Carnival Cruise Lines

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Carnival Cruise Lines
Type Subsidiary
Industry Travel & Tourism (Cruise Industry)
Founded 1972, by Ted Arison
Headquarters Doral, Florida, United States
Key people Christine Duffy, President (Beginning February 1, 2015)
Jim Berra, Executive VP of Marketing
John Heald, Senior Cruise Director & Brand Ambassador
Ruben Rodriguez, SVP of Marketing
Products Cruises
Revenue Increase US$10.9 billion (FY 2011)
Operating income Increase US$2.3 billion (FY 2011)
Net income Increase US$1.9 billion (FY 2011)
Total assets Increase US$35 billion (FY 2011)
Total equity Increase US$13.4 billion (FY 2011)
Employees 3,900 - Shoreside[1]
33,500 - Shipboard[1]
Parent Carnival Corporation & plc
Website www.carnival.com

Footnotes / references
Largest cruise line in the world based on passengers carried annually, annual revenue and total number of ships in fleet[1]

House flag of Carnival Cruise Line

Carnival Cruise Lines is a British-American owned cruise line, based in Doral, Florida, a suburb of Miami in the United States. Originally an independent company founded in 1972 by Ted Arison, the company is now one of ten cruise ship brands owned and operated by Carnival Corporation & plc. The company has the largest fleet in the group, with 24 vessels currently in operation that account for 21.1% of the worldwide market share.[2] Executive control of the company is provided by the North American division of Carnival Corporation, headquartered in Doral, Florida.[3][4]

Carnival was a pioneer in the concept of shorter, less expensive cruises. Its ships are known for their Las Vegas-style decor and entertainment. The line calls its ships "The Fun Ships", and there are a wide range of activities offered on board. Its trademark is the funnel, which is red, white and blue and shaped like a whale's tail. The mascot for Carnival is Fun Ship Freddy, a character in the shape of Carnival's distinctive funnel.

In 1996 Carnival Destiny of 101,000 GT became the largest passenger ship in the world at the time.

In 2001, Robert Dickinson, then CEO, participated in a BBC documentary, "Back To The Floor". Dickinson went to work at the lowest crew levels on the Fun Ship MS Imagination on a Carnival cruise in the Caribbean, where he shadowed a Romanian cleaner, Alina.[5]

In 2004, Carnival Corporation ordered for a development program for Carnival's new ships, which was called the Pinnacle Project, which calls for a 200,000 GT prototype, which would have been the world's largest cruise ship.[6]

As of 2009, the latest and largest ship in the Carnival fleet was Carnival Dream, a new 128,251 GT ship. Carnival Dream entered service on 21 September 2009. After several voyages in the Mediterranean she was set to offer weekly Caribbean cruises from Port Canaveral from 5 December 2009. A sister ship, Carnival Magic, debuted on 1 May 2011. On 1 December 2009 it was announced that Carnival placed an order for a third Dream-class vessel.[7] It entered service in June 2012 and is homeported in Miami.[8] On May 10, 2010, Carnival selected a name for their new Dream-class vessel in 2012; Carnival Breeze.[9]

On 26 October 2012, it was announced that Carnival had ordered a brand new ship for their Carnival Cruise Lines brand. This ship will be built by Fincantieri and will be the largest ship they have ever built. It will also be the first of a brand new class of ship with a passenger capacity of 4,000 and a gross tonnage of 135,000. It is scheduled to be delivered in the Winter of 2016, nearly four years after Carnival Breeze entered service.[10] The new ship will be named Carnival Vista.[11]

Current ships[edit]

Fantasy class[edit]

Ship Year
Built
Sailed for
Carnival
Gross Tonnage Homeport Flag Notes Image
Carnival Fantasy 1990 1990–Present 70,367 GT Charleston, South Carolina  Panama originally, Fantasy Cruise ship in New Orleans.jpg
Carnival Ecstasy 1991 1991–Present 70,526 GT

