Miranda in the 1943 film The Gang's All Here
|Born||Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha
9 February 1909
Marco de Canaveses, Portugal
|Died||5 August 1955
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
|Cause of death||Heart attack|
|Resting place||Cemitério São João Batista|
|Other names||The Brazilian Bombshell
The Chiquita Banana Girl
|Education||Convent of Saint Therese of Lisieux|
|Occupation||Singer, dancer, actress|
|Spouse(s)||David Alfred Sebastian (m. 1947–55)|
Carmen Miranda, GCIH (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈkaɾmẽȷ̃ miˈɾɐ̃dɐ], 9 February 1909 – 5 August 1955) was a Portuguese-born Brazilian samba singer, dancer, Broadway actress, and film star who was popular from the 1930s to the 1950s.
Miranda began her singing career in 1929, and enjoyed 10 years as a major Brazilian singing star. In 1939 she moved to the United States to perform on Broadway on contract with the American theatre owner Lee Shubert. In 1940, 20th Century Fox invited Carmen to star in the film Down Argentine Way. The movie was criticised in Brazil and Argentina, but it was a success with the American public, and she was encouraged by the United States government as part of President Roosevelt's Good Neighbour Policy – designed to strengthen links with Latin America. Nicknamed "The Brazilian Bombshell", Miranda is noted for her signature fruit hat outfit she wore in her American films, particularly in 1943's The Gang's All Here. By 1945, she was the highest paid woman in the United States.
Miranda made a total of fourteen Hollywood films between 1940 and 1953. Though hailed as a talented performer, her popularity waned by the end of World War II. She later grew to resent the stereotypical "Brazilian Bombshell" image she cultivated and attempted to break free of it with limited success.
On 4 August 1955, Miranda unknowingly suffered a mild heart attack while performing during the filming of an episode of The Jimmy Durante Show. She finished the show but died the following morning after suffering a second heart attack.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Image
- 5 Museum Carmen Miranda
- 6 Legacy
- 7 Gallery
- 8 In popular culture
- 9 Impact on the Relationship Between North and South America
- 10 Filmography
- 11 Singles
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Bibliography
- 15 External links
Carmen Miranda was born Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha in Várzea da Ovelha e Aliviada, a village in the northern Portuguese municipality of Marco de Canaveses. She was the second daughter of José Maria Pinto da Cunha (17 February 1887 – 21 June 1938) and Maria Emília Miranda (10 March 1886 – Rio de Janeiro, 9 November 1971). In 1909 when she was ten months old, her father emigrated alone to Brazil and settled in Rio de Janeiro, where he opened a barber shop. Her mother followed in 1910 with their daughters Olinda and Maria do Carmo. Maria do Carmo, later Carmen, never returned to Portugal, but retained her Portuguese nationality. In Brazil, her parents had four more children: Amaro (1911), Cecília (1913), Aurora (1915–2005) and Óscar (1916).
She was christened Carmen by her father because of his love for the opera comique, and also after Bizet's masterpiece Carmen. This passion for opera influenced his children, and Miranda's love for singing and dancing at an early age. She went to school at the Convent of Saint Therese of Lisieux. Her father did not approve of her plans to enter show business. However, her mother supported her and was beaten when her husband discovered Miranda had auditioned for a radio show. She had previously sung at parties and festivals in Rio. Her older sister Olinda contracted tuberculosis and was sent to Portugal for treatment. Miranda went to work in a tie shop at age 14 to help pay her sister's medical bills. She next worked in a boutique, where she learned to make hats and opened her own hat business which became profitable.
composed by Assis Valente and recorded by Carmen Miranda in 1939.
|Problems playing these files? See media help.|
Miranda was discovered when she was first introduced to composer Josué de Barros, who went on to promote and record her first album with Brunswick, a German recording company in 1929. In 1930, she was known to be Brazil's gem singer, and in 1933 went on to sign a two-year contract with Rádio Mayrink Veiga, becoming the first contract singer in the radio industry history of Brazil. In 1934, she was invited as a guest performer in Radio Belgrano in Buenos Aires. Ultimately, Miranda signed a recording contract with RCA Records. She led a successful career as a singer for ten years, singing in many popular styles, such as the samba and the Marchinha.
As with other popular singers of the era, Miranda made her screen debut in the Brazilian documentary A Voz Do Carnaval (1933). Two years later, she appeared in her first feature film entitled Alô, Alô Brasil. But it was the 1935 film Estudantes that seemed to solidify her in the minds of the movie-going public. In the 1936 movie Alô Alô Carnaval, she performed the famous song "Cantoras do Rádio" with her sister Aurora, for the first time.
Although during her later career Miranda would become primarily identified with her colorful fruit-hat costume and image, she only adopted that costume in 1939. In that year she appeared in the film Banana-da-Terra, where she wore a glamorized version of the traditional costume of a poor black girl of Bahia: flowing dress and fruit-hat turban. Singing the song "O que é que a Baiana Tem?" ("What does a Baiana have?"), the intent was to empower a social class which was usually looked down upon.
