August 8, 1933 |
Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
|Occupation||Boss of the Colombo crime family|
|Murder, conspiracy to commit murder, extortion, loansharking, racketeering, illegal gambling|
|139 years imprisonment|
Carmine John Persico, Jr. (born August 8, 1933 in Brooklyn) also known as "Junior", "The Snake" and "Immortal", has been the Boss of the Colombo crime family since 1973. Persico has overseen gang wars, murders, and major rackets, most of the time from prison. He has been serving a sentence of 139 years in prison since 1987.
- 1 Youth and crimes
- 2 Profaci and Magliocco Regimes
- 3 Colombo Regime
- 4 Persico Regime
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Youth and crimes
Carmine John Persico, Jr. was born on August 8, 1933, in Brooklyn, New York, to Carmine John Persico, Sr. and Assunta "Susan" Plantamura. His brothers, Theodore Persico and Alphonse "Allie Boy" Persico (died in 1989) also became capos in the Colombo family. His son, named Alphonse after his uncle and commonly known as "Little Allie Boy," eventually became a capo as well. Carmine Persico Jr.'s nephew is Theodore Persico, Jr.
Carmine Persico, Sr. was a legal stenographer for several law firms in Manhattan and provided his family with a comfortable living. The Persico family lived in the Carroll Gardens and Red Hook sections of Brooklyn. Carmine Persico Jr. dropped out of high school at age 16. By then, he was a leader of the Garfield Boys, a Brooklyn street gang. However, one contemporary source says that in 1950 the 16 year-old Persico actually belonged to the South Brooklyn Boys, a successor gang to the Garfield Boys. In March 1951, the 17 year-old Persico was arrested on charges of fatally beating another youth in Prospect Park in Brooklyn. However, all charges were eventually dropped.
In the early 1950s, Persico was recruited into the Profaci crime family, forerunner of the Colombo family, by longtime capo Frank Abbatemarco. At first, Persico did bookmaking and loansharking, then moved into burglaries and hijackings. During this decade, Persico was arrested over 12 times, but spent only a few days in jail. Persico also started working with Joe Gallo and his brothers Albert and Lawrence.
In 1957, Persico allegedly participated in the murder of Albert Anastasia, the former leader of Murder Inc. and the boss of what was then the Anastasia crime family. Anastasia's underboss Carlo Gambino wanted control of the family and conspired with his allies, Genovese crime family boss Vito Genovese and Profaci boss Joseph Profaci to kill Anastasia. Profaci allegedly gave the job to Persico and the Gallo brothers.
On October 25, 1957, Anastasia entered the barber shop of the Park Sheraton Hotel (now the Park Central Hotel) in Midtown Manhattan. As Anastasia relaxed in the barber chair, two men – scarves covering their faces – rushed in, shoved the barber out of the way, and fired at Anastasia. After the first volley of bullets, Anastasia allegedly lunged at his killers. However, the stunned Anastasia had actually attacked the gunmen's reflections in the wall mirror of the barber shop. The gunmen continued firing and finally killed Anastasia.
No one was ever charged in the Anastasia killing, and there is an alternative theory that gunmen from the Patriarca crime family of New England performed the hit. In 1984, Persico allegedly boasted of the crime to a relative:
"The FBI knows who really hurt Anastasia. But that fag Crazy Joe Gallo took the credit."
Profaci and Magliocco Regimes
The Gallo Faction
By the late 1950s, Persico and the Gallos were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with Profaci's leadership. Profaci demanded high tribute payments from the family members and was viewed by them as a wealthy autocrat. The First Colombo War started on November 4, 1959, when Profaci's gunmen murdered Frank Abbatemarco on a Brooklyn street. Abbatemarco had stopped paying tribute to Profaci earlier that year with the support of the Gallo faction. It is speculated that Gambino boss Carlo Gambino and Lucchese crime family Tommy Lucchese were encouraging the Gallos to challenge Profaci, their enemy. When Profaci took Abbatemarco's lucrative rackets away from the Gallos, the warfare began.