Miami, Florida

 Panama originally, Ecstasy Carnival E.jpg
Carnival Sensation 1993 1993–Present 70,538 GT Port Canaveral,
Florida
 Bahamas originally, Sensation SensationCarnival.jpg
Carnival Fascination 1994 1994–Present 70,538 GT Jacksonville, Florida (JAXPORT)  Bahamas originally, Fascination CarnivalFascination2009.jpg
Carnival Imagination 1995 1995–Present 70,367 GT

Long Beach, California

 Bahamas originally, Imagination Carnival Imagination.JPG
Carnival Inspiration 1996 1996–Present 70,367 GT Long Beach, California  Bahamas originally, Inspiration Carnival Inspiration 01.jpg
Carnival Elation 1998 1998–Present 70,390 GT New Orleans, Louisiana  Panama originally, Elation Elation---Carnival-Lines.jpg
Carnival Paradise 1998 1998–Present 70,390 GT Tampa, Florida  Panama originally, Paradise Ms-paradise-catalina-sm.JPG

Destiny / Triumph / Sunshine class[edit]

Ship Year
Built
Sailed for
Carnival
Gross Tonnage Homeport Flag Notes Image
Carnival Sunshine 1996 (As Carnival Destiny)
2013 (Refitted and renamed Carnival Sunshine)
1996–Present 102,853 GT

Port Canaveral, Florida

 Bahamas Originally sailed as Carnival Destiny from 1996 to 2013.

World's largest passenger ship (measured by gross tonnage), when built.
First cruise ship over 100,000 GT. Carnival now identifies the Sunshine as the only member of Sunshine Class. The first ship in the fleet to receive all Funship 2.0 amenities.

Carnival Sunshine 02.JPG
Carnival Triumph 1999 1999-Present 101,509 GT Galveston, Texas  Bahamas Modified Destiny-Class.
Identical to the Carnival Victory.
On February 14, 2013 the ship was towed to Mobile, Alabama for repairs after an engine room fire and resumed service on June 13, 2013, almost 4 months after being out of service.[citation needed]
Carnival Triumph Half Moon Cay.jpg
Carnival Victory 2000 2000–Present 101,509 GT Miami, Florida  Panama Modified Destiny-Class.
Identical to the Carnival Triumph.
Carnival Victory2.jpg

Spirit class[edit]

Ship Year
Built
Sailed for
Carnival
Gross Tonnage Homeport Flag Notes Image
Carnival Spirit 2001 2001–Present 85,920 GT

Sydney, Australia

 Malta Built to Panamax form factor Carnival Cruise Lines Carnival Spirit.jpg
Carnival Pride 2001 2002–Present 88,500 GT

Baltimore, Maryland
November 2014-March 2015 Tampa, Florida
March 29, 2015-future Baltimore, Maryland[12]

 Panama Built to Panamax form factor, Former Flagship for Carnival Carnival Pride at Mazatlan 3.jpg
Carnival Legend 2002 2002–Present 85,942 GT

Sydney, Australia

May 2015 - September 2015 Seattle, Washington

 Panama Built to Panamax form factor Carnival Legend 3.jpg
Carnival Miracle 2004 2004–Present 85,942 GT

Long Beach, California [13] [13]

 Panama Built to Panamax form factor Carnival Miracle July 2011.jpg

Conquest class[edit]

Ship Year
Built
Sailed for
Carnival
Gross Tonnage Homeport Flag Notes Image
Carnival Conquest 2002 2002–Present 110,239 GT

Miami, Florida
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida (January 2015 and On)

 Panama Carnival Conquest cruiseship.jpg
Carnival Glory 2003 2003–Present 110,239 GT

Miami, Florida

 Panama Carnival Glory.jpg
Carnival Valor 2004 2004–Present 110,239 GT

San Juan, Puerto Rico
Port Canaveral, Florida (March 2015 and On)

 Panama CarnivalValor052010.jpg
Carnival Liberty 2005 2005–Present 110,320 GT

Port Canaveral, Florida
San Juan, Puerto Rico (March 2015 and On]

