Carmina Burana (Orff)
Carmina Burana is a scenic cantata composed by Carl Orff in 1935 and 1936, based on 24 poems from the medieval collection Carmina Burana. Its full Latin title is Carmina Burana: Cantiones profanæ cantoribus et choris cantandæ comitantibus instrumentis atque imaginibus magicis (Songs of Beuern: Secular songs for singers and choruses to be sung together with instruments and magic images). Carmina Burana is part of Trionfi, a musical triptych that also includes Catulli Carmina and Trionfo di Afrodite. The first and last movements of the piece are called "Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi" (Fortune, Empress of the World) and start with the very well known "O Fortuna".
In 1934, Orff encountered the text in the 1847 edition of the Carmina Burana by Johann Andreas Schmeller, the original text dating mostly from the 11th or 12th century, including some from the 13th century. Michel Hofmann (de), then a young law student and Latin and Greek enthusiast, assisted Orff in the selection and organization of 24 of these poems into a libretto, mostly in Latin verse, with a small amount of Middle High German and Old Provençal. The selection covers a wide range of topics, as familiar in the 13th century as they are in the 21st century: the fickleness of fortune and wealth, the ephemeral nature of life, the joy of the return of Spring, and the pleasures and perils of drinking, gluttony, gambling and lust.
Carmina Burana was first staged in Frankfurt by the Frankfurt Opera on 8 June 1937 under conductor Bertil Wetzelsberger (1892–1967) with the Cäcilien-Chor Frankfurt (de), staging by Oskar Wälterlin (de) and sets and costumes by Ludwig Sievert. Shortly after the greatly successful premiere, Orff said the following to his publisher, Schott Music:
- "Everything I have written to date, and which you have, unfortunately, printed, can be destroyed. With Carmina Burana, my collected works begin."
Several performances were repeated elsewhere in Germany. The Nazi regime was at first nervous about the erotic tone of some of the poems, but eventually embraced the piece. It became the most famous piece of music composed in Germany at the time. The popularity of the work continued to rise after the war, and by the 1960s Carmina Burana was well established as part of the international classic repertoire.
Alex Ross wrote that "the music itself commits no sins simply by being and remaining popular. That Carmina Burana has appeared in hundreds of films and television commercials is proof that it contains no diabolical message, indeed that it contains no message whatsoever."
The desire Orff expressed to his publisher has by and large been fulfilled: No other composition of his approaches its renown, as evidenced in both pop culture's appropriation of "O Fortuna" and the classical world's persistent programming and recording of the work. In the United States, Carmina Burana represents one of the few box office certainties in 20th-century repertoire.
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|Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi||Fortune, Empress of the World|
|1. O Fortuna||Latin||O Fortune||choir|
|2. Fortune plango vulnera||Latin||I lament the wounds that Fortune deals||choir|
|I – Primo vere||In Spring|
|3. Veris leta facies||Latin||The joyous face of Spring||small choir|
|4. Omnia Sol temperat||Latin||All things are tempered by the Sun||baritone|
|5. Ecce gratum||Latin||Behold the welcome||choir|
|Uf dem anger||In the Meadow|
|7. Floret silva||Latin/Middle High German||The forest flowers||choir|
|8. Chramer, gip die varwe mir||Middle High German||Monger, give me coloured paint||choir (small and large)|
|9. a) Reie||round dance||instrumental|
|b) Swaz hie gat umbe||Middle High German||They who here go dancing around||choir|
|c) Chume, chum, geselle min||Middle High German||Come, come, my dear companion||small choir|
|d) Swaz hie gat umbe (reprise)||Middle High German||They who here go dancing around||choir|
|10. Were diu werlt alle min||Middle High German||If the whole world were but mine||choir|
|II – In Taberna||In the Tavern|
|11. Estuans interius||Latin||Seething inside||baritone|
|12. Olim lacus colueram||Latin||Once I swam in lakes||tenor, choir (male)|
|13. Ego sum abbas||Latin||I am the abbot of Cockaigne||baritone, choir (male)|
|14. In taberna quando sumus||Latin||When we are in the tavern||choir (male)|
