Carme (moon)

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Carme
Discovery
Discovered by S. B. Nicholson
Discovery date July 30, 1938[1]
Orbital characteristics
Mean orbit radius 23.4 million km[2]
Eccentricity 0.25[2]
Orbital period 702.28 d (2.045 a)[2]
Average orbital speed 2.253 km/s
Inclination 164.91° (to the ecliptic)
167.53° (to Jupiter's equator)[2]
Satellite of Jupiter
Physical characteristics
Mean radius ~23 km[3]
Surface area ~6600 km²
Volume ~51,000 km³
Mass 1.3×1017 kg
Mean density 2.6 g/cm³ (assumed)[3]
Equatorial surface gravity ~0.017 m/s2 (0.0017 g)
Escape velocity ~0.028 km/s
Albedo 0.04 (assumed)[3]
Temperature ~124 K

Carme (/ˈkɑrm/ KAR-mee; Greek: Κάρμη) is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. It was discovered by Seth Barnes Nicholson at Mount Wilson Observatory in California in July 1938.[1] It is named after the mythological Carme, mother by Zeus of Britomartis, a Cretan goddess.

Carme did not receive its present name until 1975;[4] before then, it was simply known as Jupiter XI. It was sometimes called "Pan"[5] between 1955 and 1975 (Pan is now the name of a satellite of Saturn).

It gives its name to the Carme group, made up of irregular retrograde moons orbiting Jupiter at a distance ranging between 23 and 24 Gm and at an inclination of about 165°. Its orbital elements are as of January 2000.[2] They are continuously changing due to solar and planetary perturbations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Nicholson, S. B. (1938). "Two New Satellites of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 50: pp.292–293. Bibcode:1938PASP...50..292N. doi:10.1086/124963. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Jacobson, R. A. (2000). "The Orbits of Outer Jovian Satellites". Astronomical Journal 120 (5): pp.2679–2686. Bibcode:2000AJ....120.2679J. doi:10.1086/316817. 
  3. ^ a b c "Planetary Satellite Physical Parameters". JPL (Solar System Dynamics). 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2008-12-12. 
  4. ^ IAUC 2846: Satellites of Jupiter 1974 October 7 (naming the moon)
  5. ^ Payne-Gaposchkin, Cecilia; Katherine Haramundanis (1970). Introduction to Astronomy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-478107-4. 

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