 Panama Carnival-Liberty.JPG
Carnival Freedom 2007 2007–Present 110,320 GT Port Everglades (Fort Lauderdale), Florida (Feb. 2015) Galveston, Texas  Panama Carnival-Freedom-Cruise-Ship.jpg

Splendor class[edit]

Ship Year
Built
Sailed for
Carnival
Gross Tonnage Homeport Flag Notes Image
Carnival Splendor 2008 2008–Present 113,323 GT

New York, New York (Sept-Oct 2014 and May-Oct 2015)[13]
Norfolk, Virginia (May 2015 and Oct 2015)
Miami, Florida (Nov-May 2015/2016)

 Panama Referred to as a Splendor-class ship, was originally designed for Costa Cruises as Costa Splendor but the Carnival Splendor was transferred to Carnival Cruise Lines during construction and is essentially a modified version of the Concordia-class ships. Carnival Splendor 2009.jpg

Dream class[edit]

Ship Year
Built
Sailed for
Carnival
Gross Tonnage Homeport Flag Notes Image
Carnival Dream 2009 2009–Present 128,250 GT[14]

New Orleans, Louisiana

 Panama The largest ship ever built by Fincantieri until Carnival Magic Carnival Dream Bow.png
Carnival Magic 2011 2011–Present 128,500 GT[15] Galveston, Texas  Panama The largest ship ever built by Fincantieri until Carnival Breeze Carnival Magic in Venedig.JPG
Carnival Breeze 2012 2012–Present 128,500 GT[16] Miami, Florida  Panama Currently the largest ship built for Carnival Cruise Lines Carnival Breeze.jpg

Notes[edit]

  • Two more Destiny-class ships sail for Carnival's sister company Costa Cruises, Costa Fortuna and Costa Magica.
  • Carnival Triumph and Carnival Victory are Modified-Destiny-class cruise ship because they were built with two more decks than the rest of the Destiny-class ships.
  • Two more Spirit-class ships sail for Carnival's sister company Costa Cruises, Costa Atlantica and Costa Mediterranea.
  • Conquest-class is based on the overall design of the Destiny-class, but are longer. Because of the additional length, the Conquest class has expanded facilities compared to the Destiny class. Not all ships have a reservations-only restaurant. Carnival Conquest, Carnival Glory, Carnival Valor, Carnival Liberty and Carnival Freedom, slightly differ from the rest of the fleet because they have Carnival's Seaside Theater installed by the main pool on the lido deck. The Destiny-class ships, Carnival Destiny, Carnival Triumph and Carnival Victory also have one installed. Carnival Splendor and the Dream-class ships, Carnival Dream, Carnival Magic' and Carnival Breeze were built with the Seaside Theater.
  • Carnival Splendor offers facilities other ships do not have. This is because the ship was originally designed and build for Carnival's sister company Costa Cruises. Costa Cruises had five sister ships to Carnival Splendor: Costa Concordia, Costa Serena, Costa Pacifica, Costa Favolosa and Costa Fascinosa,[citation needed] until the Costa Concordia was grounded and wrecked in January 2012. The inaugural voyage for Carnival Splendor was on 2 July 2008 from Genoa, Italy to Dover, England.

Future fleet[edit]

Ship Year
Built
Will sail for
Carnival
Gross Tonnage Homeport Flag Notes Image
Carnival Vista 2016 2016 139,000 GT  Panama The soon to be largest ship ever built by Fincantieri for Carnival Cruise Lines.
TBA 2018 2018 139,000 GT  Panama

Carnival Corporation & plc announced on October 26, 2012, that Carnival had ordered a new ship for their Carnival Cruise Lines brand. This ship, built by Fincantieri, will be the largest vessel in the Carnival Cruise Lines fleet.[10] The ship has been named Carnival Vista, and it will be the first of a new class of cruise ships with a passenger capacity of 4,000 and a gross tonnage of 135,000.[17][18] It is scheduled to be delivered in the spring of 2016.[10]

