Carmichaelia

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New Zealand broom
North Island Broom.jpg
North Island Broom
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Galegeae
Subtribe: Astragalinae
Genus: Carmichaelia
R.Br.[1]
Type species
Carmichaelia australis
Species[2][3]

See text.

Synonyms
  • ×Carmispartium M.D.Griffiths
  • Chordospartium Cheeseman
  • Corallospartium J.B.Armstr.
  • Huttonella Kirk
  • Notospartium Hook.f.

Carmichaelia (New Zealand Brooms) is a genus of 24 plant species belonging to Fabaceae, the legume family. All but one species are native to New Zealand. The exception, Carmichaelia exsul, is native to Lord Howe Island and must have dispersed from New Zealand.[4]

The formerly recognised genera of Chordospartium, Corallospartium, Notospartium, and Huttonella are now included in Carmichaelia.[2][5] The Carmichaelia, Clianthus (kakabeak), Montigena (scree pea) and Swainsona genera comprise the clade Carmichaelinae.[4]

Carmichaelia have a range of forms from trees to prostrate species a few centimetres high.[5] Mature plants are usually leafless, with stipules fusing into scales to replace leaves.[2]

Carmichaelia is named after Captain Dugald Carmichael, a Scottish army officer and botanist who studied New Zealand plants.[5]

Carmichaelia is distributed throughout New Zealand although the eastern South Island has 15 species endemic to it. Most species have a restricted range within New Zealand. They colonise disturbed ground in shallow, poor soils, drought- and frost-prone areas and alluvial soils.[4][6]

New Zealand Broom is not closely related to the European species Cytisus scoparius, Common Broom, which has been introduced to New Zealand, where it is commonly known as Scotch Broom and is classed as a noxious weed because of its invasiveness.

Species[edit]

C. arborea leaves
C. arborea fruit

References[edit]

  1. ^ Entry in New Zealand Plants database, Landcare Research. Retrieved on 7 April 2006.
  2. ^ a b c Heenan PB. (1998). "An emended circumscription of Carmichaelia, with new combinations, a key, and notes on hybrids". New Zealand Journal of Botany 36 (1): 53–63. doi:10.1080/0028825X.1998.9512546. ISSN 0028-825X. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  3. ^ ILDIS species list for Carmichaelia
  4. ^ a b c Wagstaff, Steven J.; Peter B. Heenan and Michael J. Sanderson (1999). "Classification, origins, and patterns of diversification in New Zealand Carmichaelia (Fabaceae)". Am J Bot 86 (9): 1346–1356. doi:10.2307/2656781. JSTOR 2656781. PMID 10487821. Retrieved 2008-07-26. 
  5. ^ a b c "Taxonomy of New Zealand native legumes". 2008-07-19. Retrieved 2008-07-26. 
  6. ^ Weir, Bevan (2006). "Systematics, Specificity, and Ecology of New Zealand Rhizobia". hdl:2292/394.