Most played songs on radio of Brazil (1930-1942)
|1930||#1||Tahi (Pra Você Gostar de Mim)||Sales have exceeded 35,000 copies (a record at the time)|
|#14||Eu Gosto da Minha Terra|
|#20||Eu Quero Casar Com Você|
|1931||#7||Sonhei Que Era Feliz||with the Grupo da Velha Guarda|
|#33||Eu Sou do Barulho|
|#58||Tahi (Pra Você Gostar de Mim)|
|#75||Carnavá Tá Aí|
|#85||Eu Gosto da Minha Terra|
|1932||#24||Tenho Um Novo Amor|
|#39||Mulato de Qualidade|
|#54||Quando Me Lembro|
|#71||Sonhei Que Era Feliz|
|#72||Nosso Amor Veio D'Um Sonho|
|#98||Por Causa de Você|
|1933||#1||Alô Alô||with Mário Reis|
|#7||Chegou a Hora da Fogueira||with Mário Reis|
|#22||Tempo Perdido||with Os Diabos do Céu|
|#41||Pra Quem Sabe Dar Valor||with Carlos Galhardo|
|#65||Fala Meu Bem|
|1934||#2||Na Batucada da Vida|
|#8||Isto é Lá Com Santo Antonio||with Mário Reis|
|#13||Primavera no Rio|
|#16||Minha Embaixada Chegou|
|#42||O Samba é Carioca|
|#63||Alô Alô||with Mário Reis|
|#70||Perdi Minha Mascote||with Patrício Teixeira|
|#75||Uma Vezinha Só|
|#79||Eu Também||with Lamartine Babo|
|#95||Balão Que Muito Sobe|
|#98||Ao Voltar do Samba|
|1935||#2||Sonho de Papel|
|#11||Fogueira do Meu Coração|
|#18||Anoiteceu||with Os Diabos do Céu|
|#34||Minha Embaixada Chegou|
|#50||Foi Numa Noite Assim|
|#65||Queixas de Colombina|
|#76||Tic-Tac do Meu Coração|
|#87||Recadinho de Papai Noel||with Os Diabos do Céu|
|1936||#5||No Tabuleiro da Baiana||with Luiz Barbosa|
|#48||Cantores de Rádio|
|#50||Como "Vaes" Você|
|#56||Fala, Meu Pandeiro|
|#71||Sambista da Cinelândia|
|1937||#22||Eu Dei||with Lamartine Babo|
|#35||Me Dá, Me Dá|
|#56||Entra no Cordão|
|#4||Na Baixa do Sapateiro|
|#13||Boneca de Piche||with Almirante|
|#37||E o Mundo Não Se Acabou|
|1939||#1||O Que é Que a Baiana Tem?||with Dorival Caymmi|
|#9||Uva de Caminhão|
|1940||#12||Voltei pro Morro|
|#22||Mamãe Eu Quero (I Want My Mamma)|
|#26||Disseram Que Voltei Americanizada|
|1941||#25||Chica Chica Boom Chic|
|#45||Ela Diz Que Tem|
|#56||Rebola a Bola|
|#79||Arca de Noé|
|#90||When I Love, I Love|
|#100||Tic-Tac do Meu Coração|
American stage and films
After seeing one of her performances in Rio, theatre owner Lee Shubert signed Miranda and her band, the Bando da Lua, to a contract. In 1939 Miranda sailed from Brazil aboard the ocean liner SS Uruguay, arriving in New York on 18 May. She made her US stage debut on 29 May 1939, in Boston in The Streets of Paris, opposite Abbott and Costello, with the success of Miranda, Shubert held out the season in the city, only the following month on 19 June, is that Carmen Miranda made its debut in the Broadway, on stage at the Broadhurst Theatre. Although her part was small (she only spoke four words), Miranda received good reviews and became a media sensation. Her fame grew quickly, having formally been presented to President Franklin D. Roosevelt at a White House banquet shortly after arrival. She was encouraged by the United States government as part of President Roosevelt's Good Neighbor policy, designed to strengthen links with Latin America and Europe; it was believed that in delivering content like hers, the policy would be better received by the American public.
Nicknamed "The Brazilian Bombshell", his exuberant style and exotic, called in Hollywood of "Miranda Look" revolutionized the concept of fashion in the 30s. The exotic costumes, platform shoes, hats, turbans and fancy accessories were imitated and recreated everywhere.
In 1940, 20th Century Fox signed her to a contract for a one-time appearance in Down Argentine Way. She received good reviews for her performance prompting Fox to sign her to a long-term film contract.
While Miranda's popularity in the United States continued to rise, she began to lose favor with some Brazilians. On 10 July 1940, she returned to Brazil where she was welcomed by cheering fans. Soon after her arrival, however, the Brazilian press began criticizing Miranda for giving in to American commercialism and projecting a negative image of Brazil. Members of the upper class felt her image was "too black" and she was criticized in one Brazilian newspaper for "singing bad-tasting black sambas". Other Brazilians criticized her for playing up the stereotype of a "Latina bimbo" after her first interview upon arriving in the United States. In an interview with the New York World-Telegram, Miranda discussed her then limited knowledge of the English language stating, "I say money, money, money. I say twenty words in English. I say money, money, money and I say hot dog!".
On 15 July, she appeared at a charity concert organized by Brazilian First Lady Darci Vargas. The concert was attended by members of Brazil's high society. She greeted the audience in English but was met with silence. When Miranda began singing a song from one of her club acts, "The South American Way", the audience began to boo her. She attempted to finish her act but gave up and left the stage after the audience continued to boo. The incident deeply hurt Miranda and she later cried in her dressing room. The following day, the Brazilian press criticized her for being "too Americanized". Weeks later, Miranda responded to the criticism with the Portuguese language song "Disseram que Voltei Americanizada" (or "They Say I've Come Back Americanized"). Another song, "Bananas Is My Business," was based on a line in one of her movies and directly addressed her image. She was greatly upset by the criticism and did not return to Brazil again for fourteen years.
