Miranda in the 1943 film The Gang's All Here
|Born||Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha
9 February 1909
Marco de Canaveses, Portugal
|Died||5 August 1955
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
|Cause of death||Heart attack|
|Resting place||Cemitério São João Batista|
|Other names||The Brazilian Bombshell
The Chiquita Banana Girl
|Education||Convent of Saint Therese of Lisieux|
|Occupation||Singer, dancer, actress|
|Spouse(s)||David Alfred Sebastian (m. 1947–1955)|
Carmen Miranda, GCIH (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈkaɾmẽȷ̃ miˈɾɐ̃dɐ], 9 February 1909 – 5 August 1955) was a Portuguese-born Brazilian samba singer, dancer, Broadway actress, and film star who was popular in the 1940s and 1950s.
After establishing a successful singing and acting career in Brazil, Lee Shubert signed Miranda and her band to a contract in 1939. She made her American stage debut in July 1939, and later moved to Hollywood to pursue a film career. Nicknamed "The Brazilian Bombshell", Miranda is noted for her signature fruit hat outfit she wore in the 1943 movie The Gang's All Here. By 1945, she was the highest paid woman in the United States.
Miranda made a total of fourteen Hollywood films between 1940 and 1953. Though hailed as a talented performer, her popularity waned by the end of World War II. She later grew to resent the stereotypical "Brazilian Bombshell" image she cultivated and attempted to break free of it with limited success.
On 4 August 1955, Miranda unknowingly suffered a mild heart attack while performing during the taping of an episode of The Jimmy Durante Show. She finished the show but died the following morning after suffering a second heart attack.
Carmen Miranda was born Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha in Várzea da Ovelha e Aliviada, a village in the northern Portuguese municipality of Marco de Canaveses. She was the second daughter of José Maria Pinto da Cunha (17 February 1887 – 21 June 1938) and Maria Emília Miranda (10 March 1886 – Rio de Janeiro, 9 November 1971). In 1909 when she was ten months old, her father emigrated alone to Brazil and settled in Rio de Janeiro, where he opened a barber shop. Her mother followed in 1910 with their daughters Olinda and Maria do Carmo. Maria do Carmo, later Carmen, never returned to Portugal, but retained her Portuguese nationality. In Brazil, her parents had four more children: Amaro (1911), Cecília (1913), Aurora (1915–2005) and Óscar (1916).
She was christened Carmen by her father because of his love for the opera comique, and also after Bizet's masterpiece Carmen. This passion for opera influenced his children, and Miranda's love for singing and dancing at an early age. She went to school at the Convent of Saint Therese of Lisieux. Her father did not approve of her plans to enter show business. However, her mother supported her and was beaten when her husband discovered Miranda had auditioned for a radio show. She had previously sung at parties and festivals in Rio. Her older sister Olinda contracted tuberculosis and was sent to Portugal for treatment. Miranda went to work in a tie shop at age 14 to help pay her sister's medical bills. She next worked in a boutique, where she learned to make hats and opened her own hat business which became profitable.
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Miranda was discovered when she was first introduced to composer Josué de Barros, who went on to promote and record her first album with Brunswick, a German recording company in 1929. In 1930, she was known to be Brazil's gem singer, and in 1933 went on to sign a two-year contract with Rádio Mayrink Veiga, becoming the first contract singer in the radio industry history of Brazil. In 1934, she was invited as a guest performer in Radio Belgrano in Buenos Aires. Ultimately, Miranda signed a recording contract with RCA Records. She pursued a career as a samba singer for ten years before she was invited to New York City to perform in a show on Broadway.
As with other popular singers of the era, Miranda made her screen debut in the Brazilian documentary A Voz Do Carnaval (1933). Two years later, she appeared in her first feature film entitled Alô, Alô Brasil. But it was the 1935 film Estudantes that seemed to solidify her in the minds of the movie-going public. In the 1936 movie Alô Alô Carnaval, she performed the famous song "Cantoras do Rádio" with her sister Aurora, for the first time.