Former ships[edit]

Former Ocean Liners[edit]

Ship Year
Built
Sailed for
Carnival
Gross Tonnage Flag Notes Image
Mardi Gras 1961 1972–1993 27,284 GT  Panama Also known as Empress of Canada, Olympic, Star of Texas, Lucky Star, Apollo, and Apollon. Scrapped in 2003. RMS Empress of Canada (1961).jpg
Festivale 1962 1977–1996 32,697 GT  Panama Also known as Transvaal Castle, S.A. Vaal, Island Breeze, and Big Red Boat III. Sold for scrap in 2003. SS Festivale in Barbados - 1987-02-26.jpg
Carnivale 1956 1975–1994 31,500 GT  Panama Also known as Empress of Britain, Queen Anna Maria, Fiesta Marina, Olympic, and The Topaz. Sold for scrap in 2008. TopazFunchal.png

Tropicale class[edit]

Ship Year
Built
Sailed for
Carnival
Gross Tonnage Flag Notes Image
Tropicale 1982 1982–2001 36,674 GT  Liberia Was Carnival's first purpose-built ship. Also known as Costa Tropicale, and Pacific Star. Now known as Ocean Dream in May 2008. Ocean dream pullmantur.jpg

Holiday class[edit]

Ship Year
Built
Sailed for
Carnival
Gross Tonnage Flag Notes Image
Holiday 1985 1985–2009 46,051 GT Madeira,  Portugal In 2009 Holiday became the Grand Holiday for Iberocruceros. She will join the Cruise & Maritime Voyages fleet in March 2015, as the Magellan. Carnival Holiday.jpg
Jubilee 1986 1986–2004 47,262 GT  Liberia In 2004 Jubilee became the Pacific Sun for P&O Cruises Australia, Now sails for HNA Cruises as Henna. CarnivalJubilee.jpg
Celebration 1987 1987–2008 47,262 GT Madeira,  Portugal In 2008 Celebration became the Grand Celebration for Iberocruceros, Now sails for Costa Cruises as Costa Celebration. Celebration-1.JPG

Company history[edit]

Carnival Cruise Lines headquarters in Doral, Florida

1970s[edit]

  • 1972 – Carnival Purchases Empress of Canada
  • 1972 – The maiden voyage of Carnival’s first ship, the TSS Mardi Gras, runs aground on sandbar outside the Port of Miami.
  • 1975 – Carnival purchases Empress of Britain, which enters service as the TSS Carnivale.
  • 1978 – Festivale, formerly S.A. Vaal, undergoes $30 million refurbishment, begins service for Carnival as the largest and fastest vessel sailing from Miami to the Caribbean.

1980s[edit]

  • 1982 – Debut of Tropicale, the first new cruise ship the cruise industry had seen in many years; ship marks the beginning of an industry-wide multi-billion-dollar shipbuilding boom.
  • 1984 – Carnival becomes first cruise line to advertise on network television with the premiere of new advertising campaign starring company spokesperson Kathie Lee Gifford (then Kathie Lee Johnson).
  • 1985 – Debut of 46,052 GT Holiday
  • 1986 – Launch of 47,262 GT Jubilee
  • 1987 – The 47,262 GT Celebration enters service
  • Carnival earns distinction as “Most Popular Cruise Line in the World,” carrying more passengers than any other.
  • Carnival Cruise Lines undertakes its initial public offering on Wall Street, raising approximately $400 million to fuel future expansion; entity later becomes Carnival Corporation & plc, a multi-line worldwide cruise conglomerate.