In February 1961, the Gallo faction kidnapped Profaci Underboss Joseph Magliocco and Capo Joseph Colombo. After several weeks of negotiation, the Gallos reached an agreement with Profaci and released the two captives. However, six months later, Profaci reneged on the deal and war broke out again between the Gallos and the Profaci family.
In August 1961, Persico betrayed the Gallo faction and attempted to murder Larry Gallo. Profaci had secretely contacted Persico and offered him some very lucrative rackets if he would switch sides. Persico agreed. On August 12, 1961, Larry Gallo met with Persico at the Sahara Lounge in Brooklyn to discuss war strategy. When Gallo arrived, Persico's men attacked him and Persico started strangling Gallo with a garrote. However, a passing policeman witnessed the attack, forcing Persico and his men to flee. Persico supposedly gained the nickname "Snake" from this act of treachery. Persico was indicted later that year for attempted murder of Gallo, but the charges were dropped when Gallo refused to testify.
On June 6, 1962, Profaci died of cancer and Maglicco became the new family boss. However, the war with the Gallo faction continued.
In early 1963, the Gallos bombed Persico's car, but he escaped with minor injuries. On May 19, 1963, Gallo gunmen ambushed Persico in the Gowanus section of Brooklyn. A panel truck pulled alongside Persico's car and two men shot Persico in the face, hand, and shoulder. Persico reportedly spat out the bullet that had entered his face.
Soon after the May attempt on his life, Persico was imprisoned on extortion charges. By the fall of 1963, with Joey Gallo in prison also, the shooting war had ended with Magliocco the winner.
In late 1963, after an unsuccessful attempt to take over the Mafia Commission, Magliocco was forced out of the family. He was replaced by Joseph Colombo, who had alerted the Commission to Magliocco's plot. The Profaci crime family was now the Colombo crime family. In turn, Colombo rewarded the imprisoned Persico by naming him a capo.
After becoming Caporegime, Persico was constantly on the streets. Government witness Joe Valachi later testified that "Whenever business on the streets, Persico was always there". Persico was involved in labor racketeering, extortion, loansharking, illegal gambling, hijacking and especially murder for hire. By the later 1960s, Persico's crew was one of the most profitable crews in the Colombo family.
In 1968, Persico was convicted on federal hijacking charges after five separate trials dating back to 1960. On January 27, 1971, Persico was finally sent to prison on these charges, where he would spend eight years. The trial was noted for the only appearance of former mobster Joseph Valachi as a prosecution witness.
Colombo and Gallo Shootings
In February 1971, Joey Gallo was released from prison. On June 28, 1971, Colombo was shot and severely wounded at the second annual Italian-American Civil Rights League rally in Manhattan. The shooter, Jerome Johnson, was immediately shot to death by Colombo's bodyguards. Colombo survived in a paralyzed state until his death on May 22, 1978. Police concluded that Johnson was the sole shooter. Law enforcement and the Mafia assumed Gallo had organized the hit; Gallo had built ties with black gangsters and, upon his release, threatened to start another gang war unless he received $100,000 compensation.
On November 11, 1971, Persico went on trial in state court on 37 counts of usury, coercion, extortion, and conspiracy, all stemming from a loansharking operation out of a Manhattan fur shop. On December 8, 1971, a jury acquitted Persico of all charges; all 12 prosecutions witnesses said they could not identify Persico.
After the Colombo shooting, underboss Joseph Yacovelli assumed the role of acting boss. However, the Persico family essentially took control of the Colombos on the then-imprisoned Carmine's behalf, with Carmine himself coordinating the suppression of the Gallos. On April 7, 1972, Gallo was shot and killed by Persico gunmen as he was celebrating his birthday at Umberto's Clam House in Little Italy, Manhattan.
In 1973, Persico was imprisoned on hijacking and loansharking charges. Persico's imprisonment coincided with the release of his brother Alphonse from 17 years in prison. Carmine Persico designated his brother Alphonse acting boss with support from Gennaro Langella and Carmine's other brother Theodore. In 1979, Carmine Persico was released from federal prison.
