Conservation, 105,157-169.
  • Tabarelli, M. and Peres, C.A. (2002) Abiotic and vertebrate seed dispersal in the Brazilian Atlantic forest: implications for forest regeneration, Biological Conservation, 106, 165-176.
  • Barlow, B.J. Haugaasen, T. and Peres, C.A. (2002) Sympatry of the Black-faced Hawk Leucopternis melanops and the White-browed Hawk Leucopternis kuhli in the Lower Rio Tapajós, Pará, Brazil, Cotinga, 18, 77-79.
  • Fa, J.E. Peres, C.A. and Meeuwig J. (2002) Bushmeat exploitation in tropical forests: an intercontinental comparison, Conservation Biology, 16, 232-237.
  • Peres, C.A. (2001) Synergistic effects of subsistence hunting and habitat fragmentation on Amazonian forest vertebrates, Conservation Biology 15, 1490-1505.
  • Zimmerman, B. Peres, C.A. Malcolm, J. and Turner, T. (2001) Conservation and development alliances with the Kayapó of south-eastern Amazonia, a tropical forest indigenous peoples, Environmental Conservation, 28, 10-22.
  • Peres, C.A. and Zimmerman, B. (2001) Perils in Parks or Parks in Peril? Reconciling conservation in Amazonian reserves with and without use, Conservation Biology 15, 3, 793-797.
  • Chapman, C.A. and Peres, C.A. (2001) Primate conservation in the new millennium: The role of scientists, Evolutionary Anthropology, 10, 16-33.
  • Peres, C.A. (2001) Paving the way to the future of Amazonia, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 217-219.
  • Peres, C.A. (2001) The fire next time. Time Magazine, 8/1/2001:48. (Translated into Spanish at [1].)
  • Gascon, C. Malcolm, J.R. Patton, J.L. da Silva, M.N.F. Bogart, J.P. Lougheed, S.C. Peres, C.A. Neckel S. and Boag. P.T. (2000) Riverine barriers and the geographic distribution of Amazonian species, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97, 25, 13672-13677.
  • Develey, P.F. and Peres C.A. (2000) Resource seasonality and the structure of mixed-species bird flocks in a coastal Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil, Journal of Tropical Ecology, 16, 33-53.
  • Peres, C.A. (2000) Effects of subsistence hunting on vertebrate community structure in Amazonian forests, Conservation Biology 14, 1, 240-253.
  • Peres, C.A. (2000) Identifying keystone plant resources in tropical forests: the case of gums from Parkia pods, Journal of Tropical Ecology 16, 2, 287-317.
  • Peres, C.A. (2000) Effects of subsistence hunting on vertebrate community structure in Amazonian forests. Conservation Biology, 14, 1, 240-253.
  • Peres, C.A. and Dolman, P. (2000) Density compensation in neotropical primate communities: evidence from 56 hunted and non-hunted Amazonian forests of varying productivity, Oecologia, 122, 175-189.


  • Laurance, W.F. and Peres, C.A. (eds.) (2006) Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.