American stage and films
After seeing one of her performances in Rio, theatre owner Lee Shubert signed Miranda and her band, the Bando da Lua, to a contract. In 1939 Miranda sailed from Brazil aboard the ocean liner SS Uruguay, arriving in New York on May 18. She made her US stage debut on June 19, 1939 in The Streets of Paris, opposite Abbott and Costello. Although her part was small (she only spoke four words), Miranda received good reviews and became a media sensation. Her fame grew quickly, having formally been presented to President Franklin D. Roosevelt at a White House banquet shortly after arrival. She was encouraged by the United States government as part of President Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor policy, designed to strengthen links with Latin America and Europe; it was believed that in delivering content like hers, the policy would be better received by the American public.
In 1940, 20th Century Fox signed her to a contract for a one-time appearance in Down Argentine Way. She received good reviews for her performance prompting Fox to sign her to a long-term film contract.
While Miranda's popularity in the United States continued to rise, she began to lose favor with some Brazilians. On July 10, 1940, she returned to Brazil where she was welcomed by cheering fans. Soon after her arrival, however, the Brazilian press began criticizing Miranda for giving in to American commercialism and projecting a negative image of Brazil. Members of the upper class felt her image was "too black" and she was criticized in one Brazilian newspaper for "singing bad-tasting black sambas". Other Brazilians criticized her for playing up the stereotype of a "Latina bimbo" after her first interview upon arriving in the United States. In an interview with the New York World-Telegram, Miranda discussed her then limited knowledge of the English language stating, "I say money, money, money. I say twenty words in English. I say money, money, money and I say hot dog!".
On July 15, she appeared at a charity concert organized by Brazilian First Lady Darci Vargas. The concert was attended by members of Brazil's high society. She greeted the audience in English but was met with silence. When Miranda began singing a song from one of her club acts, "The South American Way", the audience began to boo her. She attempted to finish her act but gave up and left the stage after the audience continued to boo. The incident deeply hurt Miranda and she later cried in her dressing room. The following day, the Brazilian pressed criticized her for being "too Americanized".
Weeks later, Miranda responded to the criticism with the Portuguese language song "Disseram que Voltei Americanizada" (or "They Say I've Come Back Americanized"). Another song, "Bananas Is My Business," was based on a line in one of her movies and directly addressed her image. She was greatly upset by the criticism and did not return to Brazil again for fourteen years.
Miranda’s films came under harsh scrutiny by Latin American audiences for characterizing Central and South America in a culturally homogenous way. When her films hit theatres in Central and South America, it became apparent that the United States merely depicted Latin American cultures as Americans perceived it, and not how they actually were. For many Latin Americans, their cultures were being misrepresented, and someone from their own region, Carmen Miranda, was misrepresenting them. Her film, Down Argentine Way (1940), was met with heavy criticisms, with pundits in Argentina claiming that it failed to depict Argentinean culture. The lyrics throughout the movie were filled with non-Argentine themes, and the sets were not strictly Argentinean, but rather, they were a fusion of cultures from Mexico, Cuba, and Brazil. The film was subsequently banned in Argentina, for “wrongfully portraying life in Buenos Aires.”  Similar sentiments arose in Cuba after her the debut of Miranda’s film, Weekend in Havana (1941). Cuban audiences were offended by Miranda’s portrayal of a Cuban female. Reviewers of the film asserted that an import from Rio could not possibly portray a woman from Havana. Further, they claimed that throughout the film, Miranda does not “dance anything Cuban.” Miranda’s performances were merely hybridizations of Brazilian culture and other Latin cultures. Each film misrepresented other Latin locales, by assuming that Brazilian culture could suffice as a direct representation of Latin America.
Upon returning to the United States, Miranda kept up her film career in Hollywood while also appearing on Broadway and performing in clubs and restaurants. In 1941, she shared the screen with Alice Faye and Don Ameche in That Night in Rio. Later that same year, she teamed up with Alice Faye again in Week-End in Havana. Miranda was now earning $5,000 a week. On March 23, 1941, she became one of the first Latinas to leave her hand and footprints in the sidewalk of the Grauman's Chinese Theater.