On August 11, 1981, Carmine Persico pleaded guilty to a conspiracy charge of attempting to bribe an Internal Revenue Service special agent from 1977 through 1978 while in federal custody. The evidence included a recording of Persico offering the agent $250,000 in exchange for getting Persico an early release from prison. On November 9, 1981, Persico was sentenced to five years in federal prison.
On October 14, 1984, Carmine Persico and the rest of the Colombo family leadership were indicted on multiple racketeering charges as part of the "Colombo Trial". After the indictment was published, Persico went into hiding. On October 26, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) began a national manhunt for Persico. On January 31, 1985 the FBI named Persico as the 390th Fugitive to be added to the Ten Most Wanted list. Persico hid in the Wantagh, New York home of his cousin, mob associate Fred DeChristopher, who ultimately opted to turn him in and turn state's evidence. Persico was arrested on February 15, 1985.
On July 2, 1985, Persico was indicted, along with other New York Cosa Nostra leaders, on a second set of racketeering charges as part of the "Commission Trial". The aim of prosecutors was to strike at all the crime families at once using their involvement in the Mafia Commission. According to Colombo hitman and FBI informant Gregory Scarpa, in late 1986 Persico and Gambino boss John Gotti backed a plan to kill the leading prosecutor and future New York City mayor Rudolph Giuliani, but it was rejected by the rest of the Commission.
Colombo and Commission trials
At the start of the Commission trial, Persico decided to serve as his own lawyer (he was using an attorney for the Colombo trial). Persico believed that his history of convictions gave him sufficient experience to defend himself. His co-defendants vehemently disagreed with this decision, and the judge warned Persico that he would be waiving "incompetent counsel" as the grounds for an appeal. Persico received counsel from lawyers to help guide him when the prosecutors questioned him. Persico tried to project a friendly image to the jury and urged them to put aside any preconceptions about "the Mafia" or "Cosa Nostra", Many believe that Persico inadvertently sabotaged his own defense by acknowledging criminal activities during his cross-examinations of prosecution witnesses.
On June 14, 1986, Persico was convicted of racketeering in the Colombo Trial. On November 17, 1986, Persico was sentenced to 39 years in prison in the Colombo Trial. The sentencing judge, John F. Keenan, nonetheless praised Persico's performance as his own lawyer in the Commission Trial and said, "Mr. Persico, you're a tragedy. You are one of the most intelligent people I have ever seen in my life." On November 19, 1986, Persico and the other Commission Trial defendants were convicted of all charges. On January 13, 1987, federal judge John F. Keenan sentenced Persico to 100 years in prison as part of the Commission Trial, to run consecutively with his 39-year sentence in the Colombo trial. New York Times organized-crime writer Selwyn Raab thought the Colombos were the most damaged by the trial, even though most of the top leaders of New York's Mafia families were sent to prison (the Lucchese family, for instance, lost its entire hierarchy). In his book, Five Families, Raab noted that Persico was only 53 years old at the time of the Commission Trial, and was far and away the youngest boss in New York. At the time, he'd already led the family for 14 years, and potentially had a long reign ahead of him had he not been taken off the streets by the Commission Trial. By comparison, the other bosses were in their seventies, and would have likely passed the reins to men of Persico's generation even without the trial intervening. Persico was sent to United States Penitentiary, Marion Federal Penitentiary near Marion, Illinois to serve both the Colombo Trial and Commission Trial sentences. Since parole had been abolished in the federal prison system in 1984, the sentence all but assured that Persico would die in prison.
In June 1987, Carmine Persico ordered a murder that would ultimately result in five murders. He ordered acting boss Joel Cacace to kill lawyer William Aronwald, a retired prosecutor who had allegedly been disrespectful to the Cosa Nostra. Cacace delegated the job to two hitmen who mistakenly killed the target's father, George Aronwald. In response to outrage from the other New York families, Cacace recruited two more gunmen to kill the first hit team. After those murders were accomplished, Cacace killed the second set of gunmen. In 2004, Cacace would plead guilty to the Aronwald murder. No charges were filed against Carmine Persico.
