Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a festive season which occurs immediately before the Christian liturgical season of Lent; the main events typically occur during February. Carnival typically involves a public celebration or parade combining some elements of a circus, mask and public street party. People often dress up in masks during the celebrations, which is an overturning of the normal things of everyday life. The celebrations have long been associated with excessive consumption of alcohol.
The term Carnival is traditionally used in areas with a large Catholic makeup. However, the Philippines, despite being a predominantly Roman Catholic country, does not have Carnival celebrations. In historically Lutheran countries, the celebration is known as Fastelavn, and in areas with a high concentration of Anglicans and Methodists, pre-Lenten celebrations, among penitential observances, occur on Shrove Tuesday. In Eastern Orthodox nations, Maslenitsa is celebrated during the last week before Great Lent. In German-speaking Europe and the Netherlands, the Carnival season is traditionally opened on 11/11 (often at 11:11 a.m.). This dates back to celebrations before the former longer Advent season or with harvest celebrations of St. Martin's Day.
The Lenten period of the Liturgical calendar, the six weeks directly before Easter, was marked by fasting and other pious or penitential practices. Traditionally during Lent, no parties or other celebrations were held, and people refrained from eating rich foods, such as meat, dairy, fats and sugar. In the days before Lent, all rich food and drink had to be disposed of. The consumption of this, in a giant party that involved the whole community, is thought to be the origin of Carnival.
While forming an integral part of the Christian calendar, particularly in Catholic regions, many Carnival traditions resemble those that date back to pre-Christian times. The Italian Carnival is sometimes thought to be derived from the ancient Roman festivals of Saturnalia and Bacchanalia. The Saturnalia, in turn, may be based on the Greek Dionysia and Oriental festivals. While medieval pageants and festivals such as Corpus Christi were church-sanctioned celebrations, Carnival was also a manifestation of medieval folk culture. Many local Carnival customs are claimed to derive from local pre-Christian rituals, for example, the elaborate rites involving masked figures in the Swabian–Alemannic Fastnacht. However, there is insufficient evidence to establish a direct origin from Saturnalia or other ancient festivals for Carnival. There are no complete accounts of Saturnalia and the shared features of feasting, role reversals, temporary social equality, the wearing of masks and permitted rule-breaking are rather general features that do not necessarily constitute a coherent festival nor links between festivals. Rather than imagine Carnival as having an essence that might be traced to antiquity based on superficial similarities, a different interpretation of these similarities is that people draw on a reservoir of cultural resources to create new forms with different meanings and functions. For example, anthropologist Brad Erickson has pointed out the common, often reversed elements of Easter and Carnival, which form the ritual bookends around Lent. Easter begins with the resurrection of Jesus, followed by a liminal period and ends with rebirth. Carnival reverses this as King Carnival comes to life, followed by a liminal period and ends with his death. Both feasts are calculated by the lunar calendar, and both Jesus and King Carnival may be seen as expiatory figures who make a gift to the people with by the sacrifice of their deaths. In the case of Jesus, the gift is eternal life in heaven and in the case of King Carnival, the acknowledgement that death is a necessary part of the cycle of earthly life. The commonalities between church rituals and imagery and those of Carnival caution against portraying them as oppositional, in spite of the play of inversions. Anthropologist Manuel Delgado points out that the drama of Christ's passion is itself grotesque: Jesus is the victim of summary judgement and is tortured and executed before mobbed spectators, and Holy Week processions in Spain include crowds who vociferously insult the figure of Jesus. Thus for Delgado, carnivalesque irreverence, parody, degradation, and laughing at a tragicomic God are not negations of the sacred order but intensifications of it.
Some of the best-known traditions, including carnal parades and masquerade ball masquerading, were first recorded in medieval Italy. The carnival of Venice was, for a long time, the most famous carnival (although Napoleon abolished it in 1797 and only in 1959 was the tradition restored). From Italy, Carnival traditions spread to the Catholic nations of Spain, Portugal, and France. From France to New France in North America. From Spain and Portugal it spread with Catholic colonization to the Caribbean and Latin America. In the early 19th century in the German Rhineland and Southern Netherlands the weakened medieval tradition started to revive as well. In Rhineland of Germany, in 1823, the first modern Carnival parade took place in Cologne, Germany. The upper Rhineland is mostly Protestant as is most Northern Germany and Northern Europe. Actually, Carneval, Fasching or Fastnacht in Germany developed from pagan traditions that mixed with Christian traditions. People celebrating before Lent arrived began with parades, costumes and masks to endure the period of Lent and withdrawal from worldly pleasures.
Other areas have developed their own traditions. In the United Kingdom, West Indian immigrants brought with them the traditions of Caribbean Carnival, however the Carnivals now celebrated at Notting Hill, London; Leeds, Yorkshire, and other places have become divorced from their cycle in the religious year, becoming purely secular events that take place in the summer months.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Theories
- 3 Carnival in specific countries
- 3.1 Africa
- 3.2 Asia
- 3.3 Europe
- 3.3.1 Belgium
- 3.3.2 Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 3.3.3 Croatia
- 3.3.4 Cyprus
- 3.3.5 Czech Republic
- 3.3.6 Denmark and Norway
- 3.3.7 England
- 3.3.8 France
- 3.3.9 Germany, Switzerland and Austria
- 3.3.10 Greece
- 3.3.11 Hungary
- 3.3.12 Italy
- 3.3.13 Lithuania
- 3.3.14 Luxembourg
- 3.3.15 Macedonia
- 3.3.16 Malta
- 3.3.17 Netherlands
- 3.3.18 Poland
- 3.3.19 Portugal
- 3.3.20 Russia
- 3.3.21 Slovakia
- 3.3.22 Slovenia
- 3.3.23 Spain
- 3.4 North America and Central America
- 3.4.1 Caribbean
- 3.4.2 Guatemala
- 3.4.3 Honduras
- 3.4.4 Nicaragua
- 3.4.5 Mexico
- 3.4.6 Panama
- 3.4.7 Bahamas
- 3.4.8 Canada
- 3.4.9 United States
- 3.5 South America
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The Latin-derived name of the holiday is sometimes also spelled Carnaval, typically in areas where French, Spanish, and Portuguese are spoken, or Carnevale in Italian-speaking contexts. A considerable number of alternate names also are used for various regional and local celebrations of the holiday.
The exact origin of the name "Carnival" is disputed, between those that argue a link with the Italian word "carne" (meat), and those that argue a link with the word "carrus" (car). The link with carne would suggest an origin within Christianity, while the link with carro with earlier religions.
Those arguing for the "carne" origin point to variants in Italian dialects that would suggest that the name comes from the Italian carne levare or similar, meaning "to remove meat", since meat is prohibited during Lent. However, carnival is celebrated before lent, as it ends on/before Ash Wednesday.
Folk etymologies exist which state that the word comes from the Late Latin expression carne vale, which means "farewell to meat", signifying that those were the last days when one could eat meat before the fasting of Lent. The word carne may also be translated as flesh, so suggesting carne vale as "a farewell to the flesh", a phrase actually embraced by certain Carnival celebrants who encourage letting go of your former (or everyday) self and embracing the carefree nature of the festival. However, explanations proceeding from carne vale seem to be folk etymologies and are not supported by philological evidence.
Other scholars argue for the origin from the Roman name for the festival of the Navigium Isidis (ship of Isis), where the image of Isis was carried to the sea-shore to bless the start of the sailing season. The festival consisted of a parade of masks following an adorned wooden boat, that would reflect the floats of modern Carnivals. Modern Carnival shares resemblances with the Navigium Isidis.
Russian literary theorist Mikhail Bakhtin's doctoral thesis, later published as Rabelais and His World, argued that Carnival is a social institution and developed a theory about the role of humor and popular ritual in Carnival to produce a festive perception of the world constituting a second life of the people beyond and outside of the seriousness of officialdom. He also developed a theory of the carnival grotesque in which the lower bodily strata (eating, sex, defecation) serve as a medium through which to challenge the powerful. He argued that the feast is a primary human cultural form, rejecting as superficial its reduction to the need for rest from work.
A once popular view held that Carnival served as a safety valve, for people to release antisocial impulses that threaten the social order. Therefore Carnival serves to reinforce status quo social norms. Applying Arnold Van Gennep's model of the rites of passage to Carnival, anthropologist Victor Turner initially held this view but later came to see Carnival as producing social transformation Folklorist Roger Abrahams moved beyond generalization about the function of Carnival to show that rather than producing one kind of effect, different social sectors used Carnival to focus attention on conflicts and incongruities by embodying them in "senseless" acts.
Carnival in specific countries
Cape Verde Islands
Carnival was introduced to the Cape Verde Islands by the Portuguese who settled there bringing with them Catholic festivities and traditions to these uninhabited islands. The pre-Lenten celebration is considered one of most colorful carnivals of Africa and is celebrated in each of the nine inhabited islands of the archipelago. The carnival of Mindelo, in the island of Sao Vicente is considered the most animated, where a number of groups challenge each other for the yearly prize. The carnival of Cape Verde, especially of Mindelo, have witnessed in recent years considerable influences from Brazilian carnival traditions. The celebration in the neighboring island of Sao Nicolau is considered to be the more traditional, where established groups celebrate the festival parading through the narrow colonial streets of Ribeira Brava, finally gathering in the picturesque town square. The Carnival of Sao Nicolau has also suffered interference from Brazilian Carnival, especially with the drums, floats, and costumes. In Sao Nicolau there is a presence of three groups: Copa Cabana, Estrela Azul and Brilho Da Zona. Every group constructs its float in their very own stall using fire, journal papers for the mold, iron and steel to give height and width; they also paint it to bring the floats to life. Carnival Sao Nicolau is celebrated three days: Saturday at dawn, Sunday in the afternoon, and finally Tuesday, the last day before Lent. The group's rehearsals take place outdoors, inside the soccer courts. The Carnival Groups of Sao Nicolau are spectacular, as they shine with fabulous costumes and pomp. This Carnival has attracted tourists from world over and is a popular destination of tourism in the island.
The Seychelles carnival has been taking place each year since 2011. It has had many participants every year from all the continents except Antarctica. It is always held in the capital city of Victoria and takes place in the series of 3 days:
Day 1: the grand opening held every year in the city center near the clock tower.
