|Discovered by||S. B. Nicholson|
|Discovery date||July 30, 1938|
|Mean orbit radius||23.4 million km|
|Orbital period||702.28 d (2.045 a)|
|Average orbital speed||2.253 km/s|
|Inclination||164.91° (to the ecliptic)
167.53° (to Jupiter's equator)
|Mean radius||~23 km|
|Surface area||~6600 km²|
|Mean density||2.6 g/cm³ (assumed)|
|Equatorial surface gravity||~0.017 m/s2 (0.0017 g)|
|Escape velocity||~0.028 km/s|
Carme (// KAR-mee; Greek: Κάρμη) is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. It was discovered by Seth Barnes Nicholson at Mount Wilson Observatory in California in July 1938. It is named after the mythological Carme, mother by Zeus of Britomartis, a Cretan goddess.
Carme did not receive its present name until 1975; before then, it was simply known as Jupiter XI. It was sometimes called "Pan" between 1955 and 1975 (Pan is now the name of a satellite of Saturn).
It gives its name to the Carme group, made up of irregular retrograde moons orbiting Jupiter at a distance ranging between 23 and 24 Gm and at an inclination of about 165°. Its orbital elements are as of January 2000. They are continuously changing due to solar and planetary perturbations.
- Nicholson, S. B. (1938). "Two New Satellites of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 50: pp.292–293. Bibcode:1938PASP...50..292N. doi:10.1086/124963.
- Jacobson, R. A. (2000). "The Orbits of Outer Jovian Satellites". Astronomical Journal 120 (5): pp.2679–2686. Bibcode:2000AJ....120.2679J. doi:10.1086/316817.
- "Planetary Satellite Physical Parameters". JPL (Solar System Dynamics). 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2008-12-12.
- IAUC 2846: Satellites of Jupiter 1974 October 7 (naming the moon)
- Payne-Gaposchkin, Cecilia; Katherine Haramundanis (1970). Introduction to Astronomy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-478107-4.
- Carme Profile by NASA's Solar System Exploration
- David Jewitt pages
- Jupiter's Known Satellites (by Scott S. Sheppard)