Persico knew that he would likely die in prison, but was determined to keep power in his own hands. With this in mind, soon after his final imprisonment he named his brother, Allie Boy, as acting boss. Allie Boy didn't reign long, however; he was arrested for loansharking and skipped out on bail. Persico then named a three-man ruling panel to run the family. In 1988, he dissolved the panel and named Victor "Little Vic" Orena, a loyal capo from Brooklyn, the temporary acting boss. While giving Orena the power to induct members and order murders on his own authority—unusual for an acting boss—Persico made it clear that Orena was merely a placeholder until his son Alphonse "Little Allie Boy" Persico was released from prison.
In 1990, the government transferred Carmine Persico to what was then the United States Penitentiary, Lompoc, in Lompoc, California. While at Lompoc, Persico established an Italian Cultural Club for the inmates. He socialized with people such as Patriarca crime family consigliere Joseph Russo and Lucchese crime family associate Anthony Senter. Persico formed the "Lompoc Four", a band in which Russo played guitar and Persico played drums.
By 1991, Orena had become disgruntled with the current leadership scheme. Orena was tired of the constant stream of orders that he received from Persico in prison. He also resented the idea of eventually surrendering his control to Alphonse Persico. Gambino boss John Gotti encouraged Orena's rebellion, hoping to depose one of his enemies, Carmine Persico, from the Mafia Commission[disambiguation needed]. Gotti went so far as to label Persico a "rat", the worst possible accusation for a Cosa Nostra figure.
In the spring of 1991, Orena made his move. He requested that consigliere Carmine Sessa quietly poll all the Colombo capos as to who they wanted as boss. However, Sessa did not poll the capos, but instead told Carmine Persico about Orena's plot. Persico then allegedly ordered Sessa to lead a team to kill Orena.
On June 20, 1991, a five-man hit team led by Sessa parked on the street close to Orena's home on Long Island and waited for Orena to come home. As he was driving down the street, Orena recognized the men in the car and quickly sped away. For the next several months, the Persico and Orena factions engaged in peace negotiations brokered by the Mafia Commission[disambiguation needed]. Despite Carmine Persico's claim as the legitimate boss, the Commission refused to take sides in the Colombo Conflict.
Third Colombo war
On November 18, 1991, the Third Colombo War started when Orena lieutenant William Cutolo sent a hit team to try to kill Persico's top hitman, Gregory Scarpa, on a Brooklyn Street. By the end of 1991, the two Colombo factions had traded several successful murder attempts. Responding to public outrage over the carnage, law enforcement threw resources into prosecuting the Colombo mobsters, resulting in 68 indictments, 58 convictions and ten mobsters turning state's evidence.
Changing family structure
With the end of the war with Orena, Persico had to set up another ruling structure for the family. Since Alphonse Persico was facing prosecution on new charges, Carmine Persico installed a ruling committee. This committee consisted of brother Theodore Persico, mobster Joseph Baudanza and Joseph Tomasello. In 1994, when Andrew Russo was released from prison, Persico disbanded the committee and designated Russo as acting boss. In 1996, Russo went to prison and Persico replaced him with his son Alphonse. In early 1999, with Alphonse in legal trouble, Persico made Joel Cacace the acting boss.
However, later in 1999, either Carmine or Alphonse Persico ordered Cutolo's murder. The recently released Alphonse Persico was facing new federal charges that threatened to send him back to prison, and they were worried about Cutolo seizing control of the family. On May 26, 1999, Alphonse Persico ordered Cutolo to meet him at a Brooklyn Park. Cutolo was then taken to a mob associate's apartment, murdered, and his body buried in Long Island. Police would not recover the body until November 2008.
Life sentence for Alphonse Persico
On December 20, 2001, Alphonse Persico pleaded guilty to the loansharking charges, accepted a 13-year prison sentence, and agreed to forfeit $1 million. On October 14, 2004, Alphonse Persico was indicted on federal racketeering charges, including conspiring to murder Cutolo and Joe Campanella. No charges were filed against Carmine Persico However, the Cutolo murder trial ended in a mistrial due to juror deadlock.