Day 2: the parade day. On this day the participants walk and dance around Victoria showing off their talents.
Day 3: the closing ceremony and lottery winning. On this day people join together at freedom square where they can get onto the floats and watch the performances.
Every year there is a group from Brazil, Spain, Italy and Indonesia and every year the number of participants get bigger and so does the number of spectators.
The Harare international Carnival has been dubbed the biggest street party in southern Africa.Every year late in May the capital city comes to life.Many different countries take part in the festivities.There are events for a few days including fashion and music shows of different themes.The climax is the street party with brilliant costumes and music.
In Indonesia, the word "carnival" or sometimes rendered as carnaval or Indonesian karnaval, is not related to the Christian pre-Lent festivities, but more to festivals in general, especially those with processions and extravagant costumes, similar with the Brazilian style. One of the largest carnivals in Indonesia is Solo Batik Carnival, held in Solo, Central Java; and Jember Fashion Carnaval, held in Jember, East Java.
In India, Carnival is celebrated on a grand scale in the state of Goa, where it is known as 'Intruz' (from the Portuguese word Entrudo, an alternative name for Carnival), and the largest celebration takes place in the city of Panaji. The Carnival is unique to Goa in India, and was introduced by the Portuguese who ruled over Goa for over four centuries. However, because Dubrovnik-Goa trade predates the Portuguese era (Melik Jesa Dubrovcanin came to India in 1480 and became viceroy of Gujarat).
The Carnival is celebrated for three days and nights, when the legendary King Momo takes over the state and the streets come alive with music and color. Huge parades are organized throughout the state with bands, dances and floats out all night on the streets, and grand balls held in the evenings.
In Sambalpur, Sitalsasthi carnival is celebrated according to the Hindu calendar on the sixth day of the bright fortnight of the month of Jyestha; It is celebrated for two days and one night, when the streets come alive with music and folk dances.
In Sirsi, Holi is celebrated with a unique Carnival. A folk dance called “Bedara Vesha” is performed during the nights beginning five days before the actual festival day. The festival is celebrated every alternate year in the town which attracts a large crowd on all the five days from different parts of the World.
For almost five centuries, the local Greek communities throughout Istanbul celebrated pre-Lent carnival with weeks of bawdy parades, lavish balls and street parties. This continued for weeks before the 40-day Lenten period. Shrove Monday, the last day of the carnival season, took place Baklahorani. The event was led by the Greek Orthodox community, but the celebrations were public and inter-communal and brought everyone together for one final celebration in the Kurtuluş district of the city. There has been a recent revival initiative of Baklahorani from 2010.
The Carnival of Binche has a history dating back at least to the 14th century. Parades are held over the three days before Lent; the most important participants are the Gilles, who go out in traditional costumes on Shrove Tuesday and throw blood oranges to the crowd. In 2003, the Carnival of Binche was recognised as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. The Carnival of Aalst, celebrated during the three days preceding Ash Wednesday, received the same recognition in 2010.
Some Belgian cities hold Carnivals later during Lent. One of the best-known is Stavelot, where the Carnival de la Laetare takes place on Laetare Sunday, the fourth Sunday of Lent. The participants include the Blancs-Moussis, who dress in white with long red noses, and parade through town attacking bystanders with confetti and dried pig bladders. The town of Halle also celebrates on Laetare Sunday. The oldest parade of Belgium is the Carnival Parade of Maaseik, which is also held on Laetare Sunday, the first parade was in 1865.
The carnival in the Netherlands, especially in the south west, is strongly related to the Belgium carnival.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The most famous Croatian Carnival (Croatian: "karneval", also called "maškare") is the Rijeka Carnival, during which the mayor of Rijeka hands over the keys to the city to the Carnival master ("meštar od karnevala") and the spirit of the Carnival takes over completely. The festival includes several different events, culminating on the final Sunday in a masked procession including participants from many different countries. (A similar procession for children takes place on the previous day.)
Many other towns in Croatia's Kvarner region (and in other parts of the country) observe the Carnival period, often incorporating local traditions and celebrating local culture. Just before the end of Carnival, every Kvarner town burns a man-like doll called a "Jure Piškanac", who is blamed for all the strife of the previous year. Another famous tradition of "Karneval" are the Zvončari, or bell-ringers, who wear bells and large head regalia representing their areas of origin (for example, those from Halubje wear regalia in the shape of animal heads). The traditional Carnival food is fritule, a pastry. This festival can also be called Poklade.
Masks are central to the Carnival celebration, and worn to many of the festivities, including concerts and parties. Children and teachers are commonly allowed to wear masks to school for a day, and also wear masks at school dances or while trick-or-treating. There are also summer Carnivals. One of the most famous is the Senj Summer Carnival – the first was 1968 – and the tradition stayed. Many other towns in the surroundings also organise Summer Carnivals (Cres, Pag, Novi Vinodolski, Fužine, etc.).
Carnival has been celebrated on the island of Cyprus for centuries, and the tradition is believed to have been established under Venetian rule around the 16th century. It may also have been influenced by Greek traditions, such as festivities for deities such as Dionysus. The celebration originally involved dressing in fancy costumes and holding masked balls or visiting friends. For approximately the past century, it has taken the form of an organized festival held during the 10 days preceding Lent (according to the Greek Orthodox calendar). The festival is celebrated almost exclusively in the city of Limassol.
Three main parades take place during Carnival. The first is held on the first day, during which the "Carnival King" (either a person in costume or an effigy) rides through the city on his carriage. The second is held on the first Sunday of the festival and the participants are mainly children. The third and largest takes place on the last day of Carnival, and involves hundreds of people walking in costume along the town's longest avenue. The latter two parades are open to anyone who wishes to participate.
In the Czech Republic, the Masopust Festival takes place from Epiphany (Den tří králů) through Ash Wednesday (Popeleční středa). The word masopust translates literally from old Czech to mean "meat fast", and the festival often includes a pork feast in preparation for Lent. The tradition is most common in Moravia but does occur in Bohemia as well. While practices vary from region to region, masks and costumes are present everywhere.
Denmark and Norway
Carnival in Denmark is called Fastelavn, and is held on the Sunday or Monday before Ash Wednesday. The holiday is sometimes described as a Nordic Halloween, with children dressing in costume and gathering treats for the Fastelavn feast. One popular custom is the fastelavnsris, a switch that children use to flog their parents to wake them up on Fastelavns Sunday.
In Norway, students having seen celebrations in Paris introduced Carnival processions, masked balls and Carnival balls to Christiana in the 1840s and 1850s. From 1863, the artist federation kunstnerforeningen held annual Carnival balls in the old freemasons lodge, which inspired Johan Svendsens compositions "Norsk Kunstnerkarneval" and "Karneval in Paris". The following year, Svendsens Festpolonaise was written for the opening procession of the Carnival ball. Edvard Grieg also attended the Carnival, and wrote "aus dem Karneval" (folkelivsbilleder Op. 19). After the Rococo Hall at Grand Hotel opened in 1894, annual balls in the Carnival season were arranged until the hall was destroyed in a fire in 1957. Since 1988, the student organization Tårnseilerne has produced annual masquerade balls in Oslo in the historical renovated freemasons lodge in the Carnival tradition, with masks, costumes and processions after attending an opera performance. The Carnival season also includes Fastelavens søndag (with cream buns) and fastelavensris with decorated branches.
In England, the season immediately before Lent was called Shrovetide. A time for confessing sins (shriving), it had fewer festivities than the Continental Carnivals. Today, Shrove Tuesday is celebrated as Pancake Day, but little else of the Lent-related Shrovetide survived the 16th-century English Reformation. Possibly the only Shrovetide Carnival in the United Kingdom is celebrated in Cowes and East Cowes on the Isle of Wight; it is the first Carnival on the island's long and busy calendar. The largest Carnival in England is Notting Hill Carnival which does not derive from Lent and is celebrated in late August. It is derived from Caribbean tradition and is a cultural transplant.
The three major Carnivals of mainland France are the Nice Carnival, the Dunkirk Carnival and the Paris Carnival. The Nice Carnival was held as far back as 1294, and is still held annually, attracting over a million visitors yearly during the two weeks preceding Lent. The Paris Carnival occurs after the Feast of Fools and dates back to the 16th century or earlier, although it was not held between 1952 and 1957.
The Dunkirk Carnival is among the greatest and most exuberant carnivals celebrated in Europe. Its traditions date back to the 17th century and are based on the 'vischerbende' as fishermen went from one café to another accompanied by their relatives and friends just before the departure to the Iceland fishing grounds.
Germany, Switzerland and Austria
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In Germany, the Karneval or Fasching season officially begins in November the year before the Lenten season starts and culminates in the Rosenmontag Parade.
The most active Carnival week begins on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday, with parades being held during the weekend, and finishes the night before Ash Wednesday, with the main festivities occurring around Rosenmontag (Rose Monday). This time is also called the "Fifth Season". Shrove Tuesday is celebrated in certain cities, but in Germany there is no special name for that day.
The Karneval, Fasching, or Fastnacht season in the German-speaking world officially begins on 11/11 of any given year at 11:11 AM and ends just before midnight on Ash Wednesday the following year. There are lots of parties, with self-made and more fanciful costumes and occasional masks, right from the beginning of the carnival season in November. The parties become more exuberant as the weeks progress and get really big after New Year, in January and February. All ends at midnight the night before Ash Wednesday with all-night parties, dancing, hugging and kissing, everywhere and by everyone. There are parties for all, for women only and for children. Celebrations are usually in the spirit of fun, good will and celebration after a long winter. There is no nudity as is sometimes seen in New Orleans. Kreppel, or donuts, are the traditional Fasching food and are baked or fried and consumed by the million.
In Germany, one distinguishes between the Rheinische Fasching and the Schwäbische Fastnacht.
"Rheinische" Carnival (Fasching)
The "Rheinische" Carnival is held in the west of Germany, mainly in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia or Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rhineland Palatinate or Rheinland-Pfalz, but also in Hessen [including Oberhessen], Bavaria and other states. Some cities are more famous for celebrations such as parades and costume balls. Köln or Cologne Carnival, as well as Düsseldorf, Wiesbaden and Mainz are the largest and most famous. But a lot of other cities have their own, often less well known celebrations, parades and parties like Worms am Rhein, Speyer, Kaiserslautern, Frankfurt, Darmstadt, Mannheim, Ludwigshafen, Stuttgart, Augsburg, München [Munich] Nürnberg and more. On Carnival Thursday (called "Old Women Day" or "The Women's Day") in commemoration of an 1824 revolt by washer-women, women storm city halls, cut men's ties, and are allowed to kiss any man who passes their way. Well, that is allowed during most of the season and especially during the last weeks of Fasching everywhere in Germany.