|III – Cour d'amours||Court of Love|
|15. Amor volat undique||Latin||Love flies everywhere||soprano, boys' choir|
|16. Dies, nox et omnia||Latin/Old French||Day, night and everything||baritone|
|17. Stetit puella||Latin||There stood a girl||soprano|
|18. Circa mea pectora||Latin/Middle High German||In my breast||baritone, choir|
|19. Si puer cum puellula||Latin||If a boy with a girl||3 tenors, baritone, 2 basses|
|20. Veni, veni, venias||Latin||Come, come, pray come||double choir|
|21. In trutina||Latin||On the scales||soprano|
|22. Tempus est iocundum||Latin||Time to jest||soprano, baritone, boys' choir|
|23. Dulcissime||Latin||Sweetest boy||soprano|
|Blanziflor et Helena||Blancheflour and Helen|
|24. Ave formosissima||Latin||Hail to the most lovely||choir|
|Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi||Fortune, Empress of the World|
|25. O Fortuna (reprise)||Latin||O Fortune||choir|
Much of the compositional structure is based on the idea of the turning Fortuna Wheel. The drawing of the wheel found on the first page of the Burana Codex includes four phrases around the outside of the wheel:
- "Regnabo, Regno, Regnavi, Sum sine regno". (I shall reign, I reign, I have reigned, I am without a realm).
Within each scene, and sometimes within a single movement, the wheel of fortune turns, joy turning to bitterness, and hope turning to grief. "O Fortuna", the first poem in the Schmeller edition, completes this circle, forming a compositional frame for the work through being both the opening and closing movements.
Orff developed a dramatic concept he called "Theatrum Mundi" in which music, movement, and speech were inseparable. Babcock writes that "Orff's artistic formula limited the music in that every musical moment was to be connected with an action on stage. It is here that modern performances of Carmina Burana fall short of Orff's intentions." Although Carmina Burana was intended as a staged work involving dance, choreography, visual design and other stage action, the piece is now usually performed in concert halls as a cantata. A notable exception is the Trans-Siberian Orchestra version which features strobe lights and what appears to be flames engulfing the stage, wings and balconies, pulsing intensely in time to the music.
Orff's style demonstrates a desire for directness of speech and of access. Carmina Burana contains little or no development in the classical sense, and polyphony is also conspicuously absent. Carmina Burana avoids overt harmonic complexities, a fact which many musicians and critics have pointed out, such as Ann Powers of The New York Times.
Orff was influenced melodically by late Renaissance and early Baroque models including William Byrd and Claudio Monteverdi. It is a common misconception that Orff based the melodies of Carmina Burana on neumeatic melodies; while many of the lyrics in the Burana Codex are enhanced with neumes, almost none of these melodies had been deciphered at the time of Orff's composition, and none of them had served Orff as a melodic model. His shimmering orchestration shows a deference to Stravinsky. In particular, Orff's music is very reminiscent of Stravinsky's earlier work, Les noces (The Wedding).
Rhythm, for Orff as it was for Stravinsky, is often the primary musical element. Overall, it sounds rhythmically straightforward and simple, but the metre will change freely from one measure to the next. While the rhythmic arc in a section is taken as a whole, a measure of five may be followed by one of seven, to one of four, and so on, often with caesura marked between them. These constant rhythmic changes combined with the caesura create a very "conversational" feel – so much so that the rhythmic complexities of the piece are often overlooked.
Some of the solo arias pose bold challenges for singers: the only solo tenor aria, Olim lacus colueram, must be sung almost completely in falsetto to demonstrate the suffering of the character (in this case, a roasting swan). The baritone arias often demand high notes not commonly found in baritone repertoire, and parts of the baritone aria Dies nox et omnia must be sung in falsetto, a unique example in baritone repertoire. Also noted is the solo soprano aria, Dulcissime which demands extremely high notes. Orff intended this aria for a lyric soprano, not a coloratura, so that the musical tensions would be more obvious.
