Caroline M. Nichols Churchill

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Churchill circa 1909

Caroline Nichols Churchill (1833–1926) was an American feminist.[1]


Caroline Nichols Churchill was born in Pickering, Ontario, Canada on December 23, 1833 to American parents.[2][3] She emigrated to the United States to live with her grandmother in 1846.[4] She taught in Minnesota in 1857.[3] Her husband died in 1862, and she moved to California after she contracted tuberculosis.[4] She campaigned against misogynistic state laws there.[4]

In 1879, she founded the first feminist newspaper in Denver called the Colorado Antelope, lately known as the Queen Bee.[2][5][6][7] She supported women's suffrage and temperance, and opposed Catholicism.[1] She later moved in with her sister in Colorado Springs until her death in 1926.[3]


  • Little Sheaves (1874)
  • Over the Purple Hills, or Sketches from Travel in California (1883)
  • Active Footsteps (1909)


  1. ^ a b Colorado Women's Hall of Fame
  2. ^ a b Women of the West Museum
  3. ^ a b c Gayle Corbett Shirley, More than Petticoats: Remarkable Colorado Women, TwoDot, 2002, pp. 72-73 [1]
  4. ^ a b c Siera Nevada Virtual Museum
  5. ^ Sarah Palin, America by Heart, New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2010, p.146
  6. ^ Susan H. Armitage, Elizabeth Jameson, The Women's West, University of Oklahoma Press, 1987, p. 268 [2]
  7. ^ Jan Whitt, Women in American Journalism: A New History, University of Illinois Press, 2008, p. 109 [3]

Further reading[edit]

Beenton, Beverly (1986). Women Vote in the West: the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1869-1896. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. pp. 104–116. ISBN 0-8240-8251-6. 

Bennion, Sherilyn Cox (1990). Equal to the Occasion : Women Editors of the Nineteenth-Century West. Reno: University of Nevada Press. pp. 84–106. ISBN 0-87417-163-6. 

Grimshaw, Patricia; Ellinghaus, Katherine (December 2001). "'A Higher Step for the Race': Caroline Nichols Churchill, The "Queen Bee" and Women's suffrage in Colorado, 1879-1893". Australasian Journal of American Studies 20 (2): 29–46. 

Marilley, Suzanne M. (1996). Woman Suffrage and the Origins of Liberal Feminism in the United States, 1820 - 1920. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 124–159. ISBN 0-674-95465-3. 

Thompson, Jennifer A. (1999). "From Travel Writer to Newspaper Editor: Caroline Churchill and the Development of Political Ideology within the Public Sphere". Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 20 (3): 42–63. 

  • Willard, Frances Elizabeth American Women Volume 1. New York, 1897.