  • Peres, C.A. (2007) Soil fertility and arboreal mammal biomass in tropical forest, Schnitzer. In: S. and Carson, W. (eds.) Tropical Forest Community Ecology, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
  • de Thoisy, B. C. Richard-Hansen and C.A. Peres. Impacts of subsistence game hunting on Amazonian primates. In South American Primates: Testing new theories in the study of primate behavior, ecology, and conservation. (P. Garber, A. Estrada, J. Bicca-Marques, E.Heymann, K.Strier, eds,). Springer Press.
  • Fagan, C. Peres, C.A. and Terborgh, J. (2006) Tropical forests: A protected-area strategy for the Twenty-first Century. In: Laurance, W.F. and Peres, C.A. (eds.) Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 415-432.
  • Barlow, J. and Peres, C.A. (2006) Consequences of fire disturbance for ecosystem structure and biodiversity in Amazonian forests. In: Laurance, W.F. and Peres, C.A. (eds.) Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Laurance, W.F. Peres, C.A. Jansen, P.A. and D'Croz, L. (2006) Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests: What We Know and What We Don't Know. In: Laurance, W.F. and Peres, C.A. (eds.) Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Peres, C.A. and Michalski, F. (2006) Synergistic effects of habitat disturbance and hunting in Amazonian forest fragments. In: Laurance, W.F. and Peres, C.A. (eds.) Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 105-127.
  • Reynolds, J. and Peres, C.A. (2005) Overexploitation. In: Groom, M. Meffe G. and Carroll, R. (eds.) Principles of Conservation Biology, 3rd Edition, Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass, 249-287.
  • Barlow, J. and Peres, C.A. (2005) Ecological responses of Amazonian forests to El Niño-induced surface fires. In: Malhi, Y. and Phillips, O. (eds.) Tropical Forests and Global Atmospheric Change, Oxford University Press, 87-96.
  • Peres, C.A. and Barlow, J. (2004) Human Influences on Forest Wildlife. In: Burley, J. Evans, J. and Youngquist, J. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences, Academic Press, London.
  • Silva, M.N.F. Rylands, A.B. Patton, J.L. Peres, C.A. van Roosmalen, M. Santos, P.M.R.S. Voss, R. Leitem, Y. (2002) Biogeografia e conservação da mastofauna na floresta amazônica brasileira, In: Biodiversidade na Amazônia Brasileira, Instituto Socioambiental, Editora Estação Liberdade, São Paulo.
  • Jerozolimski, A and Peres, C.A. A Caça de Psitacídeos por Comunidades Indígenas em Florestas Neotropicais (no prelo), Mauro Galetti e Marco Aurélio Pizo (organizadores), Ecologia e Conservação de Psitacídeos no Brasil, Editora Melopsittacus Publicações Científicas.
  • Terborgh, J. and Peres, C.A. (2002) O problema das pessoas nos parques. In: Terborgh, J. van Schaik, C. Rao, M. and Davenport L. (eds.) Tornando os Parques Eficientes: Estratégies para a Conservação da Natureza nos Trópicos, Editora da UFPR / Fundação O Boticário, Curitiba, Brazil, 334-346.
  • Peres, C.A. (2002) Expandindo as redes de areas de conservação na última fronteira selvagem: o caso da Amazônia brasileira. In: Terborgh, J. van Schaik, C. Rao, M. and Davenport, L. (org.) Tornando os Parques Eficientes: Estratégies para a Conservação da Natureza nos Trópicos, Editora da UFPR / Fundação O Boticário, Curitiba, Brazil, 163-174.
  • Peres, C.A. and van Roosmalen, M. (2002) Patterns of primate frugivory in Amazonia and the Guianan shield: implications to the demography of large-seeded plants in overhunted tropical forests. In: Levey, D. Silva, W. and Galetti, M. (eds) Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. CABI International, Oxford, 407-423.
  • Terborgh, J. and Peres, C.A. (2002) The problem of people in parks. In: Terborgh, J. van Schaik, C. Rao, M. and Davenport, L. (eds.) Making Parks Work, Strategies for Preserving Tropical Nature, Island Press, Washington, D.C. 307-319.
  • Peres, C.A. (2002) Expanding networks of conservation areas in our last tropical forest frontiers: the case of Brazilian Amazonia. In: Terborgh, J. van Schaik, C. Rao, M. and Davenport, L. (eds.)Making Parks Work, Strategies for Preserving Tropical Nature, Island Press, Washington, D.C. 137-148.
  • Peres, C.A. and Terborgh, J. (2002) Reservas Naturales Amazónicas: Un análisis del estado de defensa de las unidades de conservación existentes y criterio de diseño para el futuro. In: Pyhälä, M. Salo, J. Kalliola, R. Padoch, C. Pinedo-Vasquez M. and Torres-Vásquez, J. (eds.) Amazonía: Ortientaciones Para el Desarrollo Sustenible, Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD), Lima, Peru, 104-119.
  • Fa J.E. and Peres, C.A. (2001) Game vertebrate extraction in African and Neotropical forests: an Intercontinental Comparison. In: Reynolds, J.D. Mace, G.M. Redford, K.H. and Robinson, J.G. (eds.) Conservation of Exploited Species, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 203-241.
  • Peres, C.A. (2000) Territorial defense and the ecology of group movements in small-bodied neotropical primates. In: Boinski, S. and Garber, P.A. (eds.) On the Move: How and Why Animals Travel in Groups, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 100-123.
  • Peres, C.A. (2000) Evaluating the impact and sustainability of subsistence hunting at multiple Amazonian forest sites. In: Robinson, J.G. and Bennett, E.L. (eds.) Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests, Columbia University Press, New York, 31-57.


Carlos A. Peres, Center for Biodiversity Research, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.

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