In 2004, with the conversion of Lompoc into a different correctional facility, the government transferred Carmine Persico to the Federal Correctional Complex, Butner, a medium correctional facility in North Carolina.
As of 2011, Carmine Persico is still the official boss of the Colombo crime family. His current street boss is Andrew Russo, his official underboss is former rival John Franzese, the acting underboss is Benjamin Castellazzo and the consigliere is Richard Fusco.
In March 2010, the Reuters News Agency reported that Carmine Persico had been socializing in prison with convicted swindler Bernard Madoff. The New York Post also reported that Persico loves to play pinochle and bocce with other mobsters and regale them with stories from his past.
As of February 2013, Carmine Persico is serving life imprisonment at the Butner Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) Medium in Butner, North Carolina. His projected release date is March 20, 2050—effectively a life sentence. Raab wrote in Five Families that Persico's attempts to protect his own position and ensure that his son succeeded him nearly destroyed the Colombo family. By Raab's estimate, Persico's "deceitful schemes" led directly to 70 of his wiseguys and associates being sent to prison, as well as 12 deaths.
- "Carmine Persico". Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Raab, Selwyn (2005). Five Families : the Rise,Decline, and Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empires. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. p. 321. ISBN 0-312-30094-8.
- "Boy 16 arraigned as gang slayer". New York Times. May 14, 1950. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- Raab, p. 322
- Kriegel, Mark (April 21, 1997). "More Than Close Shave In This Chair". The New York Daily News. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- KRAJICEK, David J. (September 19, 2010). "Frankie Abbatemarco is the opening casualty in the Profaci family civil war". The New York Daily News. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Capeci, Jerry (2003). Jerry Capeci's gang land. Indianapolis, IN: Alpha Books. p. 213. ISBN 1-59257-133-6.
- Bruno, Anthony. "TruTV Crime Library". The Colombo Family: The Olive Oil King. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Earley, Pete; Shur, Gerald (2003). WITSEC inside the Federal Witness Protection Program. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-307-43143-6.
- "2 More are Sought in Mafia Crackdown". New York Times. August 21, 1965. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- "5Shots from Truck Hurt Two Ex-Cons". New York Times. May 20, 1963. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- Bruno, Anthony. "The Colombo Family: Trouble and More Trouble". TruTV Crime Library. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Retrial for Persico Refused". New York Times. March 18, 1972. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- Capeci, Jerry (2004). The complete idiot's guide to the Mafia (2nd ed. ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Alpha Books. p. 305. ISBN 1-59257-305-3.
- "The Colombo/Persico/Orena Family". La Cosa Nostra – State of New Jersey Commission of Investigation 1989 Report. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Raab, pp. 195-197
- Fosburgh, Lacy (November 11, 1971). "Persico on Trial on Usuary Charges". New York Times. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- Fosburgh, Lacey (December 8, 1971). "Persico is Freed in a Usuary Trial". New York Times. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- Raab, p. 325
- "The Mobs Maneuver". Time. 1972-05-08. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- Anthony, Bruno. "The Colombo Family: The Return of Crazy Joe". TruTV Crime Library. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "THE CITY; Persico Trial Put Off On Bribery Charges" (Jan. 6 1981) New York Times
- Fried, Joseph P. (August 12, 1981). "PERSICO SUBMITS A PLEA OF GUILTY TO A CONSPIRACY". New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Farber, M.A. (November 13, 1985). "PERSICO, ON TAPE, DISCUSSES $250,000 PAYOFF TO I.R.S. AGENT". New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Fried, Joseph P. (November 10, 1981). "PERSICO RANK RANKLES AS HE IS GIVEN 5 YEARS". New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- "UNITED STATES of America v. Carmine PERSICO, Defendant No. 81 CR 42 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK". The Laborerer.net. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Lubasch, Arnold H (October 25, 1984). "11 INDICTED BY U.S. AS THE LEADERSHIP OF A CRIME FAMILY". New York Times. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Lubasch, Arnold H. (October 28, 1984). "F.B.I. HUNTING 4 INDICTED AS COLOMBO MOB CHIEFS". New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- "Chronological Listing of The FBI’s "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" March 14, 1950 - March 1, 2010". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
- Raab, p. 290
- Lubasch, Arnold H. (February 16, 1985). "REPUTED LEADER OF COLOMBO CRIME GROUP IS ARRESTED AS A FUGITIVE ON L.I.". New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- "11 PLEAD NOT GUILTY TO RULING ORGANIZED CRIME IN NEW YORK". New York Times. July 2, 1985. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Sullivan, John (October 25, 2007). "Crime Bosses Considered Hit on Giuliani". New York Times. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Ramsland, Kathleen. "Working the System: Famous Cases of Self RepresentationThe Snake's Day in Court". TruTV Crime Library. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Raab, p. 293
- Raab, p. 295
- Lubasch, Arnold H. (June 14, 1986). "PERSICO CONVICTED IN COLOMBO TRIAL". New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Lubasch, Arnold H. (November 18, 1986). "PERSICO, HIS SON AND 6 OTHERS GET LONG TERMS AS COLOMBO GANGSTERS". New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Raab, p. 349.