The Fasching parades and floats are very clever. To understand the theme[s] one must be aware of what is going on in the country or in the world as the floats make fun of politicians, and/or any and all public figures. No one is spared. There are also many speeches taking aim at public figures, especially local politicians, other public figures who screwed up as well as EU politicians, Putin and others.
"Swabian-Alemannic" Carnival (Schwäbische Fastnacht)
The "Swabian-Alemannic" Carnival, known as Schwäbische Fastnacht, takes place in Baden and Schwaben (Swabia, Southwestern Germany), the Allgäu, Elsass (i.e. Alsace) and Vorarlberg (Western Austria). It traditionally represents the time of year when the reign of the cold, grim winter spirits is over and these spirits are being hunted down and expelled. That is how Fasching or Fastnacht started during the pagan era. It then morphed with Catholicism and ended just before Lent. The first official record of "Karneval, Fasching or Fastnacht" in Germany dates to 1296.
In Switzerland Fasnacht takes place in the Catholic cantons of Switzerland, e.g. in Lucerne (Lozärner Fasnacht), but also in the Protestant Basel, however the Basler Fasnacht astonishingly begins on the Monday after Ash Wednesday. All of them have their roots in the Late Middle Ages. But you also find many, often smaller Fasnacht festivities all over the German Switzerland, e.g. in Bern, Olten, or in the eastern part of Switzerland (Zurich, St. Gallen, Appenzell).
The Carnival season in Greece is also known as the Apokriés (Greek: Αποκριές, "saying goodbye to meat"), or the season of the "Opening of the Triodion", so named after the liturgical book used by the church from then until the Holy Week. One of the season's high points is Tsiknopempti, when celebrants enjoy roast beef dinners at taverns or friends' homes; the ritual is repeated the following Sunday. The following week, the last before Lent, is called Tyrinē (Greek: Τυρινή, "cheese [week]") because eating meat is not allowed, but dairy products are. The Great Lent begins on "Clean Monday", the day after "Cheese Sunday". Throughout the Carnival season, people disguise themselves as maskarádes ("masqueraders") and engage in pranks and general revelry.
Patras holds the largest annual Carnival in Greece; the famous Patras Carnival is a three-day spectacle replete with concerts, balles masqués, parading troupes, a treasure hunt and many events for children. The grand parade of masked troupes and floats is held at noon on Tyrine Sunday, and culminates in the ceremonial burning of the effigy of King Carnival at the Patras harbour.
In many other regions, festivities of smaller extent are organized, focused on the reenactment of traditional carnevalic customs; for example those held in Tyrnavos (Thessaly), Kozani (West Macedonia), Rethymno (Crete) and in Xanthi (East Macedonia and Thrace). Specifically Tyrnavos holds an annual Phallus festival, a traditional "phallkloric" event in which giant, gaudily painted effigies of phalluses made of papier maché are paraded, and which all women present are asked to touch, or kiss... their reward for doing so being a shot of the famous local tsipouro alcohol spirit. Also every year, to the very beginning (from 1 to 8 January), mostly in regions of the Western Macedonia, there are Carnival fiestas and festivals. The best known of them is the Kastorian Carnival or "Ragoutsaria" (Gr. "Ραγκουτσάρια") [tags: Kastoria, Kastorian Carnival, Ragoutsaria, Ραγκουτσαρια, Καστοριά]. It takes place from 6 to 8 January with a mass participation of the local population and thousands of visitors under the sounds of big brass bands, pipises, Macedonian and grand casa drums. It is an ancient celebration of nature's rebirth (fiestas for Dionysus (Dionysia) and Kronos (Saturnalia)), which ends the third day in a huge dance in the medieval square Ntoltso where all the bands are playing at the same time and all the people are dancing too.
In Mohács, Hungary, the Busójárás is a celebration held at the end of the Carnival season, and involves locals dressing up in woolly costumes, with scary masks and noise-makers. They perform a burial ritual to symbolise the end of winter and spike doughnuts on weapons to symbolise the defeat of Ottomans.
The Carnival in Venice was first recorded in 1268. The subversive nature of the festival is reflected in Italy's many laws over the past several centuries attempting to restrict celebrations and the wearing of masks, a central feature of the Carnival. Carnival celebrations in Venice were halted for many years after the city fell under Austrian control in 1798, but were revived in the late 20th century.
The month-long Carnival of Viareggio is one of the most renowned in Europe, and is characterized mainly by its parade of floats and masks caricaturing popular figures. In 2001, the town built a new "Carnival citadel" dedicated to Carnival preparations and entertainment.
The Carnival of Ivrea is famous for its Battle of the Oranges fought with citruses between the people by foot and the troops of the tyrant on the carts, to remember the wars that really happened during the Middle Ages.
Užgavėnės is a Lithuanian festival that takes place on Ash Wednesday during the seventh week before Easter. Its name in English means "the time before Lent". The celebration corresponds to Carnival holiday traditions in other parts of the world.
Užgavėnės begins on the night before Ash Wednesday, when an effigy of winter (usually named Morė) is burnt. A major element of the holiday, meant to symbolize the defeat of winter in the Northern Hemisphere, is a staged battle between Lašininis ("porky") personifying winter and Kanapinis ("hempen man") personifying spring. Devils, witches, goats, the grim reaper, and other joyful and frightening characters appear in costumes during the celebrations.
Eating pancakes is an important part of the celebration in Lithuania.
In Luxembourg, the pre-Lenten holiday season is known as Fuesend. Throughout the Grand-Duchy, parades and parties are held.
Pétange is the home of the Grand-Duchy's largest pre-Lenten Karneval celebration. Annually hosting a calvalcade with roughly 1200 participants and thousand of participants, the official name is Karneval Gemeng Péiteng or Kagepe (the initials in Luxembourgish are pronounced Ka, Ge and Pe).
The town of Remich holds a three-day-long celebration. Remich is notable for two special events in addition to its parades. The first of these is the Stréimännchen, which is the burning of a male effigy from the Remich Bridge that crosses the Moselle River separating the Grand Duchy from Germany. The Stréimännchen symbolizes the burning away of winter. The other special event at the Remich Fuesend celebrations is the Buergbrennen or bonfire that closes the celebration.
The Vevčani Carnival (Macedonian: Вевчански Kарневал, translated Vevchanski Karneval) has been held for over 1,400 years, and takes place on 13 and 14 January (New Year's Eve and New Year's Day by the old calendar). During the Carnival, the village becomes a live theatre where costumed actors improvise on the streets in roles such as the traditional "August the Stupid."
The Strumica Carnival (Macedonian: Струмички Карневал, translated Strumichki Karneval) has been held since at least 1670, when the Turkish author Evlija Chelebija wrote while staying there, "I came into a town located in the foothills of a high hillock and what I saw that night was masked people running house–to–house, with laughter, scream and song." The Carnival has taken place in an organized form since 1991; in 1994, Strumica became a member of FECC and in 1998 hosted the XVIII International Congress of Carnival Cities. The Strumica Carnival opens on a Saturday night at a masked ball where the Prince and Princess are chosen; the main Carnival night is on Tuesday, when masked participants (including groups from abroad) compete in various subjects. As of 2000, the Festival of Caricatures and Aphorisms has been held as part of Strumica's Carnival celebrations.
Carnival in Malta (Maltese: il-Karnival ta' Malta) has had an important place in the Maltese cultural calendar for just under five centuries, having been introduced to the islands by Grand Master Piero de Ponte in 1535. It is held during the week leading up to Ash Wednesday, and typically includes masked balls, fancy dress and grotesque mask competitions, lavish late-night parties, a colourful, ticker-tape parade of allegorical floats presided over by King Carnival (Maltese: ir-Re tal-Karnival), marching bands and costumed revellers.
Today the largest of the Carnival celebrations takes place in and around the capital city of Valletta and Floriana; however, several more "spontaneous" Carnivals take place in more remote areas. The Nadur Carnival is notable for its darker themes. In 2005, the Nadur Carnival hosted the largest-ever gathering of international Carnival organizers for the FECC's global summit.
Traditional dances include the parata, which is a lighthearted re-enactment of the 1565 victory of the Knights over the Turks, and an 18th-century court dance known as il-Maltija. Food eaten at the Carnival includes perlini (multi-coloured, sugar-coated almonds) and the prinjolata, which is a towering assembly of sponge cake, biscuits, almonds and citrus fruits, topped with cream and pine nuts.
Carnival in the Netherlands is called Carnaval, Vastenavond or Vastelaovend(j), and is most celebrated in traditionally Catholic regions, mainly the southern provinces North Brabant and Limburg. Dutch Carnaval is officially celebrated on the Sunday through Tuesday preceding Ash Wednesday. Although traditions vary from town to town, some common characteristics of Dutch Carnaval include a parade, a "prince" plus cortège ("Jester/adjutant and Council of 11"), a Peasant Wedding (boerenbruiloft), and eating herring (haring happen) on Ash Wednesday.
Two main variants can be distinguished: the Rhineland Carnaval (locally: Vastelaovend) found in the province of Limburg, and the Bourgondische Carnaval (locally: Carnaval) found mainly in North Brabant. Maastricht, Limburg's capital, holds a street Carnaval featuring elaborate costumes resembling Venetian influences.
The first known documentations of the Dutch carnival date from the late 8th century (Indiculus superstitionum et paganiarum), but were already mentioned during the First Council of Nicaea in 325 and by Caesarius of Arles (470-542) around 500 CE. In the Netherlands itself the first documentation is found in 1383 in Den Bosch, the oldest-known images of Dutch Carnaval festivities date from 1485, also in 's-Hertogenbosch.
Many cities and villages in the Netherlands have an alternative name, only used during the carnival.
The Polish Carnival Season includes Fat Thursday (Polish: Tłusty Czwartek), when pączki (doughnuts) are eaten, and Śledzik (Shrove Tuesday) or Herring Day. The Tuesday before the start of Lent is also often called Ostatki (literally "leftovers"), meaning the last day to party before the Lenten season.
