Carlos P. Garcia

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Carlos P. García
Carlos P Garcia.jpg
8th President of the Philippines
4th President of the Third Republic
In office
March 17, 1957 – December 30, 1961
Vice President None (Mar 17 – Dec 30, 1957)
Diosdado Macapagal (1957–1961)
Preceded by Ramón Magsaysay
Succeeded by Diosdado Macapagal
1st President of the 1971 Philippine Constitutional Convention
In office
June 1, 1971 – June 14, 1971
President Ferdinand Marcos
Succeeded by Diosdado Macapagal
5th Vice President of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1953 – March 17, 1957
President Ramón Magsaysay
Preceded by Fernando López
Succeeded by Diosdado Macapagal
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
In office
December 30, 1953 – March 17, 1957
President Ramon Magsaysay
Preceded by Joaquin Miguel Elizalde
Succeeded by Vacant
Post later held by Felixberto Serrano
Senator of the Philippines
In office
May 25, 1946 – December 30, 1953
Governor of Bohol
In office
December 30, 1933 – December 30, 1941
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Bohol's Third District
In office
1925–1931
Preceded by Teodoro Abueva
Succeeded by Filomeno Caseñas Orbeta
Personal details
Born Carlos Polístico García
(1896-11-04)November 4, 1896
Talibon, Bohol, Philippines
Died June 14, 1971(1971-06-14) (aged 74)
Tagbilaran, Bohol, Philippines
Resting place Libingan ng mga Bayani, Taguig, Philippines
Political party Nacionalista Party
Spouse(s) Leonila Dimataga
Children Linda Garcia-Ocampos
Alma mater Silliman University[1]
Philippine Law School
Profession Lawyer
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature

Carlos Polístico García, commonly known as Carlos P. García, (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader. He became the eighth President of the Philippines.

Early life[edit]

García was born in Talibon, Bohol, to Policronio García and Ambrosia Polístico, who were both natives of Bangued, Abra.

García grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. He acquired his primary education in his native Talibon, then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School. Initially, he pursued his college education at Silliman University in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, and later studied at the Philippine Law School where he earned his law degree in 1923. He was among the top ten in the bar examination.[1]

Rather than practice law right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname "Prince of Visayan Poets" and the "Bard from Bohol".

Marriage[edit]

On May 24, 1933, he married Leonila Dimataga, and they had a daughter, Linda García-Campos.

Descendants[edit]

  • Teodoro P. García, Sr.
  • Teodoro P. García, Jr.
  • Dominique Marie L. García (b. 1988)
  • Timothy Daniel L. García (b. 1989)
  • Raphael L. García (b. 1992)
  • Jace Jotham M. Cortez García (b. 2009)

Political Career[edit]

García entered politics in 1925, scoring an impressive victory to become Representative of the Third District of Bohol. He was elected for another term in 1928 and served until 1931. He was elected Governor of Bohol in 1933, but served only until 1941 when he successfully ran for Senate, but he was unable to serve due to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during the Second World War. He assumed the office when Congress re-convened in 1945 after Allied liberation and the end of the War..

Vice-Presidency[edit]

García was the running mate of Ramón Magsaysay in the 1953 presidential election in which both men won. He was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs by President Magsaysay, and for four years served concurrently as Vice-President.

As Secretary of Foreign Affairs, he opened formal reparation negotiations in an effort to end the nine-year technical state of war between Japan and the Philippines, leading to an agreement in April 1954. During the Geneva Conference of 1954 on Korean unification and other Asian problems, García, as chairman of the Philippine delegation, attacked communist promises in Asia and defended the U.S. policy in the Far East. In a speech on May 7, 1954–the day that the Viet Minh defeated French forces at the Battle of Diên Biên Phu in Vietnam– García repeated the Philippine stand for nationalism and opposition to communism.

García acted as chairman of the eight-nation Southeast Asian Security Conference held in Manila in September 1954, which led to the development of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).[2]

Presidency[edit]

Presidential styles of
Carlos P. Garcia
Reference style His Excellency
Spoken style Your Excellency
Alternative style Mr. President
Economy of the Philippines under
President Carlos Garcia
1957–1961
Population
1957 \approx 22.68 million
Gross Domestic Product
1957 Increase Php 189,457 million
1961 IncreasePhp 224,430 million
Growth rate, 1957-61 4.54 %
Per capita income
1957 Increase Php 8,353
1961 Decrease Php 7,927
Total exports
1957 Increase Php 35,980 million
1961 Increase Php 39,845 million
Exchange rates
1 US US$ = Php 2.64
1 Php = US US$ 0.38
Sources: Philippine Presidency Project
Malaya, Jonathan; Eduardo Malaya. So Help Us God... The Inaugurals of the Presidents of the Philippines. Anvil Publishing, Inc. 

Accession[edit]

Vice-President Carlos P. García (right) was inaugurated President upon Magsaysay's death at the Council of State Room in the Executive Building of the Malacañan Palace complex. The oath of office was administered by Chief Justice Ricardo Paras.