Miranda's films came under harsh scrutiny by Latin American audiences for characterizing Central and South America in a culturally homogenous way. When her films hit theatres in Central and South America, it was strongly felt that the films depicted Latin American cultures through the lens of American preconceptions, and not as they actually were. Many Latin Americans felt their cultures were being misrepresented, and felt that someone from their own region, Carmen Miranda, was misrepresenting them. Her film Down Argentine Way (1940) was met with heavy criticism, with pundits in Argentina claiming that it failed to depict Argentinean culture. It was alleged that lyrics throughout the movie were filled with non-Argentine themes, and that the sets were not strictly Argentinean, but rather, a fusion of cultures from Mexico, Cuba, and Brazil. The film was subsequently banned in Argentina, for "wrongfully portraying life in Buenos Aires."  Similar sentiments arose in Cuba after the debut of Miranda's film, Weekend in Havana (1941). Cuban audiences were offended by Miranda's portrayal of the Cuban woman. Reviewers of the film asserted that an import from Rio could not possibly portray a woman from Havana. Further, they claimed that throughout the film Miranda does not "dance anything Cuban." Miranda's performances, it was argued, were merely hybridizations of Brazilian culture and other Latin cultures. Critics contend that her other films likewise misrepresented Latin locales, by assuming that Brazilian culture could suffice as a direct representation of Latin America.
Upon returning to the United States, Miranda kept up her film career in Hollywood while also appearing on Broadway and performing in clubs and restaurants. In 1941, she shared the screen with Alice Faye and Don Ameche in That Night in Rio. Later that same year, she teamed up with Alice Faye again in Week-End in Havana. Miranda was now earning $5,000 a week. On 24 March 1941, she became one of the first Latinas to leave her hand and footprints in the sidewalk of the Grauman's Chinese Theater.
In 1943, she appeared in one of her more notable films The Gang's All Here. The following year, Miranda made a cameo appearance in Four Jills in a Jeep. By 1945, she had become Hollywood's highest-paid entertainer and top female tax payer in the United States, earning more than $200,000 that year ($2.2 million in 2010 adjusted for inflation).
After World War II ended in 1945, the American public's tastes began to change and musicals began to fall out of favor. Hollywood studio heads and producers also felt that the novelty of Miranda's "Brazilian bombshell" image had worn thin. As a result, Miranda's career declined. She made one last film for Fox, Doll Face (1945), before her contract was terminated in January 1946.
She later signed a contract with Universal but at the time, Universal was undergoing a merger with another studio. Due to a change in management, no films for Miranda were planned. Eager to break away from her well established image, Miranda attempted to branch out with different roles. In 1946, she portrayed an Irish American character in If I'm Lucky. The following year, she played dual roles opposite Groucho Marx in Copacabana for United Artists. While the films were modest hits, film critics and the American public did not accept Miranda's new image.
Though her film career was faltering, Miranda's music career remained solid and she was still a popular attraction at nightclubs. From 1948 to 1950, Miranda teamed with The Andrews Sisters to produce and record three Decca singles. Their first collaboration was on radio in 1945 when Miranda guested on ABC's The Andrews Sisters Show. The first single, "Cuanto La Gusta", was the most popular (a best-selling record and a number-twelve Billboard hit). "The Wedding Samba" (#23) followed in 1950.
In 1948, she co-starred opposite Wallace Beery and Jane Powell in A Date with Judy, and Nancy Goes to Rio in 1950 for MGM. She made her final film appearance in the 1953 film Scared Stiff with Martin and Lewis for Paramount.
Following the release of Scared Stiff in April 1953, she embarked on a four-month European tour. After collapsing from exhaustion during a club performance in Ohio in October 1953, dates for her future tour were canceled. On the suggestion of her doctor, Miranda returned to Brazil to rest. Miranda was still hurt over the criticism she received there in 1940, but was happy when she received a warm reception upon her return. She remained in Brazil until April 1955.
The Fortune of Carmen Miranda
According to information provided by people from the family of Miranda, she possessed eight oil wells in the state of Texas in partnership with Clark Gable, John Wayne and Rosalind Russell. A luxury residence in Beverly Hills and a vacation home in Palm Springs, and various terrains.
Since 2008, the heirs of Carmen Miranda created the 'Carmen Miranda Administração e Licenciamento LTDA.', the company is responsible for protecting and administering the artistic legacy of Carmen Miranda. The image in its wider meaning, the name, voice, interpretations of the artist are protected by the law of copyright. All rights remain with his family until 2025.
On 17 March 1947, Miranda married American Jewish movie producer David Alfred Sebastian. In 1948 she became pregnant, but suffered a miscarriage. The marriage was reportedly rocky and her family claimed that Sebastian was abusive. In September 1949, the couple announced their separation, but they later reconciled.
On 4 August 1955, Miranda was filming a segment for the NBC variety series The Jimmy Durante Show. According to Durante, Miranda had complained of feeling unwell before filming. Durante offered to get Miranda a replacement but she declined. After completing a song and dance number, "Jackson, Miranda, and Gomez", with Durante, she fell to one knee. Durante later said of the incident, "... I thought she had slipped. She got up and said she was outa [sic] breath. I tells her I'll take her lines. But she goes ahead with 'em. We finished work about 11 o'clock and she seemed happy."
At around 4 a.m. on 5 August 1955, Miranda suffered a second, fatal heart attack at her home in Beverly Hills. The Jimmy Durante Show episode in which Miranda appeared was aired two months after her death. A clip of the episode was also included in the A&E Network's Biography episode about Miranda.
The tragic and untimely death of Carmen Miranda caused great consternation in Hollywood, where the Brazilian actress lived.
The singer Jane Powell exclaimed:
"I can not believe it! How a person can such graceful and full of life no longer exists."
"Carmen Miranda was a great actress who brought a new professional style to the theater and the cinema. His personality was so vivacious and dazzling that it could hardly be replaced."