1990s[edit]

  • 1990 – The 70,367 GT Fantasy – the first and namesake vessel in the highly successful Fantasy-class—enters service as first new ship ever placed on three- and four-day Bahamas cruise program from Miami. Eventually, Carnival would construct eight Fantasy-class vessels, the most cruise ships in a single class.
  • 1991 – Launch of 70,367 GT Ecstasy
  • 1993 – Introduces its third 70,367 GT, Sensation & Carnival's first ship Mardi Gras leaves the fleet
  • 1994 – Debut of 70,367 GT Fascination & Carnivale leaves the fleet. Supermarket Sweep also has a "Cruise to Paradise" week, which at the end of the week gave the winning team a 7-day Carnival cruise to the Mexican Riviera
  • Parent company renamed Carnival Corporation to distinguish between it and its flagship brand, Carnival Cruise Lines. Company is later renamed Carnival Corp. & plc following the combination with P&O Princess Cruises, creating the world’s largest cruise vacation group.
  • 1995 – 70,367 GT Imagination enters service
  • 1996 – Launch of sixth Fantasy-class vessel, Inspiration & Festivale leaves the fleet
  • 1996 - Launches the first passenger vessel to exceed 100,000 tons, the 101,353 GT Carnival Destiny, at the time the world’s largest cruise ship
  • 1998 – Introduces seventh Fantasy-class vessel, Elation, the first new cruise ship deployed on the West Coast
  • 1998 - The eighth and last in Fantasy-class series, Paradise, enters service. Paradise was the only non-smoking cruise ship in the world.
  • A fire ignites in the main laundry shortly after 5 p.m. on July 20 aboard the Carnival Ecstasy en route to Key West.
  • 1999 – Debut of the 102,000 GT Carnival Triumph, the first Triumph-class vessel.
  • 1999 – A fire ignites in the engine room of Carnival Tropicale after departing Cozumel, Mexico.

2000s[edit]

  • 2000 – A second Triumph-class vessel, the 102,000 GT Carnival Victory, is launched. Also, Supermarket Sweep begins the Carnival Cruise Week. The catchphrase was: "Next time you're an ocean liner and you hear their beep — [a foghorn sounds] — think of all the fun you can have on Supermarket Sweep!".
  • 2001 – Introduces a new class of vessel with the launch of the 88,500 GT Carnival Spirit, the first new “Fun Ship” ever positioned in the Alaska and Hawaii markets. Carnival's first ever newly built Tropicale leaves the fleet
  • 2002 – A second Spirit-class vessel, Carnival Pride, is launched
  • Carnival’s third Spirit-class ship, Carnival Legend, enters service
  • Debut of the 110,000 GT Carnival Conquest, the largest “Fun Ship” ever constructed at that time.
  • 2003 – Second 110,000 GT Conquest-class ship, Carnival Glory, begins year-round seven-day cruises from Port Canaveral, Florida on July 19
  • 2004 – Carnival Miracle, the fourth in the Spirit-class, begins a series of 12 voyages from Jacksonville, Florida – the first “Fun Ship” sailings from that port – February 27 & Jubilee leaves the fleet
  • A third 110,000 GT Conquest-class ship, Carnival Valor, begins year-round seven-day service from Miami December 19, becoming the largest "Fun Ship" ever based at that port.
  • 2005 – A fourth 110,000 GT Conquest-class vessel, Carnival Liberty, debuts July 20, operating the line's first-ever Mediterranean cruises.
  • 2006 – On May 27, around 1:00am, Ramesh Krishnamurthy was presumed dead after he jumped off his balcony on Carnival Legend after an argument with his wife. He was believed to be under the influence.
  • 2007 – Carnival Freedom, the fifth 110,000 GT vessel, debuts March 4
  • On July 1, David Ritcheson jumps off the Carnival Ecstasy and dies
  • 2008 – The 112,000 GT Carnival Splendor debuts July 2 & Celebration leaves the fleet
  • 2009 – Carnival Dream, a 128,000 GT vessel, the largest "Fun Ship" ever constructed - entered service on September 21 and is the largest ship ever built by the ship builder Fincantieri.[19] & Holiday leaves the fleet

2010s[edit]