The traditional way to celebrate Carnival is the kulig, a horse-drawn sleigh ride through the snow-covered countryside. In modern times, Carnival is increasingly seen as an excuse for intensive partying and night-clubbing, and has become more commercialized with stores offering Carnival-season sales.
Carnival in Portugal is celebrated throughout the country, most famously in Ovar, Sesimbra, Madeira, Loulé, Nazaré, and Torres Vedras. The Carnivals in Podence and Lazarim incorporate pagan traditions such as the careto, while the Torres Vedras celebration is probably the most typical Portuguese Carnival.
Ironically, although Portugal introduced Christianity and the customs related to Catholic practice to Brazil, the country has begun to adopt some aspects of Brazilian-style Carnival celebrations, in particular those of Rio de Janeiro with sumptuous parades, samba and other Brazilian musical elements.
Carnival is celebrated throughout Portugal, but each region puts its own unique take on the festival.
In Lazarim, a municipality of Lamego, celebrations follow the pagan tradition of the Roman Saturnalias. This rustic town celebrates Carnival by burning colorful effigies and dressing in carefully crafted, home-made costumes. The region is celebrated for its wood craftsmanship and is most for the locals’ heavy, handmade wooden masks worn during Carnival. The masks of Lazarim are effigies of both men and women, but both roles are performed by men. They are distinguished by their clothes, which ridiculously characterize different attributes of both men and women.
The Lazarim Carnival cycle encompasses two periods, the first starting on the fifth Sunday before Fat Sunday. Masked figures and people wearing large sculpted heads walk through the town. The locals also feast on wide varieties of meats, above all pork. The second cycle, held on Sundays preceding Ash Wednesday, incorporates the tradition of the Compadres and Comadres, with men and women displaying light-hearted authority over the other.
Over the course of the five weeks, men prepare large masked heads and women raise funds to pay for the mannequins that will be sacrificed in a public bonfire. This is one of the key events and is a Carnival tradition unique to Portugal. During the bonfire, a girl reads the Compadre's will and a boy reads the Comadre's will. The executors of the will are named, a donkey is symbolically distributed to both female and male "heirs", and then the final reckoning in which the Entrudo, or Carnival doll, is burned.
In Estarreja, in the Central region of Portugal, the town's first references to Carnival are noted in the 14th century, with "Flower Battles", or richly decorated floats which paraded through Estarreja's streets. In the beginning of the twentieth century, these festivities ended with the death of its main promoters only to reappear again in the sixties to become one of the many important Carnival festivals in Portugal.
In the Northern region of Podence, children appear from Sunday to Tuesday with tin masks and colorful multilayered costumes made from red, green and yellow wool. And in the Central Portugal towns of Nelas and Canas de Senhorim, Carnival is one of the most important tourist events in the region, attracting thousands of visitors yearly. Nelas and Canas de Senhorim are host to the four festive parades that promise visitors colorful and creative costumes: The Bairro da Igreja and the Cimo do Povo in Nelas and the do Paço and the do Rossio in Canas de Senhorim.
One of the most famous Carnival events in Portugal is in the town Ovar near Porto. Organized since 1952 it is the largest festivity of the region, drawing thousands of visitors. It is well known for its creative designs, which they display in the Carnival Parade. Participants and their families work year-round to prepare their elaborate and humorous costumes, masks, decorations and floats. Its Carnival parade features troupes with themed costumes and music, ranging from the traditional to modern pop culture.
In Lisbon, Portugal's largest city, Carnival is a more cosmopolitan affair. Parades, dances and festivities throughout the week feature famous stars from Portugal and Brazil. The Loures Carnival is a highlight of Lisbon's festivities and celebrates the country's folk traditions, including the "enterro do bacalhau" or burial of the cod, which symbolizes the end of Carnival and the festivities.
North of Lisbon is the famous Torres Vedras Carnival, described as the "most Portuguese in Portugal." Those looking for a less touristy Carnival experience should visit this town where the locals are the stars. The celebration highlight is a parade of creatively decorated streetcars satirizing society and politics.
Other Central Portugal towns, such as Fatima and Leiria, offer colorful, family-friendly takes on Carnival. In these towns everyone dresses up as if it were Halloween. Children and adults wear masks and enjoy the towns’ enthusiastic parades.
In the Algarve region along the southern coast of Portugal, several of the posh resorts towns offer their own traditional takes on the Carnival parades. Besides the themed floats and cars, the Carnival festivities include "samba" groups, bands, dances and plenty of music and liveliness. In the city of Loulé, the Carnival parade annually attracts thousands of national and foreign tourists to the region.
The Islands of the Azores have their own take on the Carnival festivities, but like on the mainland, many local clubs and Carnival groups create colorful and creative costumes that take a jab at the political or cultural characters of the times.
On São Miguel Island, Carnival has a sweet taste with street vendors selling fried dough, called a Malassada. The festival on the Azores biggest island starts off with a black tie grand ball, then and heats up with Latin music at the recently restored Coliseu Micaelense. There is a children's parade in the streets of Ponta Delgada with children from each school district coming in costume. Then a massive Carnival parade fills the streets into the wee hours ending in fireworks.
Some of the islands’ more unique aspects to Carnival are the theatre performances and dances. In the "Danças de Entrudo" hundreds of people follow the dancers around the island. Throughout the show the dancers, who are guided by a "master", act out dramas from everyday life. The "Dances de Carnival" are allegorical and comedic tales acted out in the streets throughout the festival. The largest is in "Angra do Heroísmo", with more than 30 Carnival groups performing. During this festival, it is said there are more Portuguese-language theatrical performances occurring here than anywhere else in the world.
The Carnival festivities end on Ash Wednesday, when locals sit down for the "Batatada" or potato feast, in which the main dish is salted cod with potatoes, eggs, mint, bread and wine. After, residents head into the streets for the burning of the "Carnival clown", signaling the end of the Carnival.
On the Island of Madeira, Carnival maintains its distinctive local roots as well. Funchal, the island's capital, wakes up on the Friday morning before Ash Wednesday to the sound of brass bands and Carnival parades throughout the downtown area. That night festivities continue with concerts and shows in the Praça do Município for five consecutive days. The Main Carnival street parade takes place on Saturday evening with thousands of Samba dancers flooding the streets of Funchal. The traditional public street Carnival takes place on Tuesday, where the island's population displays its ingenuity and imagination by creating daring caricatures for the parade.
Arguably, the Brazilian Carnival could be historically traced to the period of the Portuguese Age of Discoveries when their caravels passed regularly through Madeira, a territory which already celebrated emphatically its carnival season, and where they were loaded with goods but also people and their ludic and cultural expressions who then lend them to what would become the biggest cultural manifestation in modern Brazil.
Maslenitsa (Масленица, also called Pancake Week or "Cheese Week") is a Russian folk holiday that incorporates some traditions that date back to pagan times. It is celebrated during the last week before Lent. The essential element of Maslenitsa celebration is bliny, Russian pancakes, popularly taken to symbolize the sun. Round and golden, they are made from the rich foods still allowed during that week by the Orthodox traditions: butter, eggs, and milk (in the tradition of Orthodox lent, the consumption of meat ceases one week before the consumption of milk and eggs).
Maslenitsa also includes masquerades, snowball fights, sledding, swinging on swings and sleigh rides. The mascot of the celebration is usually a brightly dressed straw effigy of Lady Maslenitsa, formerly known as Kostroma. As the culmination of the celebration, on Sunday evening, Lady Maslenitsa is stripped of her finery, and put to the flames of a bonfire.
In Slovakia, the Fašiangy (fašiang, fašangy) takes place from Three Kings Day (Traja králi) until the midnight before Ash Wednesday (Škaredá streda or Popolcová streda). At the midnight marking the end of fašiangy, a symbolic burial ceremony for the contrabass is performed, because music has to cease for the Lent.
Slovenia has a rich and diverse annual cycle of holidays. Much ethnic heritage has been preserved through widely attended tourist events The Slovenian countryside displays a variety of disguised groups and individual characters among which the most popular and characteristic is the Kurent (plural: Kurenti), a monstrous and demon-like, but fluffy figure. The most significant ethonological Carnival festival is traditionally held in annually in the town of Ptuj (see: Kurentovanje). The special feature of the event of Ptuj itself and its surrounding area are the Kurents themselves, magical creatures from the other world, who visit all major events throughout the country, members of parliament, the president and mayors, trying to banish the winter and announce the arrival of the spring, fertility, and new life with loud noise and dancing. The origin of the Kurent is a mystery, and not much is known of the times, beliefs, or purposes connected with its first appearance. The origin of the name itself is obscure.
Another town, equal in importance to Ptuj, where the Carnival tradition is alive is Cerknica. The Carnival is heralded by a figure called "Poganjič" carrying a whip. In the Carnival procession, organised by the "Pust society", a monstrous witch named Uršula is driven from Mt. Slivnica, to be burned at the stake on Ash Wednesday. Unique to this region is a group of dormice, driven by the Devil, and a huge fire-breathing dragon. Cerkno and its surrounding area is known for the Laufarji, Carnival figures with artistically carved wooden masks.
The Maškare from Dobrepolje used to represent a triple character: the beautiful, the ugly (among which the most important represented by an old man, an old woman, a hunchback, and a Kurent), and the noble (imitating the urban elite).
The major part of the population, especially the young and children, dress up in ordinary non-ethnic costumes, going to school, work, and organized events, where prizes are given for the best and most original costumes. Costumed children sometimes go from house to house asking for treats.
Arguably the most famous locales in Spain are Santa Cruz, Las Palmas, Sitges, Vilanova i la Geltrú, Tarragona, Águilas, Solsona, Cádiz, Badajoz, Bielsa (an ancestral Carnival celebration), Plan, San Juan de Plan, Laza, Verín, Viana and Xinzo de Limia.
In Cádiz the costumes worn are often related to recent news, such as the bird flu epidemic in 2006, during which many people were disguised as chickens. The feeling of this Carnival is the sharp criticism, the funny play on words and the imagination in the costumes, more than the glamorous dressings. It is traditional to paint the face with lipstick as a humble substitute of a mask.
