|Single by Brian Wilson|
|from the album Pet Sounds|
|B-side||"Summer Means New Love"|
|Released||March 7, 1966|
|Recorded||January 31, 1966
|Genre||Baroque pop, Psychedelic pop|
|Length||2:17 (single version)
2:51 (album version)
|Brian Wilson singles chronology|
"Caroline, No" is a song written by Brian Wilson and Tony Asher, recorded during the Pet Sounds sessions. It was released as a solo Brian Wilson single in March 1966 in advance of the album's release. The single was only a modest success, reaching number 32 in the US national chart and number 16 in Canada's RPM chart. Later in the year it appeared on The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds, although Brian Wilson was the only member of the band to appear on the track.
The song may have been inspired by a former girlfriend of lyricist Tony Asher, who had moved to New York and cut her hair. In high school, Wilson became obsessed with Carol Mountain, a classmate and unrequited love interest. The song was initially written as "Carol, I Know". When spoken, however, Brian Wilson heard this as "Caroline, No." After the confusion was resolved, the pair decided to keep the new title, feeling that it brought a poignant earnestness to the song's sad melody. 
Both instrumental and vocal tracks were recorded on January 31, 1966 at Western Recorders in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. Wilson produced the session, with Chuck Britz as the engineer. As with the rest of the Pet Sounds backing tracks, Wilson employed players from a select group of southern California session musicians, who were later nicknamed The Wrecking Crew. None of the other Beach Boys appeared on the record. Wilson chose the session players because of their work with Phil Spector. Although The Wrecking Crew were primarily younger musicians, most were formally trained and already veterans of session playing.
For "Caroline, No", harpsichord and bass flutes accompany more typical pop/rock instrumentation in a sound that, like other compositions from this period, reflects a jazz influence. The percussive exchange that opens the song features a tambourine and a large empty water bottle from the studio, played either by drummer Hal Blaine or percussionist Frankie Capp.
After Brian Wilson's double-tracked vocals were overdubbed, the entire recording was sped up by a half step. This was done at the suggestion of Brian Wilson's father Murry. Although Murry was no longer managing the Beach Boys, it is often speculated that Brian Wilson was pressured into this decision. Brian, however, maintains that he preferred the "sweeter" sound of the sped-up version.
Brian later stated, "'Caroline, No' was my favorite on the album, the prettiest ballad I've ever sung. Awfully pretty song. The melody and the chords were like Glenn Miller...a Glenn Miller-type bridge. The fade-out was like a 1944 kind of record...Listen for the flutes in the fadeout."
On the Pet Sounds LP, the sound of a passing train can be heard at the end of "Caroline, No", accompanied by barking from Brian's dogs, Banana and Louie. In the late 1990s, it was "rediscovered" that the train sound effect came from a sound effects LP titled Mister D's Machine, recorded in 1963 by Brad Miller. The album featured then-current recordings of various trains around the Southern Pacific system. The sounds that were lifted for the end of the Pet Sounds album were that of Train #58, "The Owl", speeding through at 70 mph through Edison, California. The sound effects, minus Banana and Louie, are in true stereo on the original effects album. They appeared in mono on Pet Sounds, but were not remixed into stereo with the rest of the album in 1996.
"Caroline, No" was Brian Wilson's first solo single, released on Capitol Records as Capitol 5610 on March 7, 1966. Although Brian Wilson was the driving force behind The Beach Boys at the time, the solo release of "Caroline, No" was perhaps his first official recognition as an individual outside the band. However, it was also released on The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds album (as well as on subsequent Beach Boys compilation albums), where it is credited as a Beach Boys recording, even though Brian Wilson is the only Beach Boy performing on the record.
The song's first album appearance was on the Beach Boys' 1966 album Pet Sounds.
The song appears on several occasions from different stages of the recording process and in different formats on The Pet Sounds Sessions box set:
- It appears on disc one in the first original stereo mix of the song.
- On disc 2, the 'Caroline, No' highlights from tracking date appears, which documents the progress of the recording of the instrumental track of the song. This track goes for over four minutes.
- Again on disc 2, the complete backing track is featured.
- On disc 3, an A cappella (or vocals only) version of the song is featured.
- A 32 second 'Caroline, No' promotional spot is featured on disc 3
- Also on disc 3 appears the song in stereo at its original speed.
- A second 'Caroline, No' promotional spot is also featured on disc 3 which goes for 28 seconds.
- Lastly on disc 3 appears the song in mono at its original speed.
- The song also appears on the bonus disc, disc 4, in its original mono mix.
- The Beach Boys
- Additional musicians
- Hal Blaine: drums
- Frank Capp: vibraphone
- Carol Kaye: electric bass
- Glen Campbell: guitar
- Barney Kessel: guitar
- Lyle Ritz: ukelele
- Al De Lory: harpsichord
- Bill Green: flute
- Jim Horn: flute
- Plas Johnson: flute
- Jay Migliori: flute
- Overdub session
In popular culture
- Yumiko Ohno of the Japanese group Buffalo Daughter is known in Japan for singing on several electronic avant-garde albums with Yann Tomita under the pseudonym Caroline Novac. Doopee Time by Tomita is a 1995 concept album which closes with Tomita's own cover version of the song.
- Neil Young mentions the song in his own composition "Long May You Run".
- "Caroline Knows" by Splitsville from The Complete Pet Soul derives its title from this song.
- A track titled "Caroline, Please Kill Me" appears on Coma Cinema's 2011 album Blue Suicide.
- A song entitled "Caroline, Yes" appears on the Kaiser Chiefs' 2005 album Employment in reference to Brian Wilson's song.
- The song was covered by jazz saxophonist Charles Lloyd on his 2009 album Mirror.
- The song was covered by singer/songwriter Dewey Bunnell, of the band America, on their 2011 album Back Pages.
- They Might Be Giants have covered this song on their Indestructible Object EP.
- The Aluminum Group covered the song on the 2006 tribute album Caroline Now!: The Songs of Brian Wilson and the Beach Boys.
- Eric Carmen covered the song on I Was Born to Love You.
- The song was covered in 2013 by tenor saxophonist Ken Peplowski on the album Maybe September.
- Elliott, Brad (August 31, 1999). "Pet Sounds Track Notes". beachboysfanclub.com. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- "Jim Esch review". Allmusic. Retrieved 2011-04-29.
- "The Rubberization of Soul". UNT Digital Library. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
- "The RS 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- "Tony Asher Interview". Cabin. Retrieved 2011-11-24.
- Linett, Mark (2001). "Track-by-Track Notes". In Pet Sounds (p. 22) [CD booklet]. Hollywood: Capitol Records, Inc.
- Laura Tunbridge, The Song Cycle , (Cambridge University Press, 2011), ISBN 0-521-72107-5, p.173.
- "Employment review". Allmusic. Retrieved 2011-04-29.
- Wouldn't It Be Nice: Brian Wilson and the Making of the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds by Charles L. Granata. Chicago Review Press, 2003.
- Pet Sounds reissue liner notes, written by Brad Elliott, 1999
- Pet Sounds, The Beach Boys (sheet music), Warner Bros. Publications, Miami, Florida, publication PF9805, published 1998