  • 2010 – A fire on Carnival Splendor at 6:30 a.m. PST on 8 November leaves the ship crippled.
  • 2011 – Carnival Magic, a 128,000 GT vessel, entered service in May
  • 2012 – Carnival Breeze, a 128,000 GT vessel, entered service in the summer
  • Carnival Spirit moved to Sydney, Australia in October 2012, it became the first Fun Ship to sail Australian waters and also became the largest cruise ship in Australia year-round. Carnival Spirit is the first ship that is too tall to fit under the bridge to the cruise terminal so this ship docked at another cruise terminal near by.
  • Carnival is adding many of its 2.0 features on some of the ships this year, including the Guy Burger Joint, Blue Iguana Canatiana Taco Bar, Red Frog Rum Bar, Blue Iguana Bar and some others.
  • Carnival signs agreement with Fincantieri for a 135,000 GT vessel, to enter service in winter 2016. The vessel is later named the Carnival Vista.
  • 2013 – An engine room fire on the Carnival Triumph on the morning of 10 February leaves the ship powerless.
  • 2013 – Carnival Destiny becomes Carnival Sunshine.
  • 2014 – The popular Carnival Pride receives Fun Ship 2.0 Upgrades.

Hurricane Katrina charters[edit]

Carnival Ecstasy docked in New Orleans

Three of the Carnival cruise ships were chartered by the United States government for six months to serve as temporary housing in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Holiday was originally docked in Mobile, Alabama, and later Pascagoula, Mississippi, and Ecstasy and Sensation were docked at New Orleans, Louisiana. The six-month contract cost $236 million. The contract was widely criticized because the vessels were never fully utilized, and Carnival received more money than it would have earned by using the ships in their normal rotation.[20]

Controversies[edit]

The company has reportedly been paying wages under $1.50 per hour to employees with low to nonexistent benefits such as holidays or minimal vacations.[21] Monthly salaries of the high paid workers is around $1,300. Of course, the crew wages are supplemented by gratuities, and one former Carnival crew member cited that crew receive up to 95% of their income from tips.[22] Employees report strenuous working conditions such as 14-hour shifts with no days off. As of October 2013, they are also revoking retirement benefits.[23]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

See also Costa Crociere Accidents and incidents for incidents associated with the parent company's other cruise operations.

On September 19, 1999, Carnival Tropicale's engine room caught fire en route from Cozumel to Tampa. While disabled in the Gulf of Mexico, the ship was struck by Tropical Storm Harvey. No crew or guests were injured during the two days Carnival Tropicale spent without propulsion.[24] The ship was later sold and renamed Ocean Dream.

On November 8, 2010, a fire broke out in the generator room of Carnival Splendor and the ship lost most power. The ship was adrift off the west coast of Mexico. The ship was towed to San Diego.[25]

On February 10, 2013, Carnival Triumph, with 3,143 passengers aboard, suffered an engine room fire, leaving the ship adrift for four days in the Gulf of Mexico.[26] The ship was towed to Mobile, Alabama, docking on the evening of February 14.[27][28] In subsequent litigation, Carnival documents were uncovered which revealed multiple generator maintenance problems creating a "disaster waiting to happen." In response, Carnival's court filing takes the position that the contract that passengers agree to when they buy a ticket "makes absolutely no guarantee for safe passage, a seaworthy vessel, adequate and wholesome food, and sanitary and safe living conditions."[29]

On March 14, 2013, Carnival Dream experienced an emergency generator failure while docked in port at Philipsburg, St. Maarten. The ship was scheduled to leave port around 5 p.m. ET the day before. The United States Coast Guard said they were notified by Carnival that Carnival Dream was experiencing emergency generator problems. Carnival announced that the passengers would be flown back to Florida rather than completing their scheduled voyage.[30]