The most famous groups are the chirigotas, choirs and comparsas. The chirigotas are well known witty, satiric popular groups who sing about politics, new times and household topics, wearing the same costume, which they train for the whole year. The Choirs (coros) are wider groups that go on open carts through the streets singing with a little orchestra of guitars and lutes. Their characteristic composition is the "Carnival Tango", and they alternate comical and serious repertory. The comparsas are the serious counterpart of the chirigota in Cádiz, and the poetical lyrics and the criticism are their main ingredients. They have a more elaborated polyphony, being easily recognizable by the typical countertenor voice.
The Santa Cruz is together with the Carnival of Cadiz, the most important festival for Spanish tourism and Spain's largest Carnival. In 1980 it was declared a Festival Tourist International Interest, by the Secretariat of State for the Tourism. Every February, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the capital of the largest of the Canary Islands, hosts the event, attracting around a million people. The celebrations could be declared by UNESCO as Heritage of Mankind in 2011. Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife now aspires to become a World Heritage Site.
In 1980 it was declared a Festival Tourist International Interest, by the Secretariat of State for the Tourism and it is one of the most important Carnivals of the World. The Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife now aspires to become a World Heritage Site. This declaration by UNESCO will, occur, further promoting international had Santa Cruz de Tenerife, being the first Carnival of Spain to obtain this recognition, for its permanent in time and it would reach the five continents through UNESCO. In 1987 went to the "Carnival Chicharrero" Cuban singer Celia Cruz with orchestra Billo's Caracas Boys, attended by 250,000 people, was registered in the Guinness of Records as the largest gathering of people in an outdoor plaza to attend a concert, a record she holds today.
In Catalonia people dress in masks and costume (often in themed groups) and organize a week-long series of parties, pranks, outlandish activities such as bed races, street dramas satirizing public figures, and raucous processions to welcome the arrival of Sa Majestat el Rei Carnestoltes (His Majesty King Carnival), known by various titles, including el Rei dels poca-soltes (King of the Crackpots), Princep etern de Cornudella (Eternal Prince of Cuckoldry, Duc de ximples i corrumputs (Duke of Fools and the Corrupt), Marquès de la bona mamella (Marquis of the lovely breast), Comte de tots els barruts (Count of the Insolent), Baró de les Calaverades (Baron of Nocturnal Debaucheries), and Senyor de l'alt Plàtan florit, dels barraquers i gamberrades i artista d'honor dalt del llit (Lord of the Tall Banana in Bloom, of the Voyeurs and Punks and the Artist of Honor upon the Bed). The King presides over a period of misrule in which conventional social rules may be broken and wild, reckless behavior is encouraged. Despite the winter cold, festivities are held in the open air, beginning with a cercavila, a ritual procession throughout the town to call everyone to attend. Rues of masked revelers dance along the streets. On Thursday Dijous Gras (Fat Thursday) is celebrated, also called 'the omelette day' (el dia de la truita), coques (de llardons, butifarra d'ou, butifarra) and omelettes are eaten. The festivities end on Ash Wednesday with elaborate funeral rituals marking the death of King Carnival who is typically burned on a pyre in what is called the burial of the sardine (enterrament de la sardina), or, in Vilanova, as l'enterro.
The Carnival of Vilanova i la Geltrú has a documented history back to 1790 and is one of the richest in terms of the variety of its acts and rituals. It is a more ancient style of carnival in which satire, the grotesque body (particularly transvestism and displays of exaggerated bellies, noses, and phalli) and above all, active participation are highly valued over the more recent emphasis on glamorous, media-friendly spectacles that Vilanovins mock as "thighs and feathers". It is best known for Les Comparses (held on Sunday), a tumultuous couples dance in which 12,000 or more dancers organized into rival groups throw 75 tons of hard candies at one other. The women protect their faces with Mantons de Manila (Manila shawls) but there are inevitable injuries; eye-patches and slings for broken arms are often seen the following week. Vilanovins organize an elaborate ritual for the arrival of King Carnival called l'Arrivo that is different every year but includes a raucous procession of floats and dancers lampooning current events or public figures and a bitingly satiric sermon (el sermo) delivered by the King himself. Another local feature is that on Dijous Gras, Vilanovin children are excused from school to participate in the Merengada a day long orgy of eating and fighting with sticky, sweet meringue.
Adults have their own meringue battle at midnight at the historic Plaça de les Cols. Other events and rituals include the mysterious sortida del Moixo Foguer (the outing of Little-Bird-Bonfire) accompanied by the Xerraire (jabberer) who insults the crowd, the progress of the King and his concubines in which they scandalize the town with their sexual behavior, bed races in the streets, a correfoc (fire run) or Devil's dance (Ball de diables, in which youths dance amid the sparks and explosions of the ritual crew of devils, the debached Nit dels Mascarots, Karaoke sausage roasts, xatonades, the children's partyVidalet, the last night of revelry, Vidalot, the talking-dance of the Mismatched Couples (Ball de Malcasats), the arrival of the children's carnival king Caramel whose massive belly, long nose and sausage-like hair hint at his insatiable appetites, and many others.
For the funeral of the king, people dress in elaborate mourning costume, many of them transvestite men, holding bouquets of phallic vegetables. In the funeral house, the body of the king is surrounded by an honor guard and weeping concubines, crying out for the loss of sexual pleasure brought about by the king's death. The king's body is carried to the Plaça de la Vila where a satiric eulogy is delivered while the townspeople eat salty grilled sardines with bread and wine, suggesting the symbolic cannibalism of the communion ritual. Finally, amid rockets and explosions, the King's body is burned in a massive pyre.
Carnaval de Solsona takes place in Solsona, Lleida in central Catalonia. It is one of the longest Carnivals in Catalonia; free events in the streets, and concerts every night, run for more than a week. The Carnival is known for a legend that explains how some people hung a donkey at the tower bell, because the animal wanted to eat some grass which grew on the top of the tower. To remember this legend, every year people in Solsona hang a stuffed donkey at the tower that "pisses" above the excited people using a water pump. This event is the most important of Solsona's Carnival and takes place on Saturday night. For this reason, the inhabitants of Solsona are called "matarrucs" ("donkey killers").
Another characteristic of the Carnival is its giants. Crazy Giants will pursue and try to hit revellers with their articulated arms and legs. The Crazy Giants were created in 1978 by the giant-making master Manel Casserras i Boix. Photo:
"Comparses" groups organize free activities in the streets. They are groups of friends who create and personalize a uniformed suit which is worn every year during the festivities
Sitges: This Carnival is one of the most famous Carnivals in Catalonia. Special feasts include xatonades (xató is a traditional local salad of the Penedès coast) served with omelettes. Two important moments are the Rua de la Disbauxa (Debauchery Parade) on Sunday night and the Rua de l'Extermini (Extermination Parade) on Tuesday night. Around 40 floats with more than 2,500 participants parade in Sitges.
Tarragona has one of the most complete ritual sequences of the Catalan Carnivals. The events start with the building of a huge barrel and end with its burning together with the effigies of the Carnival King and Queen. On Saturday, the main parade takes place. There are masked groups, zoomorphic figures, music and percussion bands, and groups with fireworks (the devils, the dragon, the ox, the female dragon). Carnival groups stand out for their clothes full of elegance, showing brilliant examples of fabric crafts, at the Saturday and Sunday parades. About 5,000 people are members of the parade groups.
North America and Central America
Most of the islands in the Caribbean celebrate Carnival. The largest and most well-known celebration is held in Trinidad and Tobago. The Dominican Republic, Antigua, Aruba, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Curaçao, Barbados, Dominica, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Sint Maarten, Saint Lucia, Saint Kitts, Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are also known for lengthy carnival seasons and large celebrations.
Carnival is an important cultural event on the Dutch Antilles islands of Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, Saba, Sint Eustatius (Statia), and Bonaire. Festivities include "jump-up" parades with beautifully colored costumes, floats, and live bands as well as beauty contests and other competitions. Carnival on these islands also includes a middle-of-the-night j'ouvert (juvé) parade that ends at sunrise with the burning of a straw King Momo, cleansing the island of sins and bad luck. On Statia he is called Prince Stupid.
Carnival has also been celebrated in Cuba since the 18th century. The costumes, dances and pageantry grew with each passing year, with the participants donning costumes from the cultural and ethnic variety on the island. After Fidel Castro's Communist Revolution, Carnival's religious overture was suppressed. The events remained, albeit frowned upon by the state. Carnival celebrations have been in decline throughout Cuba since 1960.
Carnival means weeks of events that bring you colourfully decorated floats, contagiously throbbing music, luxuriously costumed groups of celebrants of all ages, King and Queen elections, electrifying jump-ups and torchlight parades that wind their way through the streets at night, the Jouvert morning: the Children's Parades and finally the Grand Parade. Aruba's biggest celebration of the year is a month-long celebration consisting of festive "jump-ups" (street parades), spectacular parades and creative contests. Music and flamboyant costumes play a central role, from the Queen elections to the Grand Parade, which winds it ways down city avenues to the delight of thousands of spectators. Street parades are held in various districts throughout the month, allowing everyone an opportunity to participate and dance to the season's most popular brass band, steel band and roadmarch tunes. On the evening before the start of Lent, Carnival officially comes to end with the symbolic burning of "King Momo."
The Antiguan Carnival is a celebration of music and dance held annually from the end of July to the first Tuesday in August. The most important day is that of the j'ouvert (or juvé), in which brass and steel bands perform for much of the island's population. Barbuda's Carnival, held in June, is known as Caribana. The Antiguan and Barbudan Carnivals replaced the Old Time Christmas Festival in 1957, with hopes of inspiring tourism in Antigua and Barbuda. Some elements of the Christmas .
Carnival in Barbados is known as Crop Over. Crop is Barbados's biggest festival, having had its early beginnings on the sugar cane plantations during the colonial period. The crop over tradition began in 1688, and featured singing, dancing and accompaniment by bottles filled with water, shak-shak, banjo, triangle, fiddle, guitar, and bones. Other traditions included climbing a greased pole, feasting and drinking competitions. Originally a celebration signaling the end of the yearly sugar cane harvest, it has since evolved into a national festival rivaling New Orleans Mardi Gras and Trinidad Carnival in Trinidad. In the late 20th century, the general schematic of Crop Over began to closely mirror the Trinidad Carnival. Beginning in June, Crop Over runs until the first Monday in August when it culminates in the finale, The Grand Kadooment.