In 1943, she appeared in one of her more notable films The Gang's All Here. The following year, Miranda made a cameo appearance in Four Jills in a Jeep. By 1945, she had become Hollywood's highest-paid entertainer and top female tax payer in the United States, earning more than $200,000 that year ($2.2 million in 2010 adjusted for inflation).
After World War II ended in 1945, the American public's tastes began to change and musicals began to fall out of favor. Hollywood studio heads and producers also felt that the novelty of Miranda's "Brazilian bombshell" image had worn thin. As a result, Miranda's career declined. She made one last film for Fox, Doll Face (1945), before her contract was terminated in January 1946.
She later signed a contract with Universal but at the time, Universal was undergoing a merger with another studio. Due to a change in management, no films for Miranda were planned. Eager to break away from her well established image, Miranda attempted to branch out with different roles. In 1946, she portrayed an Irish American character in If I'm Lucky. The following year, she played dual roles opposite Groucho Marx in Copacabana for United Artists. While the films were modest hits, film critics and the American public did not accept Miranda's new image.
Though her film career was faltering, Miranda music career remained solid and she was still a popular attraction at nightclubs. From 1948 to 1950, Miranda teamed with The Andrews Sisters to produce and record three Decca singles. Their first collaboration was on radio in 1945 when Miranda guested on ABC's The Andrews Sisters Show. The first single, "Cuanto La Gusta", was the most popular (a best-selling record and a number-twelve Billboard hit). "The Wedding Samba" (#23) followed in 1950.
In 1948, she co-starred opposite Wallace Beery and Jane Powell in A Date with Judy, and Nancy Goes to Rio in 1950 for MGM. She made her final film appearance in the 1953 film Scared Stiff with Martin and Lewis for Paramount.
Following the release of Scared Stiff in April 1953, she embarked on a four-month European tour. After collapsing from exhaustion during a club performance in Ohio in October 1953, dates for her future tour were canceled. On the suggestion of her doctor, Miranda returned to Brazil to rest. Miranda was still hurt over the criticism she received there in 1940, but was happy when she received a warm reception upon her return. She remained in Brazil until April 1955.
On 17 March 1947, Miranda married American movie producer David Alfred Sebastian. In 1948 she became pregnant, but suffered a miscarriage. The marriage was reportedly rocky and her family claimed that Sebastian was abusive. In September 1949, the couple announced their separation, but they later reconciled.
On 4 August 1955, Miranda was taping a segment for the NBC variety series The Jimmy Durante Show. According to Durante, Miranda had complained of feeling unwell before taping. Durante offered to get Miranda a replacement but she declined. After completing a song and dance number, "Jackson, Miranda, and Gomez", with Durante, she fell to one knee. Durante later said of the incident, "...I thought she had slipped. She got up and said she was outa [sic] breath. I tells her I'll take her lines. But she goes ahead with 'em. We finished work about 11 o'clock and she seemed happy."
At around 4 a.m. on 5 August 1955, Miranda suffered a second, fatal heart attack at her home in Beverly Hills. The Jimmy Durante Show episode in which Miranda appeared was aired two months after her death. A clip of the episode was also included in the A&E Network's Biography episode about Miranda.
Funeral and burial
In accordance with her wishes, Miranda's body was flown back to Rio de Janeiro where the Brazilian government declared a period of national mourning. 60,000 people attended her mourning ceremony at the Rio town hall, and more than half a million Brazilians escorted the funeral cortège to her resting place.
Miranda's Hollywood image was one of a generic Latinness that blurred the distinctions between Brazil, Portugal, Argentina, and Mexico as well as between samba, tango and habanera. It was carefully stylized and outlandishly flamboyant. She was often shown wearing platform sandals and towering headdresses made of fruit, becoming famous as "the lady in the tutti-frutti hat."
