Caroline Lockhart was born in Eagle Point, Illinois on February 24, 1871. She grew up on a ranch in Kansas. She attended Bethany College in Topeka, Kansas and the Moravian Seminary in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
A failed actress, she became a reporter for the Boston Post and later for the Philadelphia Bulletin. She also started writing short stories. In 1904, she moved to Cody, Wyoming to write a feature article about the Blackfoot Indians, and settled there. She started writing novels and her second novel, The Lady Doc, was based on life in Cody. In 1918-1919, she lived in Denver, Colorado and worked as a reporter for The Denver Post. In 1919, her novel The Fighting Shepherdess, loosely based on the life of sheepherder Lucy Morrison Moore, was made into a movie starring Lenore J. Coffee, Anita Stewart and William Farnham. So was her early novel, The Man from the Bitter Roots. She also met with Douglas Fairbanks about adapting The Dude Wrangler.
From 1920 to 1925, she owned the newspaper Park County Enterprise, and it was renamed the Cody Enterprise in 1921. From 1920 to 1926, she served as President of the Cody Stampede Board. In 1926, she bought a ranch in Dryhead, Montana, now part of the Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area where she lived until 1950. She still spent her winters in Cody, where she eventually retired. She died on July 25, 1962. The Caroline Lockhart Ranch was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989 and its structures were restored by the National Park Service.
- Me-Smith (1911)
- The Lady Doc (1912)
- The Full of the Moon (1914)
- The Man From Bitter Roots (1915)
- The Fighting Shepherdess (1919)
- Dude Wrangler (1921)
- The Old West and the New (1933)
- Hicks, Lucille Patrick. Caroline Lockhart: Liberated Lady (Pioneer Printing, 1984)
- Yates, Norris. Caroline Lockhart (Boise State University Western Writers Series, 1994)
- Furman, Necah Stewart. Caroline Lockhart: Her Life and Legacy (University of Washington Press, 1994)
- Nicholas, Liza. Becoming Western: Stories of Culture And Identity in the Cowboy State (University of Nebraska Press, 2006)
- Clayton, John. The Cowboy Girl: The Life of Caroline Lockhart (University of Nebraska Press, 2007)
- University of Wyoming American Heritage Center biography
- U.S. National Park Service biography
- John Clayton, 'The Old West’s Female Champion: Caroline Lockhart and Wyoming’s Cowboy Heritage', Wyoming State Historical Society 
- National Park Service, Lockart Ranch
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09.
- "Caroline Lockhart Ranch". Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. National Park Service. Retrieved 6 March 2012.