For the entire two months life for many islanders is one big party with a major feature of crop over being the calypso competition. Calypso music, originating in Trinidad, uses syncopated rhythm and topical lyrics and gives its exponents a medium in which to satirise local politics and comment on the issues of the day, while taking nothing away from the general bacchanal. Calypso tents, also originating in Trinidad, feature their cadre of calypsonians who perform biting social commentaries on the happenings of the past year, political exposés or rousing exhortations to wuk dah waistline and roll dat bumper. There are craft markets, food tents and stalls, street parties and cavalcades every week supplemented by daily events at Tim's on the Highway, the new home of the Barbados Cropover Festival.
Competition "tents" ring with the fierce battle of calypsonians for the coveted Calypso Monarch Award and the air is redolent with the exotic smells of Bajan cooking during the Bridgetown Market Street Fair. Rich with the spirit of local culture, the Cohobblopot Festival blends dance and drama and music with the crowning of the King and Queen of costume bands. Every evening the "Pic-o-de-Crop" Show is performed when finally the King of Calypso is crowned. The climax of the festival is Kadooment Day celebrated with a national holiday when costume bands fill the streets with pulsating Barbadian rhythms and fireworks that ignite the sky.
San Pedro is one of the few cities in Belize to observe Carnaval at the traditional time of year before Lent. Although Carnaval (sometimes referred to as Carnival) often occurs in September, the Fiesta de Carnaval is often the most popular celebration, usually held for a duration of three days prior to Ash Wednesday, but the festivities often are extended to the full week prior to Lent. During this week of celebrations organized by the local government and the town of San Pedro, locals as well as tourists indulge in the pleasures which they will be giving up for Lent. Often compared to New Orleans’ Mardi Gras festivities, this festival “always includes music, dancing, costumes and parades”.
One of the public’s favourite events are the colorful comparsas held throughout the week. Comparsas consist of large groups “of dancers dancing and traveling on the streets, followed by a Carrosa (carriage) where the musicians play. The Comparsa is a development of African processions where groups of devotees follow a given saint or deity during a particular religious celebration”. One of the most popular comparsas of Fiesta de Carnaval is the male group comparsa which is usually composed of highly regarded men from the community who dress up in outlandish costumes or dress like women and dance for money in the streets. Competitions are usually held each year and prizes awarded to the best dance group. Other very popular activities include body painting and flour fighting. Locals really enjoy the painting activities when they get to have friendly fights with a variety of colorful paints. “On the last day of Carnival painters flood the street to paint each other. This simply means that a mixture of water paint and water or raw eggs is used to paint people on the streets, the goal being to paint as many people as you can”.
Unfortunately, Fiesta de Carnaval has a reputation of sometimes taking a wrong turn, as street fights often occur during the festivities - many people out in the streets treat this festival as an opportunity to take revenge on their enemies. Additionally, vandalism is extremely common and “businesses constantly have to prepare in covering or repainting their advertisements during Carnival season because of the mischief performed. For this reason, many people advocate the termination of these festivities, however they remain an integral part of the Belizean culture and are extremely appreciated, anticipated, and dear to locals and visitors.
Carnival in Dominica is held in the capital City of Roseau, and takes elements of Carnival that can be seen in the neighbouring French islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe, as well as Trinidad. Notable events that take place during the season leading up to carnival include the Opening of Carnival celebrations, the calypso Monarch music competition, the Queen of Carnival Beauty Pageant and bouyon music bands. Celebrations last for the Monday and Tuesday before Ash Wednesday.
Dominican Carnival is celebrated in most cities and towns in the Dominican Republic. It is celebrated in the main streets of each town during the month of February. One of the main characteristics of this Carnival are its flashy costumes and the loud music played during the celebration. Some of the most known parades of this country is the one held in La Vega, which is one of the biggest in the country, and the National Parade held in Santo Domingo. It was here where the first Carnival of the Americas was held, and it is also one of the biggest in the region.
One of the main attractions are its masks, which are very elaborate and colorful. The elaborate costumes used on the parades are satires of the Devil and are called "Diablos Cojuelos" all around the country, they dance, and run to the rhythm of Merengue mixed with techno, hip-hop, and reggaeton during the celebration. Adding to this characters the celebration also show some allegorical characters representing Dominican traditions such as "Roba la Gallina", and "Califé".
One of the most international parades in the Dominican Republic is the one in San Pedro de Macorís that exhibits the "Guloyas", which are considered cultural heritage of the world. This parade consists of groups of people dressed in costumes dancing around the street of San Pedro de Macoris. The main attraction apart from the colorful costumes is the people running away from the "Diablos Cojuelos" which try to hit people with "Vejigas".
The timing of the festivals has grown apart from its original religious synchronization with the period of Lent. Due to the occurrence of the National Independence Day on 27th of February and to a lesser extent the anniversary of the birth of its founding father on the 26th of January, the Carnival celebrations have been fixed to the February month regardless of the shift in the arrival of Lent each year.
Carnival in Haiti started in 1804 in the capital of Haiti, Port-au-Prince after the declaration of independence. The Port-au-Prince Carnival is one of the largest in the Caribbean and North America. Carnival in Haiti is also known as Kanaval in the Creole language. Haiti Carnival always starts in January, known as "Pre-Kanaval", and the main carnival activities begin in February each year. In July 2012, Haiti had another carnival called Kanaval de Fleur. In Haitian Carnival, there are beautiful costumes, floats, Rara parades, masks, foods, and popular rasin music (like Boukman Eksperyans, Foula Vodoule, Tokay, Boukan Ginen, Eritaj, etc.) and kompa bands (such as T-Vice, Djakout No. 1, Sweet Micky, Kreyol La, D.P. Express, Mizik Mizik, Ram, T-Micky, Carimi, Djakout Mizik, and Scorpio Fever) play for dancers in the streets of the Champ du Mars plaza (Chanmas). In Haiti there has also been an annual song competition.
After Carnival finishes, on Ash Wednesday, another parading musical tradition becomes prominent: rara. Rara festivals are known mainly in Haiti and in the Dominican Republic. This festival is a form of serious religious work. Songs are composed each year for the occasion, and bands play bamboo tubes (vaksin) and homemade horns (konèt) in a distinctive sound. Tourists and diasporic Haitians travel to Haiti around Easter, when the rara bands perform. Rara also is performed in Prospect and Central Parks in New York in the summertime. During the West Indian Labor Day Carnival in Brooklyn, small Rara bands parade and sing through the side streets.
Bacchanal, Jamaica's carnival, is typically held around the time of Easter, it is a cultural import from Trinidad & Tobago. The real celebration starts the opening of mas camp launch, several bacchanal Fridays and performers both native to Jamaica and from all over the West Indies come to get everyone in the festive mood. All of this is then followed up with a Beach Jouvert, Bacchanal Jouvert and ends with a Road March. The costumes worn by the bands are vibrant and colorful, decorated in jewels and feathers. Both the masqueraders and spectators enjoy dancing in the parade to soca, reggae and dancehall music. The level of energy displayed during this time attracts people to bacchanal from all over the world, including other West Indian islands .
The are various carnivals in Puerto Rico. The most popular are the Carnaval de Loiza and Carnaval de Ponce. The Carnaval de Ponce (English: Ponce Carnival), officially "Carnaval Ponceño", is celebrated annually celebration and is held in Ponce. The celebration lasts one week and it ends on the day before Ash Wednesday. Thus, it is generally held in February but is sometimes held in March. It is one of the oldest carnivals of the Western Hemisphere, dating back to 1858. Some authorities, such as the Smithsonian Institution, believe the Ponce Carnaval can be traced to as far back as 250 years ago. The Carnaval coincides with the Mardi Gras of New Orleans, the Carnival of Venice, and Rio de Janeiro's Carnival. Some 100,000 attend it every year.
Trinidad and Tobago
In Trinidad & Tobago, Carnival is a festival season that lasts months and culminates in large celebrations in Port of Spain which is the capital of Trinidad, on the Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday before Ash Wednesday with Dimanche Gras, J'ouvert, and Mas (masquerade). Tobago's celebrations also culminates on Monday and Tuesday but on a much smaller scale in its capital Scarborough. Many people from various other Caribbean islands visit Trinidad and Tobago at this time to participate in the festivities. Carnival is a festive time of costumes, dance, music, competitions, rum, and partying (also referred to as fete-ing). Music styles associated with Carnival include Soca, Calypso and Rapso (mixture of Rap and Calypso) and more recently Chutney-soca (Chutney and Soca combined).
The annual Carnival Steel Pan competition known as the National Panorama competition is held in the weeks preceding Carnival with the finals held on the Saturday before the main event. Pan players compete in various categories such as "Conventional Steel Band" or "Single Pan Band" by performing renditions of the current year's calypsos. Preliminary judging of this event for "Conventional Steel Bands" has been recently moved to the individual pan yards where steel bands practice their selections for the competition.
"Dimanche Gras" takes place on the Sunday night before Ash Wednesday. Here the Calypso Monarch is chosen (after competition) and prize money and a vehicle bestowed. Also the King and Queen of the bands are crowned, where each band to parade costumes for the next two days submits a king and queen, from which an overall winner is chosen. These usually involve huge, complex, beautiful well-crafted costumes, that includes 'wire-bending'.
J'ouvert, or "Dirty Mas", takes place before dawn on the Monday (known as Carnival Monday) before Ash Wednesday. It means ""opening of the day". Here revelers dress in mainly character costumes that make use of puns on current affairs, especially political and social. "Clean Mud" (clay mud), oil paint and body paint are usually familiar sights on one's body during J'ouvert. A common character to be seen at this time is "Jab-jabs" (devils, blue, black or red) complete with pitchfork, pointed horns and tails. Here also, a King and Queen of J'ouvert are chosen, based on their representation of current political/social events/issues.
Carnival Monday involves the parade of the mas bands, but on a casual or relaxed scale. Usually revelers wear only parts of their costumes, and the purpose of the day is more one of fun than display or competition. Also on Carnival Monday, Monday Night Mas is popular in most towns and especially the capital, where smaller bands participate in competition. There is also the "Bomb Competition" which is a smaller-scaled judging of steel bands held on Ariapita Avenue (a popular "liming" area in the environs of Port-of-Spain).