Miranda's enormous, fruit-laden hats are iconic visuals recognized around the world. These costumes led to Saks Fifth Avenue developing a line of turbans and jewelry inspired by Carmen Miranda in 1939. Many costume jewelry designers made fruit jewelry also inspired by Carmen Miranda which is still highly valued and collectible by vintage and antique costume jewelry collectors . Fruit jewelry is still popular in jewelry design today. Much of the fruit jewelry seen today is often still called "Carmen Miranda jewelry" because of this.
Her image was much satirized and taken up as camp, and today, the "Carmen Miranda" persona is popular among drag performers. The style was even emulated in animated cartoon shorts. The animation department at Warner Brothers seemed to be especially fond of the actress's image. Animator Virgil Ross used it in his short Slick Hare, featuring Bugs Bunny, who escapes from Elmer Fudd by hiding in the fruit hat. Bugs himself mimics Miranda briefly in What's Cookin' Doc? Tex Avery also used it in his MGM short Magical Maestro when an opera singer is temporarily changed into the persona, fruit hat and all, via a magician's wand.
- On 25 September 1998, a city square in Hollywood was named Carmen Miranda Square in a ceremony headed by longtime honorary mayor of Hollywood, Johnny Grant, who was also one of the singer's personal friends dating back to World War II. Brazil's Consul General Jorió Gama was on hand for opening remarks, as were members of Bando da Lua, Carmen Miranda's original band. Carmen Miranda Square is only one of about a dozen Los Angeles city intersections named for historic performers. The square is located at the intersection of Hollywood Boulevard and Orange Drive across from Grauman's Chinese Theater. The location is especially noteworthy not only since Carmen Miranda's footprints are preserved in concrete at Grauman's Chinese Theatre's, but in remembrance of an impromptu performance at a nearby Hollywood Boulevard intersection on V-J Day where she was joined by a throng of servicemen from the nearby USO.
- A museum dedicated to Carmen Miranda is located in Rio de Janeiro in the Flamengo neighborhood on Avenida Rui Barbosa. The museum includes several original costumes, and shows clips from her filmography. There is also a museum dedicated to her in Marco de Canaveses, Portugal called "Museu Municipal Carmen Miranda", with various photos and one of the famous hats. Outside the museum there is a statue of Carmen Miranda.
In popular culture
Books and films
- In Episode 10, Cycle 12 of America's Next Top Model the models embodied Brazilian icon Carmen Miranda in a photoshoot.
- Helena Solberg made a documentary of Miranda's life entitled Carmen Miranda: Bananas Is My Business, in 1995.
- Brazilian author Ruy Castro wrote a biography of Carmen Miranda entitled Carmen, published in 2005 in Brazil. This book has yet to appear in English.
- In the TV-Show Modern Family Cameron disguises his two years old daughter Lily as Carmen Miranda for a photoshoot.
- In the movie Gangster Squad, released in January 2013, Miranda is portrayed by Yvette Tucker performing in Slapsy Maxie's nightclub.
- Brazilian singer Ney Matogrosso's album Batuque, brings the period and several of Miranda's early hits back to life in faithful style. Caetano Veloso paid tribute to Miranda for her early samba recordings made in Rio when he recorded "Disseram que Voltei Americanizada" on the live album Circuladô Vivo in 1992. He also examined her legacy of both kitsch and sincere samba artistry in an essay in the New York Times. Additionally, on one of Veloso's most popular songs, "Tropicalia", Veloso sings "Viva a banda da da da....Carmen Miranda da da da" as the final lyrics of the song.
- Singer/songwriter Jimmy Buffett included a tribute to Carmen Miranda on his 1973 album A White Sport Coat and a Pink Crustacean, entitled "They Don't Dance Like Carmen No More."
- In the early 1970s a novelty act known as Daddy Dewdrop had a top 10 hit single in the US titled "Chick-A-Boom," one of Miranda's trademark song phrases, although the resemblance ended there.
- Pink Martini recorded "Tempo perdido" for their 2007 album Hey Eugene!.
- Singer Leslie Fish wrote a song called "Carmen Miranda's Ghost Is Haunting Space Station Three", in which a space station is inundated with fresh fruit. A science fiction anthology later had the same title.