The actor George Murphy, speaking as spokesman for the Hollywood Film Industry, said:
"Carmen was one of the most outstanding actresses of our time. Cause deep pain to know that this great actress that with such grace represented a major Latin American country, skirt of scene forever."
In the Brazil, Mr. Manuel Barcelos, president of the Association Brazilian of Radio, said:
"You will in this August 13, go with God, and leaves us crying, crying forever."
Funeral and burial
In accordance with her wishes, Miranda's body was flown back to Rio de Janeiro where the Brazilian government declared a period of national mourning. 60,000 people attended her mourning ceremony at the Rio town hall, and more than half a million Brazilians escorted the funeral cortège to her resting place.
The Brazil's President Café Filho, appointed the commander José Maria do Amaral to represent the government at the funeral and present condolences to the family of the artist. At the time, the Brazilian government declared three days of national mourning.
The american embassy in the Rio de Janeiro appointed Mr. Lawrence Morris, cultural attaché, to represent the American ambassador James Dunn in acts funebres and on behalf of the U.S. government sent flowers to the funeral of popular brazilian singer.
Miranda's singing range was a light contralto. Her hollywood image was one of a generic Latinness that blurred the distinctions between Brazil, Portugal, Argentina, and Mexico as well as between samba, tango and habanera. It was carefully stylized and outlandishly flamboyant. She was often shown wearing platform sandals and towering headdresses made of fruit, becoming famous as "the lady in the tutti-frutti hat."
Miranda's enormous, fruit-laden hats are iconic visuals recognized around the world. These costumes led to Saks Fifth Avenue developing a line of turbans and jewelry inspired by Carmen Miranda in 1939. Many costume jewelry designers made fruit jewelry also inspired by Carmen Miranda which is still highly valued and collectible by vintage and antique costume jewelry collectors . Fruit jewelry is still popular in jewelry design today. Much of the fruit jewelry seen today is often still called "Carmen Miranda jewelry" because of this.
Her image was much satirized and taken up as camp, and today, the "Carmen Miranda" persona is popular among drag performers. The style was even emulated in animated cartoon shorts. The animation department at Warner Brothers seemed to be especially fond of the actress's image. Animator Virgil Ross used it in his short Slick Hare, featuring Bugs Bunny, who escapes from Elmer Fudd by hiding in the fruit hat. Bugs himself mimics Miranda briefly in What's Cookin' Doc? Tex Avery also used it in his MGM short Magical Maestro when an opera singer is temporarily changed into the persona, fruit hat and all, via a magician's wand.
In the short film (Watercolor of Brazil) of the film 'Saludos Amigos' (1942) of Disney, Carmen Miranda appears dancing at the Casino da Urca (famous live house of Rio de Janeiro) with Donald Duck the music Aquarela do Brasil of Ary Barroso.
In 1951, Lucille Ball does an imitation of Miranda on an episode of I Love Lucy. Before this show, in which Lucille Ball lip-synchs to a record of Carmen Miranda singing "Mama Yo Quiero", Lucy asked Miranda for permission to impersonate her. Rosalind Russell and Teresa Wright were in the studio audience when this episode was filmed. After the show, they posed for a photograph with Desi and Lucy, who was still wearing her "Carmen Miranda" costume. The picture appears in "The I Love Lucy Book" by Bart Andrews.
Museum Carmen Miranda
The is museum dedicated to Brazilian Bombshell, one of the most famous Brazilian singers and international symbol of the country, is located in the Flamengo Park, the museum has a collection of over 3000 items. This space belongs to the State Secretary of Culture of Rio de Janeiro.
On 25 September 1998, a city square in Hollywood was named Carmen Miranda Square in a ceremony headed by longtime honorary mayor of Hollywood, Johnny Grant, who was also one of the singer's personal friends dating back to World War II. Brazil's Consul General Jorió Gama was on hand for opening remarks, as were members of Bando da Lua, Carmen Miranda's original band. Carmen Miranda Square is only one of about a dozen Los Angeles city intersections named for historic performers. The square is located at the intersection of Hollywood Boulevard and Orange Drive across from Grauman's Chinese Theater. The location is especially noteworthy not only since Carmen Miranda's footprints are preserved in concrete at Grauman's Chinese Theatre, but in remembrance of an impromptu performance at a nearby Hollywood Boulevard intersection on V-J Day where she was joined by a throng of servicemen from the nearby USO.
In popular culture
Books and films
- In Episode 10, Cycle 12 of America's Next Top Model the models embodied Brazilian icon Carmen Miranda in a photoshoot.
- In 1995 she was the subject of the acclaimed documentary Carmen Miranda: Bananas Is My Business (directed by Helena Rosberg), winner of awards best documentary at the Chicago International Film Festival.
- In 1999, was released the book Carmen Miranda foi a Washington, which describes the trajectory of Brazilian international star, with all its political and artistic implications. The book was written by Ana Rita Mendonça.
- Brazilian author Ruy Castro wrote a biography of Carmen Miranda entitled Carmen, published in 2005 in Brazil. This book has yet to appear in English.
- In the TV-Show Modern Family Cameron disguises his two years old daughter Lily as Carmen Miranda for a photoshoot.
- In the movie Gangster Squad, released in January 2013, Miranda is portrayed by Yvette Tucker performing in Slapsy Maxie's nightclub.
- Brazilian singer Ney Matogrosso's album Batuque, brings the period and several of Miranda's early hits back to life in faithful style. Caetano Veloso paid tribute to Miranda for her early samba recordings made in Rio when he recorded "Disseram que Voltei Americanizada" on the live album Circuladô Vivo in 1992. He also examined her legacy of both kitsch and sincere samba artistry in an essay in the New York Times. Additionally, on one of Veloso's most popular songs, "Tropicalia", Veloso sings "Viva a banda da da da ... Carmen Miranda da da da" as the final lyrics of the song.