At the time of President Magsaysay's sudden death on 17 March 1957, García was heading the Philippine delegation to the SEATO conference then being held at Canberra, Australia.[3] Having been immediately notified of the tragedy, Vice President García enplaned back for Manila. Upon his arrival he directly repaired to Malacañang Palace to assume the duties of President. Chief Justice Ricardo Paras, of the Supreme Court, was at hand to administer the oath of office. President García's first actions dealt with the declaration of a period of mourning for the whole nation and the burial ceremonies for the late Chief-Executive Magsaysay.[3]

Anti-Communism[edit]

After much discussion, both official and public, the Congress of the Philippines, finally, approved a bill outlawing the Communist Party of the Philippines. Despite the pressure exerted against the congressional measure, President Carlos P. García signed the said bill into law as Republic Act No. 1700 on June 19, 1957.[3][4]

Republic Act № 1700 was superseded by Presidential Decree № 885, entitled "Outlawing Subversive Organization, Penalizing Membership Therein and For Other Purposes." This was amended by Presidential Decree № 1736, and later superseded by Presidential Decree № 1835, entitled, "Codifying The Various Laws on Anti-Subversion and Increasing the Penalties for Membership in Subversive Organization." This, in turn, was amended by Presidential Decree № 1975. On May 5, 1987, Executive Order № 167 repealed Presidential Decrees № 1835 and № 1975 as being unduly restrictive of the constitutional right to form associations.[5]

On September 22, 1992, Republic Act № 1700, as amended, was repealed by Republic Act № 7636.[6]

Filipino First Policy[edit]

President García exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country. In a speech during a joint session of Congress on September 18, 1946, President García said the following:

We are called upon to decide on this momentous debate whether or not this land of ours will remain the cradle and grave, the womb and tomb of our race – the only place where we can build our homes, our temples, and our altars and where we erect the castles of our racial hopes, dreams and traditions and where we establish the warehouse of our happiness and prosperity, of our joys and sorrows.[7]

Austerity Program[edit]

In the face of the trying conditions of the country, President García initiated what has been called "The Austerity Program". His administration was characterized by its austerity program and its insistence on a comprehensive nationalist policy. On March 3, 1960, he affirmed the need for complete economic freedom and added that the government no longer would tolerate the dominance of foreign interests (especially American) in the national economy. He promised to shake off "the yoke of alien domination in business, trade, commerce and industry." García was also credited with his role in reviving Filipino cultural arts.[2] The main points of the Austerity Program were:[3]

  1. The government would tightened up its controls to prevent abuses in the over shipment of exports under license and in under-pricing as well.
  2. There would be a more rigid enforcement of the existing regulations on barter shipments.
  3. Government imports themselves were to be restricted to essential items.
  4. The government also would reduce rice imports to a minimum.
  5. An overhauling of the local transportation system would be attempted so as to reduce the importation of gasoline and spare parts.
  6. The tax system would be revised so as to attain more equitable distribution of the payment-burden and achieve more effective collection from those with ability to pay.
  7. There would be an intensification of food production.

The program was hailed[3] by the people at large and confidence was expressed that the measures proposed would help solve the standing problems of the Republic.[3]

Bohlen–Serrano Agreement[edit]

During his administration, he acted on the Bohlen–Serrano Agreement, which shortened the lease of the American Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years.

1961 Presidential Election[edit]

At the end of his second term, he ran for re–election in the Presidential elections in November 1961, but was defeated by his Vice-President Diosdado Macapagal, who belonged to the opposing Liberal Party (in the Philippines, the President and the Vice-President are elected separately).

Cabinet[edit]

Post-Presidency and Death[edit]

President García's tomb at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.

After his failed re–election bid, García retired to Tagbilaran to resume as a private citizen. On June 1, 1971, García was elected delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention. The convention delegates elected him as the President of the Convention. However, just days after his election, on June 14, 1971, García died from a fatal heart attack. He was succeeded as president of the Convention by his former Vice-President, Diosdado Macapagal.

García became the first layman to lie in state at the Manila Cathedral (an honour previously reserved for deceased Archbishops of Manila) and the first President to be buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Remembering Carlos P. Garcia on his 115th Birth Anniversary". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 2012-10-05.
  2. ^ a b Eufronio Alip, ed., The Philippine Presidents from Aguinaldo to García (1958); Jesús V. Merritt, Our Presidents: Profiles in History (1962); and Pedro A. Gagelonia, Presidents All (1967). See also Hernando J. Abaya, The Untold Philippine Story (1967). Further information can be found in Ester G. Maring and Joel M. Maring, eds., Historical and Cultural Dictionary of the Philippines (1973).
  3. ^ a b c d e f Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.
  4. ^ "Republic Act No. 1700". Chan Robles Law Library. June 19, 1957. 
  5. ^ "Executive Order No. 167, Series of 1987". Chan Robles Law Library. May 5, 1987. 
  6. ^ "Republic Act No. 7636". Chan Robles Law Library. September 22, 1992. 
  7. ^ "Our Vision and Mission". prescarlosgarcia.org. 
  • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource logo Works written by or about Carlos P. Garcia at Wikisource

Political offices
Preceded by
Fernando Lopez
Vice President of the Philippines
December 30, 1953 – March 17, 1957
Vacant
Title next held by
Diosdado Macapagal
Preceded by
Ramon Magsaysay
President of the Philippines
March 17, 1957 – December 30, 1961
Succeeded by
Diosdado Macapagal