- John Cale, a member of the Velvet Underground, issued a song called "The Soul of Carmen Miranda" on his album Words for the Dying.
|1933||A Voz do Carnaval||Herself at Rádio Mayrink Veiga|
|1935||Alô, Alô, Brasil|
|1936||Alô Alô Carnaval|
|1940||Down Argentine Way||Herself|
|1941||That Night in Rio||Carmen|
|1941||Week-End in Havana||Rosita Rivas|
|1941||Meet the Stars #5: Hollywood Meets the Navy||Herself||Short subject|
|1942||Springtime in the Rockies||Rosita Murphy|
|1943||The Gang's All Here||Dorita||Alternative title: The Girls He Left Behind|
|1944||Greenwich Village||Princess Querida|
|1944||Something for the Boys||Chiquita Hart|
|1944||Four Jills in a Jeep||Herself|
|1945||The All-Star Bond Rally||Herself (Pinup girl)|
|1945||Doll Face||Chita Chula||Alternative title: Come Back to Me|
|1946||If I'm Lucky||Michelle O'Toole|
|1947||Copacabana||Carmen Novarro/Mademoiselle Fifi|
|1948||A Date with Judy||Rosita Cochellas|
|1949||The Ed Wynn Show||Herself||Episode #1.2|
|1949 to 1952||Texaco Star Theater||Herself||4 episodes|
|1950||Nancy Goes to Rio||Marina Rodrigues|
|1951||Don McNeill's TV Club||Herself||Episode #1.25|
|1951||What's My Line?||Mystery Guest||November 18, 1951 episode|
|1951 to 1952||The Colgate Comedy Hour||Herself||3 episodes|
|1951 to 1953||All-Star Revue||Herself||2 episodes|
|1953||Scared Stiff||Carmelita Castinha|
|1953||Toast of the Town||Herself||Episode #7.1|
|1955||The Jimmy Durante Show||Herself||Episode #2.2|
- "Entre Outras Coisas"
- "Esqueci de Sorrir"
- "Foi Numa Noite Assim"
- "Fogueira Do Meu Coração"
- "Fruto Proibido"
- "Cor de Guiné"
- "Casaco de Tricô"
- "Dia de Natal"
- "Fala, Meu Pandeiro"
- "Deixa Esse Povo Falar"
- "Sonho de Papel" (recorded with Orchestra Odeon on 10 May 1935)
- "E Bateu-Se a Chapa" (recorded with Regional de Benedito Lacerda on 26 June 1935)
- "O Tique-Taque do Meu Coração" (recorded with Regional de Benedito Lacerda on 7 August 1935)
- "Adeus, Batucada" (recorded with Odeon Orchestra on 24 September 1935)
- "Querido Adão" (recorded with Orchestra Odeon on 26 September 1935)
- "Alô, Alô, Carnaval"
- "Capelinha do Coração:
- "Cuíca, Pandeiro, Tamborim..."
- "Beijo Bamba"
- "Entra no cordão"
- "Como Eu Chorei"
- "Cantores do Rádio" (recorded with Aurora Miranda and Orchestra Odeon on 18 March 1936)
- "No Tabuleiro da Baiana" (recorded with Louis Barbosa and Regional Luperce Miranda on 29 September 1936)
- "Como Vaes" Você?" (recorded with Ary Barroso and Regional Luperce Pixinguinha and Miranda on 2 October 1936)
- "Dance Rumba"
- "Em Tudo, Menos em Ti"
- "Canjiquinha Quente"
- "Cabaret No Morro"
- "Baiana Do Tabuleiro"
- "Dona Geisha"
- "Cachorro Vira-Lata" (recorded with Regional de Benedito Lacerda on 4 May 1937)
- "Me Dá, Me Dá" (recorded with Regional de Benedito Lacerda on 4 May 1937)
- "Camisa Amarela" (recorded with the Odeon Group on 20 September 1937)
- "Eu Dei" (recorded with Regional Odeon on 21 September 1937)
- "Endereço Errado"
- "Escrevi um Bilhetinho"
- "Batalhão do amor"
- "E a Festa, Maria?"
