Carnival of Binche
The carnival of Binche is an event that takes place each year in the Belgian town of Binche during the Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday preceding Ash Wednesday. The carnival is the best known of several that take place in Belgium at the same time and has been proclaimed as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity listed by UNESCO. Its history dates back to approximately the 14th century.
Events related to the carnival begin up to seven weeks prior to the primary celebrations. Street performances and public displays traditionally occur on the Sundays approaching Ash Wednesday, consisting of prescribed musical acts, dancing, and marching. Large numbers of Binche's inhabitants spend the Sunday directly prior to Ash Wednesday in costume.
The centrepiece of the carnival's proceedings are clown-like performers known as Gilles. Appearing, for the most part, on Shrove Tuesday, the Gilles are characterised by their vibrant dress, wax masks and wooden footwear. They number up to 1,000 at any given time, range in age from 3 to 60 years old, and are customarily male. The honour of being a Gille at the carnival is something that is aspired to by local men. From dawn on the morning of the carnival's final day, Gilles appear in the centre of Binche, to dance to the sound of drums and ward off evil spirits with sticks. Later during the day, they don large hats adorned with ostrich plumes, which can cost more than $300 US dollars to rent, and march through the town with baskets of oranges. These oranges are thrown to, and sometimes at, members of the crowd gathered to view the procession. The vigour and longevity of the orange-throwing event has in past caused damage to property – some residents choose to seal windows to prevent this. The oranges are considered good luck because they are a gift from the Gilles and it is an insult to throw them back.
- Spencer, p.16
- Logan p.223
- Dunford, p.296
- Spencer, p.17
- Harris, p.179
- Pateman, p.116
- As Logan (2007) and Pateman (2006) note, the tradition of throwing oranges at members of the crowd is done in good spirit and not out of aggression, and to be hit was traditionally considered something to be proud of.
- Spicer, Dorothy Gladys (2008). Festivals of Western Europe. BiblioBazaar, LLC. ISBN 1-74104-237-2.
- Logan, Leanne; Geert Cole (2007). Belgium & Luxembourg. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-4375-2015-4.
- Dunford, Martin; Phil Lee; Michael Jackson; Gavin Thomas (2002). The Rough Guide to Belgium & Luxembourg. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-871-1.
- Harris, Max (2003). Carnival and Other Christian Festivals. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70191-8.
- Pateman, Robert; Mark Elliott (2006). Belgium. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0-7614-2059-2.