On the morning of March 15, 2013, Carnival Legend suffered a mechanical problem with one propulsion pod while at sea. The cruise line cancelled Carnival Legend '​s scheduled stops in Belize and Grand Cayman, and the ship returned to Tampa, Florida at a reduced speed of 19 knots (14 mph) (Legend has a regular cruising speed of 24 knots).[31][32][33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Carnival Cruise Lines Fact Sheet. Carnival Cruise Lines. Retrieved 31 May 2010
  2. ^ "2012 World Wide Market Share". Cruise Market Watch. 2011-11-20. 
  3. ^ "Corporate Address." Carnival Cruise Lines. Retrieved on January 9, 2010.
  4. ^ "Map of the City of Doral." City of Doral. Retrieved on January 9, 2010
  5. ^ "BBC - Adam Curtis - WE'RE ALL IN THE SAME BOAT". 31 January 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  6. ^ Fincantieri signs a five ship, 2.6 billion dollar agreement with Carnival Group. Press Release. Fincantiei. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 10 May 2010
  7. ^ wartsila.com
  8. ^ "New 128,000-ton Cruise Ship Ordered for Carnival Corporation & plc's Carnival Cruise Line Unit". Retrieved 2009-12-01. 
  9. ^ "Carnival Cruise Lines' new 128,000-ton ship to be named Carnival Breeze". Cruise Industry News. May 10, 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2010. 
  10. ^ a b c "Carnival Cruise Lines and Holland America Line Order New Ships - Cruise Industry News | Cruise News". Cruise Industry News. 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2013-03-02. 
  11. ^ Sloan, Gene (July 20, 2013). "Next Carnival ship to be called Carnival Vista". USA Today. Retrieved Aug 4, 2013. 
  12. ^ Kevin Rector (2014-01-30). "Carnival reverses plan to depart Baltimore port". Retrieved 2-14-01-30.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  13. ^ a b c Gene Sloan (2012-02-09). "Carnival Cruise Lines to expand capacity in New York - USA Today". Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  14. ^ "Carnival Dream". Fincantieri. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  15. ^ "Carnival Magic". Fincantieri. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  16. ^ "Carnival Breeze". Fincantieri. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  17. ^ "New 135,000-ton 'Fun Ship' Set to Debut in 2016 to Be Named Carnival Vista". Carnival-News.com. July 20, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013. 
  18. ^ Sloan, Gene (July 20, 2013). "Next Carnival ship to be called Carnival Vista". USA Today.com. Retrieved July 20, 2013. 
  19. ^ Carnival Cruise Lines - News Release
  20. ^ $236 Million Cruise Ship Deal CriticizedWashington Post, September 28, 2005
  21. ^ "P&O cruise ship staff paid basic salary of 75p an hour". The Guardian. September 29, 2012. 
  22. ^ "Q&A: Cruise Confidential Author on the Life of a Crewmember". Cruise Critic. December 22, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Carnival Cruises Lines Terminates Crew Member Retirement Benefits". Cruise Law News. October 23, 2013. 
  24. ^ Danielson, Richard (February 23, 2000). "Cruise captain feared panic". St. Petersburg Times. 
  25. ^ "Rescue Under Way for Disabled Carnival Splendor". CBS News. November 10, 2010. 
  26. ^ Martin, Hugo (February 12, 2013). "Carnival Triumph cruise ship adrift; long lines for toilets, food". Los Angeles Times. 
  27. ^ "Feces, water reported on floor of disabled Carnival cruise ship in Gulf of Mexico". Fox News. February 12, 2013. 
  28. ^ Hennessy-Fiske, Molly (February 14, 2013). "Carnival Triumph, crippled cruise ship, finally reaches port". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  29. ^ Griffin, Drew and Bronstein, Scott (December 17, 2013). "Documents show Carnival knew of fire danger before ill-fated cruise". CNN. 
  30. ^ Lateef Mungin (15 March 2013). "Carnival nightmare: Another cruise ship reports trouble at sea". CNN. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  31. ^ "Another problem cruise: Second Carnival ship in less than a week experiences trouble at sea". Fox News. March 15, 2013. 
  32. ^ Hennessy-Fiske, Molly (March 15, 2013). "Coast Guard Investigating Carnival Legend". Los Angeles Times. 
  33. ^ Carpenter, Jake et al (March 17, 2013). "Carnival Legend back in Florida after week of troubled cruise voyages". CNN. 

External links[edit]