Carmina Burana is scored for a large orchestra of three flutes (second and third doubling first and second piccolos), three oboes (third doubling English horn), three clarinets in B-flat and A (third doubling piccolo clarinet in E-flat, second doubling bass clarinet), two bassoons, one contrabassoon, four horns in F, three trumpets in B-flat and C, three trombones, one tuba; a percussion section with 5 timpani, two snare drums, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, suspended cymbal, antique cymbals, ratchet, castanets, tambourine, sleigh bells, tam-tam, tubular bells, three bells, three glockenspiels, gong, xylophone; two pianos, one celesta; strings; two SATB mixed choirs (one large and one small, although a subset of the large chorus may be used for the small chorus) and one boys' choir; and soprano soloist, tenor soloist, baritone soloist, and short solos for three tenors, baritone and two basses.
A reduced version for soloists, SATB mixed choir, children's choir, two pianos and six percussion (timpani + 5) was prepared by Orff's disciple Wilhelm Killmayer in 1956 and authorized by Orff himself, to allow smaller ensembles the opportunity to perform the piece.
An arrangement for wind ensemble was prepared by Juan Vicente Mas Quiles (b. 1921), who wanted to both give wind bands a chance to perform the work and to facilitate performances in cities that have a high quality choral union and wind band but lack a symphony orchestra. A performance of this arrangement was recorded by the North Texas Wind Symphony under Eugene Corporon. In writing this transcription, Mas Quiles maintained the original chorus, percussion, and piano parts.
An additional arrangement for concert band was prepared by composer John Krance and does not include chorus. Various arrangements of different movements for young bands also exist.
- Eugen Jochum with the choir and orchestra of the Deutsche Oper Berlin and Gundula Janowitz, Gerhard Stolze, and Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau. Recorded October 1967 in Berlin's Ufa-Studio, released 1968 (Deutsche Grammophon). This version was endorsed by Carl Orff himself and was the first choice of the BBC Radio 3 CD Review "Building a Library" review in 1995 .
- Herbert Kegel with the Rundfunkchor Leipzig choire, the Rundfunk-Sinfonie-Orchester Leipzig orchestra and Jutta Vulpius, Hans-Joachim Rotzsch, Kurt Hübenthal and Kurt Rehm. Recorded and released 1960 (VEB Deutsche Schallplatten, Berlin classics). Orff himself loved this version.
- Kurt Eichhorn with the Munich Radio Orchestra and Chor des Bayerischen Rundfunks (de), Tölzer Knabenchor; Lucia Popp, John van Kesteren, Hermann Prey; film directed by Jean-Pierre Ponnelle for ZDF; recorded July 1973, released 1974 on Eurodisc; CD reissues on BMG in 1984 and 1995. Both the film adaptation and recording were endorsed by Carl Orff himself (Orff also collaborated on the film in honour of his 80th birthday)
- Riccardo Muti with Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus and Arleen Auger, John van Kesteren and Jonathan Summers. Recorded 1979 (EMI), featured in the top three of BBC Radio 3's review and is also recommended by Classics Today 
- Leonard Slatkin with Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra and Chorus, RCA 09026 61673-2, featured in the top three of BBC Radio 3's review
- James Levine with Chicago Symphony Orchestra and Chorus and June Anderson, Phillip Creech, and Bernd Weikl. Recorded 1984 (Deutsche Grammophon). This version won the 1987 Grammy Award for Best Choral Performance.
- Christian Thielemann with the choir and orchestra of the Deutsche Oper Berlin and Knabenchor Berlin. Released 2003 by Deutsche Grammophon GmbH, Hamburg. Named "Editor's Choice" by Gramophone.