Carnival Tuesday is when the main events of the Carnival take place. On this day full costume is worn, complete with make-up and body paint/adornment and other accessories. Usually "Mas Boots" that complement the costumes are worn and are also more comfortable for the feet on the long parade routes. Each band has their costume presentation based on a particular theme, and contain various sections (some consisting of thousands of revelers) thar reflect these themes. Here, the street parade and eventual crowning of the best designed band costumes take place. After following a route where various judging points are located, the mas bands eventually converge on the Queen's Park Savannah to pass on "The Stage" to be judged once and for all – this is usually the climax for revelers because the stage is literally their own to portray their costumes to the onlooking audience in the North and Grand Stands and also the video-photographers and other camera persons. Also taking place on this day is the crowning of the Road March King or Queen, where the singer of the most played song at judging sites over the two days of the Carnival is crowned winner, complete with prize money and usually a vehicle.
This parading and revelry goes on into the night of the Tuesday until midnight. Ash Wednesday itself, while not an official holiday, is marked by most by visiting the beaches that abound both in Trinidad and Tobago, the most populated being Maracas Beach and Manzanilla Beach, where huge beach parties take place every Ash Wednesday. These provide a cool down from the previous five days of hectic partying, parades and competitions, and are usually attended by the whole family.
The most famous Carnival celebration in Guatemala is in Mazatenango. During the month of February, Mazatenango is famous for its eight-day Carnival Feast. Locals and visitors alike look forward to the days of food, music, parades, games, etc. that bring the streets of the capital city of the department of Suchitepéquez to life. As one Guatemalan website states, "To mention the Carnival of Mazatenango is to bring to mind moments of a happy and cordial party. In the eight days of this celebration's duration the local residents have kept alive the traditions of the Department."
In the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, in the city of Bluefields, the Carnival, better known as Palo de Mayo (or Mayo Ya!), is celebrated every day of May.
In the Nicaragua's capital city, Managua, it is only celebrated for 2 days. The Carnival in Managua is named "Alegria por la vida" translated to "Joy for Life" and features a different theme each year.
There's also a Festival in Managua which is called " Santo Domingo de Guzman" which lasts ten days.
In Mexico, Carnival is celebrated in about 225 cities and towns, with the largest being in Mazatlán and the city of Veracruz with a number of others in the Baja California and Yucatán Peninsulas. The larger city carnivals are similar to those in other parts of the world with costumes, elected queens and parades with floats, but Carnival celebrations in smaller and rural areas very widely depending on the syncretism of the European idea with local and indigenous cultures during Mexico's colonial period. The largest of these local celebrations takes place in Huejotzingo, Puebla where most of the townspeople take part in mock combat with rifles shooting blanks roughly based on the Battle of Puebla. Other important states with various local traditions include Morelos, Oaxaca, Tlaxcala and Chiapas.
Traditionally beginning on Friday and ending on the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday, "los Carnavales", as Panamanians refer to the days of Carnival, are celebrated in almost the whole country. Carnival Week in Panama is specially popular because of the luxury and magnitude of the Las Tablas Carnival as well as the Carnival celebrations in Panama City and almost all of the Azuero Peninsula. The Panamanian Carnival is also popular because of the great number of concerts by national and international artists held on different stages in the most visited areas of the country.
In an effort to capitalize on the popularity of carnival, the government of The Bahamas announced the first Bahamas Junkanoo Carnival to commence in May 2015.
Caribana, held in Toronto on the first weekend of August, has its origins in the Carnival traditions of the Caribbean. Due to climatic imperatives, Caribana is held in the summer when Caribbean costumes may be paraded comfortably, rather than adhering to the traditional winter dates of the other Carnivals in which the festival is strongly rooted. Attendance at the Caribana parade typically exceeds one million people.
The Quebec Winter Carnival is the biggest winter-themed Carnival in the world. It depends on good snowfalls and very cold weather, to keep snowy ski trails in good condition and the many ice sculptures intact. For this reason it does not coincide with the pre-Lent celebration but is fixed instead to the last days of January and first days of February.
In the Ottawa-Gatineau region, Winterlude takes place during the first 4 weeks of February.
Carnival celebrations, usually referred to as Mardi Gras, were first celebrated in the Gulf Coast area of the United States, but now occur in many other states. Customs originated in the onetime French colonial capitals of Mobile (now in Alabama), New Orleans (Louisiana) and Biloxi (Mississippi), all of which have been celebrated for many years with street parades and masked balls. Other major U.S. cities with celebrations include Miami, Florida; Tampa, Florida; St. Louis, Missouri; Pensacola, Florida; San Francisco; San Diego; Galveston, Texas and Orlando, Florida.
Carnival is celebrated in New York City in the Borough of Brooklyn. As in the UK, the timing of Carnival has been separated from the Christian calendar and is celebrated on Labor Day Monday, in September. It is called the Labor Day Carnival, West Indian Day Parade or West Indian Day Carnival, and was founded by immigrants from Trinidad, one of the West Indian islands that has one of the largest Carnivals of the Caribbean region. In the mid twentieth century, West Indians moved the timing of the New York area Carnival from the beginning of Lent to the Labor Day weekend. The West Indian Day Carnival is one of the largest parades and street festivals in New York, with over one million people usually participating or attending. The parade, which consists of steel bands, floats, elaborate Carnival costumes and sound trucks, proceeds along Brooklyn's Eastern Parkway in the Crown Heights neighborhood.
Starting in 2013, the Slovenian-American community located in the St. Clair-Superior neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio began hosting a local version of Kurentovanje, the Carnival event held in the city of Ptuj, Slovenia. The event is conducted on the Saturday prior to Ash Wednesday.
The most widely known, most elaborate, and most popular events are in New Orleans, while other South Louisiana cities such as Lake Charles, Lafayette, Mamou, Houma, and Thibodaux all of which were under French control at one time or another, are the sites of famous Carnival celebrations of their own.
Major Mardi Gras celebrations are spreading to other parts of the United States, such as the Mississippi Valley region of St. Louis, Missouri; Orlando, Florida in Universal Studios and in the Gaslamp Quarter of San Diego.
In Argentina, the most representative Carnival performed is the so-called Murga, although other famous Carnival, more Brazilian stylized, are held in the Argentine Mesopotamia and the North-East. Gualeguaychú in the east of Entre Ríos province is the most important Carnival city and has one of the largest parades, with a similar afro-American musical background to Brazilian or Uruguayan Carnival. Corrientes is another city with a lively Carnival tradition. Chamame, a kind of polka is played during the Carnivals. In all major cities and many towns throughout the country, Carnival is also celebrated, but less famous than in the above-mentioned places.
As Carnival coincides with summer, in many parts of Argentina children play with water. The 19th century tradition of filling empty egg shells with water has evolved into water games that include the throwing of water balloons.
La Diablada Carnival, takes place in the city of Oruro in central Bolivia. It is celebrated in honor of the patron saint of the miners, Vírgen de Socavon (the Virgin of the Tunnels). Over 50 parade groups dance, sing and play music over a five kilometre-long course. Participants dress up as demons, devils, angels, Incas and Spanish conquerors. There are various kinds of dances such as caporales and tinkus. The parade runs from morning until late at night, 18 hours a day, 3 days before Ash Wednesday. Meanwhile throughout the country celebrations are held involving traditional rhythms and water parties. In Santa Cruz de la Sierra, at the east side of the country, the tropical weather allows a Brazilian-type Carnival, with agropuations of people called "Comparsas" dancing traditional songs in matching uniforms. Declared the 2001 "Masterpieces of Oral Heritage and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" for UNESCO
The Carnival in Brazil is a major part of the Brazilian Culture, and it is sometimes referred to by the Brazilians as the "Greatest Show on Earth". The first ever true carnival expression of this Brazilian festivity, officially recognized by Carnaval historians in Brazil, took place in Rio de Janeiro, with the "préstitos", very similar to a musical processions, in 1641, when John IV of Portugal was crowned as a King and parties were celebrated in Rio public streets.
Rio de Janeiro
The street carnival of Rio de Janeiro is designated by Guinness World Records as the largest carnival in the world with approximately two million people each day. In Rio Carnival samba schools parading in the Sambadrome ("sambódromo" in Portuguese). Called "One of the biggest shows of the Earth", the festival attracts millions of tourists, both Brazilians and foreigners who come from everywhere to participate and enjoy the great show. Samba Schools are large, social entities with thousands of members and a theme for their song and parade each year. Some of the most famous samba-schools include GRES Estação Primeira de Mangueira, GRES Portela, GRES Imperatriz Leopoldinense, GRES Beija-Flor de Nilópolis, GRES Mocidade Independente de Padre Miguel, and recently, Unidos da Tijuca and GRES União da Ilha do Governador Local tourists are allowed to participate, paying ($500–950), depending on the costume, to buy a Samba costume and dance in the parade through the Sambadrome with one of the schools. The price paid is used to buy the tourist's own costume and also the costumes of the people who do not have the money to afford it. Blocos are generally small informal groups also with a definite theme in their samba, usually satirical of the current political situation. But there are also a lot, about 30 of them in Rio de Janeiro, that are very big in number of participants, gathering hundreds of thousands of people. There are more than 440 blocos in Rio de Janeiro. Bandas are samba musical bands, also called "street carnival bands", usually (but not necessarily ) formed by enthusiasts in the same neighborhood or common musical back-ground. The Rio and Brazilian Carnival, is going "global" as a recent article by "Market Watch / The Wall Street Journal". which explained how the Carnival industry chain amassed in 2012 almost US$1 billion in revenues.
Salvador has large Carnival celebrations, including the Axé, typical Bahia music. A truck with giant speakers and a platform, where musicians play songs of local genres such as Axé music, Samba-reggae and Arrocha, is driven with the following crowd both dancing and singing. It was originally staged by two Salvador musicians, Dodo & Osmar, in the 1950s. After the Salvador Carnival, Porto Seguro continues the party like it.
There are 3 circuits where the party happens: Campo Grande, the most traditional and the longest one; Barra-Ondina, the most famous on the seaside of Barra Beach and Ondina Beach and Pelourinho, the lowest where childs and elderly can have fun with street bands.
International singers like David Guetta, Will.I.Am, Psy and Bob Sinclair had been in Salvador. Ivete Sangalo, Claudia Leitte, Daniela Mercury, Margareth Menezes, Chiclete com Banana and Banda Eva are some traditional attractions. The party is the longest in Brazil, it takes officially 6 days, but the party can take more than 12 days. It is known as the biggest popular party of the world.