- "Cuidado Com a Gaita do Ary"
- "A Pensão Da Dona Stella"
- "A Vizinha Das Vantagens"
- "Samba Rasgado (recorded with Odeon Group on 7 March 1938)
- "E o Mundo Não Se Acabou" ("And the World Would Not End") (recorded with Regional Odeon on 9 March 1938)
- "Boneca de Piche" (recorded with Admiral and Odeon Orchestra on 31 August 1938)
- "Na Baixa do Sapateiro" (recorded with Orchestra Odeon on 17 October 1938)
- "A Preta Do Acarajé"
- "Deixa Comigo"
- "Amor Ideal"
- "Essa Cabrocha"
- "A Nossa Vida Hoje É Diferente"
- "Cozinheira Grã-fina"
- "O Que É Que a Bahiana Tem?" (recorded with Dorival Caymmi and Regional Assembly on 27 February 1939)
- "Uva de Caminhão" (recorded with Joint Odeon on 21 March 1939)
- "Camisa Listada" (recorded with Bando da Lua on 28 August 1939))
- "Voltei pro Morro" (recorded with Joint Odeon on 2 September 1940)
- "Ela Diz Que Tem"
- "Disso É Que Eu Gosto"
- "Disseram que Voltei Americanizada" (recorded with Odeon Set on 2 September 1940)
- "Bruxinha de Pano"
- "O Dengo Que a Nêga Tem"
- "É Um Quê Que a Gente Tem"
- "Recenseamento" (recorded with Joint Odeon on 27 September 1940)
- "South American Way" (recorded with Bando da Lua and boy on 26 December 1939)
- "Touradas Em Madrid"
- "Marchinha do grande galo"
- "Mamãe Eu Quero"
- "Bambú, Bambú"
- "I, Yi, Yi, Yi, Yi (I Like You Very Much)" (recorded with Bando da Lua on 5 January 1941)
- "Alô Alô"
- "Chica-Chica-Bum-Chic" (recorded with Bando da Lua on 5 January 1941)
- "Cai, Cai" (record with Bando da Lua on 5 January 1941)
- "Arca de Noé"
- "A Weekend In Havana"
- "Diz Que Tem..."
- "When I Love I Love"
- "Rebola, Bola" (recorded with the Bando da Lua on 9 October 1941)
- "The Man With the Lollipop Song"
- "Não Te Dou A Chupeta"
- "Thank You, North America"
- "Chattanooga Choo Choo" (recorded with Bando da Lua and boy on 25 July 1942)
- "Tic-tac do Meu Coração"
- "O Passo Do Kanguru (Brazilly Willy)"
- "Boncea de Pixe"
- "Upa! Upa!"
- "Tico Tico"
- "The Matador (Touradas Em Madrid)" (recorded with The Andrews Sisters and Vic Schoen & his orchestra)
- "Cuanto La Gusta" (recorded with The Andrews Sisters and Vic Schoen & his orchestra)
- "Asi Asi (I See, I See)" (recorded with The Andrews Sisters and Vic Schoen & his orchestra)
- "The Wedding Samba" (recorded with The Andrews Sisters and Vic Schoen & his orchestra)
- "Baião Ca Room' Pa Pa" (recorded with The Andrews Sisters and Vic Schoen & his orchestra)
- "Ipse-A-I-O" (recorded with The Andrews Sisters and Vic Schoen & his orchestra)
- (McGowan 1998, p. 32)
- "Carmen Miranda Dies Following Heart Attack". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 1955-08-06. p. 1. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- Bloom, Stephen G. (1984-08-24). "After 30 years, Carmen Miranda still a bombshell". Edmonton Journal. p. B5. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- (Dennison 2004, p. 112)
- (Tompkins 2001, p. 192)
- "The century of the Brazilian Bombshell". It's time for Brazil in Singapore (Singapore: Sun Media): 63.