- Charles Dutoit with the Orchestre Symphonique de Montréal & Saint Lawrence Choir (Beverly Hoch (s), Stanford Olsen (t), Mark Oswald (bar). 1997, Decca 028945529028. High quality recording technically (balancing orchestra and choir).
- Simon Rattle with the Berlin Philharmonic and Rundfunkchor Berlin (de); Sally Matthews, Lawrence Brownlee and Christian Gerhaher; 2005 EMI Classics. Very fast, percussive emphasis.
- Seiji Ozawa with the Berlin Philharmonic and Shin-Yu Kai Chorus; Kathleen Battle, Frank Lopardo and Thomas Allen; 1990 Philips DVD video.
- Michael Tilson Thomas with the Cleveland Orchestra, Chorus & Boys Choir; Judith Blegen, Kenneth Riegel and Peter Binder; Recorded 1974, released 1975 CBS Records (quadrophonic stereo!); CD re-release 1990 MK 33172 CBS Records Masterworks
- In 1988, Carmina Burana was recorded by the New York Choral Society accompanied by Jeffrey Reid Baker using synthesizers.
- Babcock, Jonathan. "Carl Orff's Carmina Burana: A Fresh Approach to the Work's Performance Practice". Choral Journal 45, no. 11 (May 2006): 26–40.
- Fassone, Alberto: "Carl Orff", in: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, London: Macmillan 2001.
- Kater, Michael H.: "Carl Orff: Man of Legend". Composers of the Nazi Era: Eight Portraits. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, 111–143. ISBN 0-19-509924-9
- Orff, Carl. Carl Orff und sein Werk: Dokumentation. Tutzing: Schneider, 1975–1983. ISBN 3-7952-0154-3
- Steinberg, Michael. "Carl Orff: Carmina Burana". Choral Masterworks: A Listener's Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, 230–242.
- Taruskin, Richard: The Oxford History of Western Music. Vol. 4 "The Early Twentieth Century". Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, 754–765.
- Orff, vol. IV, 66.
- Kater, 123.
- Taruskin, 764.
- "In Music, Though, There Were No Victories" by Alex Ross, The New York Times (20 August 1995)
- "Not Medieval but Eternal; In Its Sixth Decade, Carmina Burana Still Echoes" by Ann Powers, The New York Times (14 June 1999)
- Helm, Everett (July 1955). "Carl Orff". Oxford: The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 3. p. 292.
- Liess, Andreas (1980). Orff. Idee und Werk (in German). Munich: Goldmann. pp. 82–83. ISBN 3-442-33038-6. "Orff waren also zur Zeit der Schöpfung der Carmina originale Melodien nicht bekannt. (At the time of writing the Carmina, Orff had no knowledge of the original melodies.)"
- Bernt, Günter (1979). Carmina Burana (in German). Munich: dtv. p. 862. ISBN 3-7608-0361-X. "Die Carmina Burana Carl Orffs versuchen nicht, die überlieferten Melodien zu verwenden. (Carl Orff's Carmina Burana do not attempt to utilise the traditional melodies.)"
- "Juan Vicente Mas Quiles – Carmina Burana, published by Schott Music
- Carmina Burana (1975) at the Internet Movie Database
- "Orff: Carmina Burana / Rattle", David Hurwitz, ClassicsToday.com, at ArkivMusic
- "Ave Formosissima", "O Fortuna" on YouTube, Coro Sinfônico Comunitário da Universidade de Brasília
- Carmina Burana Web Comprehensive site about Carl Orff's Carmina Burana
- Text, original and translated in English, as it appears in Orff's libretto
- Program notes on Carmina Burana, 28 March 2004, Mendelssohn Club of Philadelphia
- "The Lasting Appeal of Orff's Carmina Burana", sound files and transcription at NPR
- Full lyrics to Carmina Burana
- "Carl Orff: Carmina Burana" (complete performance, 1:11 hours), University Chorus and Alumni Chorus, UC Davis Symphony Orchestra and the Pacific Boychoir at the Mondavi Center (4 June 2006)