Although Carnival was introduced by the Spaniards and has incorporated elements from the European cultures, it has managed to re-interpret traditions that belonged to the African and Amerindian cultures of Colombia. There is documentary evidence that Carnival existed in Colombia in the 18th century and had already been a cause for concern for the colonial authorities, who censored the celebrations, especially in the main political centres such as Cartagena, Bogotá and Popayán.
The Carnival, therefore, continued its evolution and re-interpretation in the small and at that time unimportant towns where celebrations did not offend the ruling elites. The result was the uninterrupted celebration of Carnival festivals in Barranquilla (see Barranquilla's Carnival) which has been recognized as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. The Barranquilla Carnival attracts tens of thousands of people from Colombia and around the world, having become several parades done on Friday and Saturday nights beginning on 11 January and ending always with the four-day non-stop festival, which has now been made six days long, beginning on Wednesday, exactly one week prior to Ash Wednesday and ending on Tuesday at 12 pm to initiate the next day with the season of Lent. In other villages along the lower Magdalena River in northern Colombia, and in Pasto, Nariño (see Blacks and Whites' Carnival) in the south of the country. In modern times, there have been attempts to introduce Carnival in the capital, Bogotá, in the early 20th century, but it has always failed to gain the approval of authorities. The Bogotá Carnival has had to wait until the 21st century to be resurrected, this time by the authorities of the city.
In Ecuador, the celebrations have a history that begins before the arrival of Catholicism. It is known that the Huarangas Indians (from the Chimbos nation) used to celebrate the second moon of the year with a festival at which they threw flour, flowers and perfumed water. This once pagan tradition has since merged with the Catholic celebration of Carnival.
A common feature of Ecuadorian Carnival is the diablitos (little devils) who play with water. As with snowball fights, the practice of throwing or dumping water on unsuspecting victims is especially revered by children and teenagers, and feared by some adults. Throwing water balloons, sometimes even eggs and flour both to friends and strangers passing by the street can be a lot of fun but can also raise the ire of unfamiliarised foreigners and even locals.
Although the government as well as school authorities forbid such games, it is still widely practiced throughout the country. Historians tell of a Bishop in 1867 who threatened the punishment of excommunication for the sin of playing Carnival games.
Different festivities are held in various regions of the country, where the locals wear disguises with colorful masks and dance to the rhythm of lively music. Usually, the celebrations begin with the election of the Taita Carnival (Father Carnival) who will head the festivities and lead the parades in each city.
The most famed Carnival festivities are those in Guaranda (Bolivar province) and Ambato (Tungurahua province). In Ambato, the festivities are called Fiesta de las Flores y las Frutas (Festival of the Flowers and Fruits). Other cities have also revived the Carnival traditions with colorful parades, such as in Azogues (Cañar Province). In Azogues and the Southern Andes in general, the Taita Carnival is always an indigenous Cañari dressed for the celebrations. Recently also a celebration has gained prominence in the northern part of the Sierra in the Chota Valley in Imbabura which is a zone of a strong afro-Ecuadorian population and so the Carnival is celebrated with bomba del chota music.
The Carnival of French Guiana is a major aspect of the culture of that country. Although its roots are in the Creole culture, everyone participates – mainland French, Brazilians (Guiana has a frontier with Brazil) and Chinese as well as creoles.
Its duration is variable, determined by movable religious festivals: Carnival begins at Epiphany and ends on Ash Wednesday, and so typically lasts through most of January and February. During this period, from Friday evening until Monday morning the entire country throbs to the rhythm of the masked balls and street parades. Normal life slows almost to a stop.
On Sunday afternoons major parades are staged in the streets of Cayenne, Kourou, and Saint-Laurent du Maroni. Competing groups prepare for months. Dressed according to the agreed theme of the year, they strut along with Carnival floats, drums, and brass bands.
Brazilian groups are also appreciated for their elaborate feathered and sequined costumes. However, they are not eligible for competition since the costumes do not change from one year to the next.
Certain mythical characters appear regularly in the parades:
- Karolin: A small person dressed in a magpie tail and top hat, riding on a shrew.
- Les Nèg'marrons: Groups of men dressed in red loincloths, bearing ripe tomatoes in their mouths and their bodies smeared with grease or molasses. These men deliberately try to come in contact with spectators, soiling their clothes.
- Les makoumés: Men in drag (out of the Carnival context, makoumé is a pejorative term for a homosexual).
- Soussouris (the bat): a character dressed in a winged leotard from head to foot, usually black in colour. Traditionally malevolent, this character is liable to chase spectators and "sting" them.
A uniquely Creole tradition of this version of Carnival is the so-called touloulous. These are women wearing highly decorative gowns, gloves, masks and headdresses which cover them completely so that they are not only unrecognisable, but the colour of their skin cannot even be determined. On Friday and Saturday nights of Carnival, touloulou balls are held in so-called universities; in reality, large dance halls that only open in Carnival time. Touloulous get in free, and are even given condoms in the interest of the sexual health of the community. Men also attend the balls, but they have to pay admittance and they are not disguised. The touloulous pick their dance partners, who may not refuse the dance. Thus, the setup is designed to make it easy for a woman to create a temporary liaison with a man she fancies in total anonymity. Undisguised women are not welcome at the balls. By tradition, if one gets up to dance, the orchestra stops playing. Alcohol is served at bars – the disguised women also pick up men by whispering to them "touloulou thirsty", at which a round of drinks is expected, to be drunk through a straw so as not to unmask in the slightest.
In more modern times, Guyanais men have attempted to turn the tables by staging soirées tololo, in which it's the men who, in disguise, seek partners from undisguised women bystanders.
The final four days of Carnival have a rigid tradition of celebration, and no work is done at all.
- Sunday: The Grand Parade, in which the competing groups show off their very best.
- Monday: Marriage burlesque, with men dressed as brides and women as grooms.
- Tuesday: Red Devil Day, with everyone wearing red or black.
- (Ash) Wednesday: Dress is black and white only, for the grand ceremony of burning the effigy of Vaval, the King of the Carnival.
This text is based principally on text in The French wikipedia
The town of Cajamarca is considered the capital of Peruvian Carnival. Local residents of all ages as well as tourists dance around the unhsa, or yunsa, a tree adorned with ribbons, balloons, toys, fruits, bottles of liquor, and other prizes.
At a certain point the Mayordomo (governor of the feast) walks into the circle. The governor chooses a partner to go to the unsha, where they attempt to cut down the unsha by striking the tree three times with a machete. The machete is passed from couple to couple as each strikes the tree three times. When the unsha finally falls, the crowd rushes to grab the prizes.
The person who successfully brings down the unsha becomes next year's governor of the feast.
The Peruvian Carnival consists mostly of violent games that last all the month of February, extending to early March if Ash Wednesday falls on March, but rarely ending when it falls on February. Quoting the Lima police chief, "The Carnival is associated with criminal actions" (2007). It has even gone to major consequences.
The Peruvian Carnival incorporates elements of violence and reflects the lately trends of urban violence in Peruvian society after the internal conflict in Peru. Traditionally, Peruvian Andean festivities were held on this period every year because it is the rainy season. It was already violent during the 19th century, but the government managed to regulate it and during the early 20th century it followed the normal trends of partying and parading, while in the second half of the 20th century it has acquired the violent characteristics that it has today, to the point of being banned, first from the streets in 1958 and altogether in 1959 by the Prado government. It consisted basically on water battles in a traditional way, while in later years it includes playing with dirty water, mud, oil and colorants -and also including fighting and sometimes even looting private property and sexual assaults on women; all this to unconsenting passers-by and in a very violent way. It has also become an excuse for criminal gangs to rob people while pretending to play the game. As of 2010, it has become so violent that the government has imposed heavy penalties of up to eight years in prison for violence during the games (the games themselves are not forbidden, but using violence during the games or coercing others to participate is).
At the end of the Carnival season, in the inner Peruvian towns (and lately in the major cities too), it is customary to cut a tree, called "yunsa" in the mountains and "humisha" in the jungle.
The Carnival in Uruguay is the longest of the world, with more than 40 days of celebration, generally beginning towards the end of January and through mid March, with celebrations in Montevideo, the capital, being the largest and brightest. The festival is performed in the European parade style with elements from Bantu and Angolan Benguela cultures imported with slaves in colonial times. The main attractions of Uruguayan Carnival include two colorful parades called Desfile de Carnaval (Carnival Parade) and Desfile de Llamadas (Calls Parade, a candombe-summoning parade).
During the forty days of celebration, popular theaters called tablados are built in many places throughout the cities, especially in Montevideo. Traditionally formed by men and now starting to be open to women, the different Carnival groups called mainly Murgas, Lubolos or Parodistas perform a kind of popular opera at the tablados, singing and dancing songs that generally relate to social reality and political situation in the country. The 'Calls' groups, basically formed by drummers playing the tamboril, perform candombe rhythmic figures. Revelers also wear their festival clothing. Each group has its own theme. Women wearing elegant, bright dresses are called vedettes and provide the sensual touch to parades.
European archetypes (Pierrot, Harlequin and Columbina) merge with African ancestral elements (the Old Mother or Mama Vieja, the Medicine Man or Gramillero and the Magician or Escobero) in the local version of the festival. As a manifestation of Uruguayan culture and a growing tourist attraction, Uruguayan Carnival is currently receiving governmental support.
Carnival in Venezuela (2 days of festivals, 40 days before Easter) is a time when youth in many rural towns have water fights (including the use of water balloons and water guns). Anybody and everybody that is out in the streets during the week of Carnival is subject to being soaked. Coastal town and provinces celebrate Carnival much more fervently these days than any place in the country. Venezuela regard Carnival about the same way they regard Christmas and Semana Santa (Holy Week; the week before Easter Sunday) when they take the opportunity to visit their families and enjoy this festive time with them.
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We celebrate Danish traditions during our church year such as Fastelavn at lent (a Carnival for the kids at the beginning of the Lenten season), a Harvest Service in Fall and preparing for Advent and Christmas with a Klippe-Klistre (Cut & Paste Decorations) in late November. Our Danish history and heritage is continuously incorporated into our services and events through the year and its seasons.
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