- Singer/songwriter Jimmy Buffett included a tribute to Carmen Miranda on his 1973 album A White Sport Coat and a Pink Crustacean, entitled "They Don't Dance Like Carmen No More."
- In the early 1970s a novelty act known as Daddy Dewdrop had a top 10 hit single in the US titled "Chick-A-Boom," one of Miranda's trademark song phrases, although the resemblance ended there.
- In the 1980s, the singer Rita Lee recorded the song I Like You Very Much for a special aired by Rede Globo. This song was popularized by Miranda the film That Night in Rio.
- In 1987, the singer Marisa Monte, recorded the song South American Way originally interpreted by Miranda in the movie Down Argentine Way on his album MM.
- In 1990, Adriana Calcanhoto has recorded on his album Enguiço the music Disseram que Voltei Americanizada.
- Pink Martini recorded "Tempo perdido" for their 2007 album Hey Eugene!.
- Singer Leslie Fish wrote a song called "Carmen Miranda's Ghost Is Haunting Space Station Three", in which a space station is inundated with fresh fruit. A science fiction anthology later had the same title.
- In his first solo album, the band's vocalist "Kid Abelha" Paula Toller, recorded the song "E o Mundo Não Se Acabou", composed by Assis Valente and recorded by Carmen Miranda in 1938. In 2008, Paula and the singer Sandy have made a duet with the same music during the Latin Grammy Awards.
- John Cale, a member of the Velvet Underground, issued a song called "The Soul of Carmen Miranda" on his album Words for the Dying.
- In 2004, the Brazilian singer Ivete Sangalo, has recorded in its sixth album MTV ao Vivo (the first live) one of the biggest hits of Carmen Miranda, the song 'Chica Chica Boom Chic'.
- In 2009, the singer Daniela Mercury recorded on his album Canibália the songs Tico-Tico no Fubá and O que é que a Baiana Tem? where makes a "duet digital" with Miranda using the original phonograms of the song from 1939.
- During presentation at Rock in Rio 2013, the lead singer of The Gift Sonia Tavares took the stage with a Fruit hat on her head, the singer admitted in an interview to the channel Multishow that it was a homage to the singer Carmen Miranda.
Opening of the Confederations Cup
- During the opening of the Confederations Cup 2013, each of the 8 participating country was represented by popular figures of their culture. To represent the Brazil, actors were characterized as Indians and actresses dressed as Carmen Miranda, each with the flags of their respective countries.
Impact on the Relationship Between North and South America
- Carmen Miranda was featured in the song, on stage and in film and was the artist Brazilian that got greater success abroad and regarded for decades as a symbol of Brazil and the brazilian history. In his first interview in the United States, Miranda looked like a fool and it was this idea that Americans bought of artist. For them, the figure of the singer was linked to the delay of Latin America. She also served as a living figure of good neighborhood policy, which among other actions, chose the cinema as a means to effect the interests of the United States in Latin America.
- Carman Miranda crossed over from a Hollywood icon to an important figure in the struggle of women in the field of International Relations. Carman Miranda was discussed extensively in Cynthia Enloe's book, "Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics", London: Pandora Press, 1989, she has worked as a feminist researcher, author and activist. For much of her professional life she taught at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. Enloe is currently a research professor in the Department of International Development, Community, and Environment at Clark University.
- "Where are the Women?" is the central question leading her work. Enloe has published many books and numerous articles, on feminism, globalization and militarization. In Enloe's book "Bananas, Beaches and Bases" she explores "how the relations between governments depends not only on capital and weaponry but also on the control of women as symbols, consumers, works and emotional comforters". Specifically to Carman Miranda Enloe investigates the symbolic role that Carman Miranda played as a tool to help Latin America appear safer for the American banana companies at a time when US Imperialism was coming under wide Regional criticism. Enloe describes in the book the political and economic impact of Carman Miranda in the development of relationships between North and South America. Carman Miranda created the perception to Americans that investment and travel to Brazil and Latin America was stereotypically fun and attractive. Enloe explores how Carman Miranda's female sexuality allowed her to successfully represent the region as exotic, yet safe and non-threatening to outsiders (Sylvester, 33). Enloe also makes reference to other IR heroines such as Pocahontas and chamber maids in a Jamaican hotel (Sylvester, 33).
- Carman Miranda's appearance was non-threatening and entertaining; she was deemed the "Brazilian Bombshell" by the press after arriving in America (Enloe, 125). She wore outrageous head dresses and portrayed a feminine and theatrical character of Brazilian and Latin American people. By the 1940's Carman Miranda was becoming the stereotype of Latin American women, although her features were more European and her outfits were traditional to an extent, although westernized so they were more comfortable to the American audience (Enloe, 125).