- Lubasch, Arnold H (November 20, 1986). "U.S. JURY CONVICTS EIGHT AS MEMBERS OF MOB COMMISSION". New York Times. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Lubasch, Arnold H. (January 14, 1987). "JUDGE SENTENCES 8 MAFIA LEADERS TO PRISON TERMS". New York Times. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Raab, p. 309.
- Cornell Smith, Kati (January 23, 2003). "THE WHACK-Y WISEGUY WORLD - MOB BOSS CHARGED IN BOTCHED '87 RUBOUT". New York Post.
- Glaberstone, William (August 14, 2004). "Mob Figure Admits Roles In Murders, Including Judge's". New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Bruno, Anthony. "The Colombo Family: Junior's War". TruTV Crime Library. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- CAPECI, JERRY (September 29, 1996). "Doin' Hard Time Gangster Style". The New York Daily News. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Raab, pp. 332-335
- Cohen, Stephanie (October 13, 2006). "CAPO: GOTTI SR. IGNITED A WAR". New York Post. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Lubasch, Arnold H. (November 24, 1992). "Peace Efforts By Mobsters Recounted". New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Raab, p. 340
- Raab, p. 344
- Lubasch, Arnold H. (December 22, 1992). "Acting Crime Boss Is Convicted of Murder and Racketeering". New York Times. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Cohen, Stephanie (December 29, 2007). "ALLIE BOY GOING BYE-BYE FOR HIT". New York Post. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "Body Identified as Missing Mobster’s". New York Times. October 7, 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Cornell Smith, Kati (December 21, 2001). "MOB BIG CUTS 13-YEAR JAIL DEAL". New York Post. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Cornell Smith, Kati (October 15, 2004). "BUSTS IN MOB WHACK - WISEGUY DUO INDICTED". New York Post. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "Mistrial Is Declared in Mob Murder Case". New York Times. November 4, 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "COLOMBO ORGANIZED CRIME FAMILY ACTING BOSS ALPHONSE T. PERSICO AND ADMINISTRATION MEMBER JOHN J. DEROSS CONVICTED OF MURDER IN AID OF RACKETEERING AND WITNESS TAMPERING". US Atty Office Eastern Dist of NY. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Marzulli, John (February 27, 2009). "Colombo boss Alphonse (Allie Boy) Persico sentenced to life in prison for 1999 Cutolo hit". The New York Daily News. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Hamilton, Brad (2011-01-30). "The brutal rise and bloody fall of the Colombos". New York Post. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
- "Madoff assaulted by another inmate in December: report". Reuters Edition US. March 17, 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- HABERMAN, ZACH (September 25, 2006). "MOB JAIL HISS AND TELL". New York Post. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Raab, p. 348
- UNITED STATES OF AMERICA v. CARMINE PERSICO, a/k/a "Junior,"
- UNITED STATES OF AMERICA v. CARMINE PERSICO, a/k/a "The Snake," a/k/a "Junior,"
- American Mafia.com Mob Hits 1991
|Colombo crime family