- Vinson, Bill; Casey, Ginger Quering. "S.S. Uruguay". Welcome Aboard Moore-McCormack Lines. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- Atkinson, Brooks. "The Streets of Paris Moves to Broadway". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- (Ruíz 2005, p. 199)
- (Parish 2003, p. 606)
- (Ruíz 2005, p. 200)
- Amanda Ellis, “Captivating a Country With Her Curves: Examining the Importance of Carmen Miranda’s Iconography in Creating National Identities.”(Masters Thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo, 2008), 31-33
- Shari Roberts. “The Lady in the Tutti-Frutti Hat: Carmen Miranda, a Spectacle of Ethnicity,” Cinema Journal 32, no. 3 (1993): 6.
- "Large Earnings By Films Stars". The Age. 1946-06-17. p. 3. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- (Tompkins 2001, p. 195)
- (Parish 2003, pp. 607–608)
- (Parish 2003, p. 608)
- (Sforza 2000, p. 289)
- (Hadley-Garcia 1990, p. 123)
- "Carmen Miranda Set For Trial Separation". Toledo Blade. 1949-09-27. p. 3. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- (Ruíz 2005, p. 206)
- "Death Takes Carmen Miranda". Oxnard Press-Courier. 1955-08-06. p. 5. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- (Brioux 2007, p. 176)
- "Carmen Miranda Of Movies Dies". The Milwaukee Sentinel. 1955-08-06. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- (Bakish 2007, p. 136)
- (Ruíz 2005, p. 207)
- (Ruíz 2005, p. 193)
- Lawrence, Sandra (12 August 2003). "Brazil: In search of the queen of samba". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
- (Tompkins 2001, p. 191)
- Tobar, Hector; Trevino, Joseph (1998-09-26). "Some City Squares Bring Lives, and History, Full Circle". Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- Bakish, David (2007). Jimmy Durante: His Show Business Career, With a Annotated Filmography and Discography. McFarland. ISBN 0-786-43022-2
- Brioux, Bill (2007). Truth and Rumors: The Reality Behind TV's Most Famous Myths. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-99247-0
- Dennison, Stephanie; Shaw, Lisa (2004). Popular Cinema in Brazil, 1930–2001. Manchester University Press. pp. 112. ISBN 0-7190-6499-6
- Hadley-Garcia, George (1990). Hispanic Hollywood: The Latins in Motion Pictures. Carol Pub. Group. ISBN 0-8065-1185-0
- McGowan, Chris; Pessanha, Ricardo (1998). The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova, and the Popular Music of Brazil. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-545-3
- Parish, James Robert; Pitts, Michael R. (2003). Hollywood Songsters: Singers Who ACT and Actors Who Sing: A Biographical Dictionary (2 ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-94333-7
- Ruíz, Vicki; Sánchez Korrol, Virginia, (2005). Latina Legacies: Identity, Biography, and Community: Identity, Biography, and Community. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-195-15399-5
- Sforza, John (2000). Swing It! The Andrews Sisters Story. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-813-12136-1
- Tompkins, Cynthia Margarita; Foster, David William (2001). Notable Twentieth-Century Latin American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-31112-9
- Cardoso, Abel. Carmen Miranda, a Cantora d Brasil. Sorocaba. 1978. (Portuguese)
- Castro, Ruy. Carmen: Uma Biografia. Companhia das Letras. 2005. 8535907602. (Portuguese)
- Gil-Montero, Martha. Brazilian Bombshell. Dutton Adult. 1988. 978-1556111280.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Carmen Miranda|
- Carmen Miranda at the Internet Broadway Database
- Carmen Miranda at the Internet Movie Database
- Carmen Miranda at the TCM Movie Database
- International Jose Guillermo Carrillo Foundation (Portuguese)
- Carmen Miranda at Brightlightsfilm.com
- Carmen Miranda - Brazil on YouTube
- Carmen Miranda on The Jimmy Durante Show (Part 2) on YouTube
- Carmen Miranda at Find a Grave