When President Franklin Roosevelt launched the "Good Neighbour" policy he teamed up with influential people in Hollywood to work on the image America was portraying on a world scale as a militarist imperial approach to Latin American diplomacy (Enloe, 127). Carman Miranda was asked to act in the movie "Down Argentine Way" and sang the song "South American Way"; this was her contribution to the "Good Neighbour" policy (Enloe, 127).
|1933||A Voz do Carnaval||Herself at Rádio Mayrink Veiga|
|1935||Alô, Alô, Brasil|
|1936||Alô Alô Carnaval|
|1940||Down Argentine Way||Herself|
|1941||That Night in Rio||Carmen|
|1941||Week-End in Havana||Rosita Rivas|
|1941||Meet the Stars #5: Hollywood Meets the Navy||Herself||Short subject|
|1942||Springtime in the Rockies||Rosita Murphy|
|1943||The Gang's All Here||Dorita||Alternative title: The Girls He Left Behind|
|1944||Greenwich Village||Princess Querida|
|1944||Something for the Boys||Chiquita Hart|
|1944||Four Jills in a Jeep||Herself|
|1945||The All-Star Bond Rally||Herself (Pinup girl)|
|1945||Doll Face||Chita Chula||Alternative title: Come Back to Me|
|1946||If I'm Lucky||Michelle O'Toole|
|1947||Copacabana||Carmen Novarro/Mademoiselle Fifi|
|1948||A Date with Judy||Rosita Cochellas|
|1949||The Ed Wynn Show||Herself||Episode #1.2|
|1949 to 1952||Texaco Star Theater||Herself||4 episodes|
|1950||Nancy Goes to Rio||Marina Rodrigues|
|1951||Don McNeill's TV Club||Herself||Episode #1.25|
|1951||What's My Line?||Mystery Guest||18 November 1951 episode|
|1951 to 1952||The Colgate Comedy Hour||Herself||3 episodes|
|1951 to 1953||All-Star Revue||Herself||2 episodes|
|1953||Scared Stiff||Carmelita Castinha|
|1953||Toast of the Town||Herself||Episode #7.1|
|1955||The Jimmy Durante Show||Herself||Episode #2.2|
- "Entre Outras Coisas"
- "Esqueci de Sorrir"
- "Foi Numa Noite Assim"
- "Fogueira Do Meu Coração"
- "Fruto Proibido"
- "Cor de Guiné"
- "Casaco de Tricô"
- "Dia de Natal"
- "Fala, Meu Pandeiro"
- "Deixa Esse Povo Falar"
- "Sonho de Papel" (recorded with Orchestra Odeon on 10 May 1935)
- "E Bateu-Se a Chapa" (recorded with Regional de Benedito Lacerda on 26 June 1935)
- "O Tique-Taque do Meu Coração" (recorded with Regional de Benedito Lacerda on 7 August 1935)
- "Adeus, Batucada" (recorded with Odeon Orchestra on 24 September 1935)
- "Querido Adão" (recorded with Orchestra Odeon on 26 September 1935)
- "Alô, Alô, Carnaval"
- "Capelinha do Coração"
- "Cuíca, Pandeiro, Tamborim..."
- "Beijo Bamba"
- "Entra no cordão"
- "Como Eu Chorei"
- "Cantores do Rádio" (recorded with Aurora Miranda and Orchestra Odeon on 18 March 1936)
- "No Tabuleiro da Baiana" (recorded with Louis Barbosa and Regional Luperce Miranda on 29 September 1936)
- "Como Vaes Você?" (recorded with Ary Barroso and Regional Luperce Pixinguinha and Miranda on 2 October 1936)
- "Dance Rumba"
- "Em Tudo, Menos em Ti"
- "Canjiquinha Quente"
- "Cabaret No Morro"
- "Baiana Do Tabuleiro"
- "Dona Geisha"
- "Cachorro Vira-Lata" (recorded with Regional de Benedito Lacerda on 4 May 1937)
- "Me Dá, Me Dá" (recorded with Regional de Benedito Lacerda on 4 May 1937)
- "Camisa Amarela" (recorded with the Odeon Group on 20 September 1937)
- "Eu Dei" (recorded with Regional Odeon on 21 September 1937)
- "Endereço Errado"
- "Escrevi um Bilhetinho"
- "Batalhão do amor"
- "E a Festa, Maria?"
- "Cuidado Com a Gaita do Ary"
- "A Pensão Da Dona Stella"
- "A Vizinha Das Vantagens"
- "Samba Rasgado" (recorded with Odeon Group on 7 March 1938)
- "E o Mundo Não Se Acabou" ("And the World Would Not End") (recorded with Regional Odeon on 9 March 1938)
- "Boneca de Piche" (recorded with Admiral and Odeon Orchestra on 31 August 1938)
- "Na Baixa do Sapateiro" (recorded with Orchestra Odeon on 17 October 1938)
- "A Preta Do Acarajé"
- "Deixa Comigo"
- "Amor Ideal"
- "Essa Cabrocha"
- "A Nossa Vida Hoje É Diferente"
- "Cozinheira Grã-fina"
- "O Que É Que a Bahiana Tem?" (recorded with Dorival Caymmi and Regional Assembly on 27 February 1939)
- "Uva de Caminhão" (recorded with Joint Odeon on 21 March 1939)
- "Camisa Listada" (recorded with Bando da Lua on 28 August 1939)
- "Voltei pro Morro" (recorded with Joint Odeon on 2 September 1940)
- "Ela Diz Que Tem"
- "Disso É Que Eu Gosto"
- "Disseram que Voltei Americanizada" (recorded with Odeon Set on 2 September 1940)
- "Bruxinha de Pano"
- "O Dengo Que a Nêga Tem"
- "É Um Quê Que a Gente Tem"
- "Recenseamento" (recorded with Joint Odeon on 27 September 1940)
- "South American Way" (recorded with Bando da Lua and boy on 26 December 1939)
- "Touradas Em Madrid"
- "Marchinha do grande galo"
- "Mamãe Eu Quero"
- "Bambú, Bambú"
- "I, Yi, Yi, Yi, Yi (I Like You Very Much)" (recorded with Bando da Lua on 5 January 1941)
- "Alô Alô"
- "Chica-Chica-Bum-Chic" (recorded with Bando da Lua on 5 January 1941)
- "Cai, Cai" (record with Bando da Lua on 5 January 1941)
- "Arca de Noé"
- "A Weekend In Havana"
- "Diz Que Tem..."
- "When I Love I Love"
- "Rebola, Bola" (recorded with the Bando da Lua on 9 October 1941)
- "The Man With the Lollipop Song"
- "Não Te Dou A Chupeta"
- "Thank You, North America"
- "Chattanooga Choo Choo" (recorded with Bando da Lua and boy on 25 July 1942)
- "Tic-tac do Meu Coração"
- "O Passo Do Kanguru (Brazilly Willy)"
- "Boncea de Pixe"
- "Upa! Upa!"
- "Tico Tico"
- "The Matador (Touradas Em Madrid)" (recorded with The Andrews Sisters and Vic Schoen & his orchestra)
- "Cuanto La Gusta" (recorded with The Andrews Sisters and Vic Schoen & his orchestra)
- "Asi Asi (I See, I See)" (recorded with The Andrews Sisters and Vic Schoen & his orchestra)
- "The Wedding Samba" (recorded with The Andrews Sisters and Vic Schoen & his orchestra)
- "Baião Ca Room' Pa Pa" (recorded with The Andrews Sisters and Vic Schoen & his orchestra)
- "Ipse-A-I-O" (recorded with The Andrews Sisters and Vic Schoen & his orchestra)
- (McGowan 1998, p. 32)
- "Carmen Miranda Dies Following Heart Attack". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 1955-08-06. p. 1. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- Bloom, Stephen G. (1984-08-24). "After 30 years, Carmen Miranda still a bombshell". Edmonton Journal. p. B5. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- "Carmen Miranda Ep 1/3". BBC RADIO 2. 17 February 2009. p. BBC. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
- "The Real Carmen Miranda Under the Crown of Fruit". The New York Times. 13 December 2001. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- (Dennison 2004, p. 112)
- "No centenário, museu traz mais de 3 mil peças de Carmen Miranda". Alícia Uchôa. 9 February 2009. p. G1. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
- "Carmen Miranda, uma frágil mulher escondida sob um chapéu de frutas". Alicia García de Francisco. 9 February 2009. p. G1. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
- (Tompkins 2001, p. 192)
- "The century of the Brazilian Bombshell". It's time for Brazil in Singapore (Singapore: Sun Media): 63.
- film, Carmen Miranda: Bananas Is My Business (Brazil, 1995). Directed by Helena Solberg.
- Almanaque do samba: A Pequena Notável
- PARADAS DE SUCESSO - DE 1936 ATÉ HOJE - AMERICANAS E BRASILEIRAS
- Vinson, Bill; Casey, Ginger Quering. "S.S. Uruguay". Welcome Aboard Moore-McCormack Lines. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- (Parish 2003, p. 606)
- Atkinson, Brooks (20 June 1939). "The Streets of Paris Moves to Broadway". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- "Relato da estréia de Carmen Miranda em Nova York é de arrepiar; leia". Folha de São Paulo. 6 March 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- (Ruíz 2005, p. 199)
- "BIOGRAFIA DE CARMEN MIRANDA". Museus do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "CARMEN MIRANDA BIOGRAPHY". The Biography Channel. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- (Ruíz 2005, p. 200)
- Amanda Ellis, "Captivating a Country With Her Curves: Examining the Importance of Carmen Miranda's Iconography in Creating National Identities."(Masters Thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo, 2008), 31-33
- Shari Roberts. "The Lady in the Tutti-Frutti Hat: Carmen Miranda, a Spectacle of Ethnicity," Cinema Journal 32, no. 3 (1993): 6.
- "CERIMÔNIA EM HOMENAGEM À CARMEN MIRANDA NO CHINESE THEATER". Revista A Cena Muda. 15 April 1941. p. carmen.miranda.nom.br/. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Carmen Miranda: O que é que essa baiana tem?". Lika Rodrol. 5 August 2013. p. Guia do Estudante. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Large Earnings By Films Stars". The Age. 1946-06-17. p. 3. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- (Tompkins 2001, p. 195)
- (Parish 2003, pp. 607–608)
- (Parish 2003, p. 608)
- (Sforza 2000, p. 289)
- (Hadley-Garcia 1990, p. 123)
- "London Palladium - Variety Show 1948 Carmen Miranda". Lika Rodrol. p. Theatre Memorabiliae. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- O Estado de S. Paulo, Page.36, Edition of 13 August 1955.
- "Herdeiros se unem para gerir imagem de Carmen Miranda". LUIZ FERNANDO VIANNA. 8 February 2009. p. Folha de São Paulo. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Família de Carmen Miranda profissionaliza gestão da marca". CRISTINA TARDÁGUIL. 4 November 2011. p. O Globo. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "A face marqueteira de Carmen Miranda". Antonio Carlos Prado and Tamara Menezes. 28 March 2013. p. ISTOÉ Independente. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Carmen Miranda Set For Trial Separation". Toledo Blade. 1949-09-27. p. 3. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- (Ruíz 2005, p. 206)
- "Death Takes Carmen Miranda". Oxnard Press-Courier. 1955-08-06. p. 5. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- (Brioux 2007, p. 176)
- "Carmen Miranda Of Movies Dies". The Milwaukee Sentinel. 1955-08-06. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- (Bakish 2007, p. 136)
- Jornal do Brasil, Page.08, Edition of 8 August 1955.
- [Folha da Manhã, Page.01, Edition of August 14, 1955]
- (Ruíz 2005, p. 207)
- (Ruíz 2005, p. 193)
- "In Rio, Carmen Miranda's Still Hard to Top". Washington Post. 1 December 2005. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Jornal da Manhã, Page.01, "Vitimada por um ataque cardíaco, Carmen Miranda morre subitamente em Hollywood.", Edition of August 6, 1955.
- O Estado de S. Paulo, Page.36, Edition of 13 August 1955.
- Lawrence, Sandra (12 August 2003). "Brazil: In search of the queen of samba". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
- "Hollywood Star Walk". p. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- Carmen Miranda |Walkoffame.com
- (Tompkins 2001, p. 191)
- "Tá lembrado? Tom & Jerry cantando “Mamãe Eu Quero” da Carmen Miranda!". Alisson Gothz. 3 March 2011. p. Trash 80s. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- "The Legend of Carmen Miranda". Lara Gabrielle Fowler. 8 October 2013. p. Backlots. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- "Be a Pal, 'I Love Lucy'". 22 Oct. 1951. p. IMDb. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- "Museu Carmen Miranda". p. Secretaria de Cultura do Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
- Tobar, Hector; Trevino, Joseph (1998-09-26). "Some City Squares Bring Lives, and History, Full Circle". Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- "Carmen Miranda foi a Washington". p. Editoras. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "Ivete Sangalo – MTV ao Vivo". Mauro Ferreira. 12 April 2004. p. ISTOÉ Gente. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- "Daniela Mercury diz que novo CD é "provocação"". Marcelo Pereira. 2 December 2009. p. Terra Networks. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- "Com visual à Carmen Miranda, The Gift toca Legião Urbana no Palco Sunset". Tiago Dias. 20 September 2013. p. UOL. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- "Personagens típicos das seleções participantes abrirão Copa das Confederações". EFE. 14 June 2013. p. Yahoo!. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "Mariachis, gueixas e Carmen Miranda: abertura da Copa das Confederações terá personagens típicos dos países". 14 June 2013. p. ESPN. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "Carmen Miranda e nacionalismo na década de 1930". Káritha Bernardo de Macedo. p. Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "CARMEN MIRANDA : SÍMBOLO DA INDENTIDADE NACIONAL". p. Antenna Web. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "CARMEN MIRANDA, INDUMENTÁRIA E IDENTIDADE CULTURAL: ALGUMAS CONSIDERAÇÕES PARA O ENSINO DE HISTÓRIA". VALNIA CLÉLIA CRÊS LOPES and ROSANA STEINKE. 23 March 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Greenwich Village (1944) on AllMovie
- Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics (London: Pandora Press,, 1989; Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1990),pg 124–129. http://www.clarku.edu/faculty/facultybio.cfm?id=343 Christine Sylvester, Feminist International Relations: An Unfinished Journey, (Cambridge University Press, 2002). Pg 29–33
- Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics (London: Pandora Press, 1989; Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1990), pg 124–129.
- Bakish, David (2007). Jimmy Durante: His Show Business Career, With a Annotated Filmography and Discography. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-3022-2
- Brioux, Bill (2007). Truth and Rumors: The Reality Behind TV's Most Famous Myths. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-99247-0
- Dennison, Stephanie; Shaw, Lisa (2004). Popular Cinema in Brazil, 1930–2001. Manchester University Press. pp. 112. ISBN 0-7190-6499-6
- Christine Sylvester, Feminist International Relations: An Unfinished Journey, (Cambridge University Press, 2002), pg 29–33.
- Hadley-Garcia, George (1990). Hispanic Hollywood: The Latins in Motion Pictures. Carol Pub. Group. ISBN 0-8065-1185-0
- McGowan, Chris; Pessanha, Ricardo (1998). The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova, and the Popular Music of Brazil. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-545-3
- Parish, James Robert; Pitts, Michael R. (2003). Hollywood Songsters: Singers Who ACT and Actors Who Sing: A Biographical Dictionary (2 ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-94333-7
- Ruíz, Vicki; Sánchez Korrol, Virginia, (2005). Latina Legacies: Identity, Biography, and Community: Identity, Biography, and Community. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515399-5
- Sforza, John (2000). Swing It! The Andrews Sisters Story. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2136-1
- Tompkins, Cynthia Margarita; Foster, David William (2001). Notable Twentieth-Century Latin American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-31112-9
- Mandrell, James. 2001. Carmen miranda betwixt and between, or, neither here nor there. Latin American Literary Review 29 (57): 26-39. Link
- Scott, James Brown. 1936. The good neighbor policy. The American Journal of International Law 30 (2): 287-90. Link
- Kathryn. 1993. Macrosociologies—bananas, beaches, and bases: Making feminist sense of international politics by cynthia enloe. Vol. 22. Washington: American Sociological Association.
- Cardoso, Abel. Carmen Miranda, a Cantora d Brasil. Sorocaba. 1978. (Portuguese)
- Castro, Ruy. Carmen: Uma Biografia. Companhia das Letras. 2005. 8535907602. (Portuguese)
- Gil-Montero, Martha. Brazilian Bombshell. Dutton Adult. 1988. 978-1556111280.
- Mendonça, Ana Rita. Carmen Miranda foi a Washington. Editora Record. 1999. ISBN 85-01-05392-9 (Portuguese)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carmen Miranda.|
- Carmen Miranda at the Internet Broadway Database
- Carmen Miranda at the Internet Movie Database
- Carmen Miranda at the TCM Movie Database
- International Jose Guillermo Carrillo Foundation (Portuguese)
- Carmen Miranda at Brightlightsfilm.com
- Carmen Miranda - Brazil on YouTube
- Carmen Miranda on The Jimmy Durante Show (Part 2) on YouTube
- Carmen Miranda at Find a Grave