The club was founded in the summer of 1909 by local student Adolfo Fanconi as Jucunditas (Latin for "gaiety"), and changed their denomination to Associazione Calcio Carpi a few years later. Carpi played three seasons in the Italian Football Championship, the precursor to Serie A, from the 1919-20 season until 1921-22. Starting from the 1930s, they mostly played between Serie C and Serie D. Carpi achieved their best result in 1997, a third place under coach Luigi De Canio which allowed them to play the Serie B promotion playoffs then lost to Monza. The club was cancelled in 2000 following relegation to Serie D and subsequent bankruptcy.
A new club, named Calcio Carpi, was therefore admitted to Eccellenza Emilia–Romagna. The club assumed the current denomination in 2002, following promotion to Serie D and a merger with the second team of the city, Dorando Pietri Carpi, that had just reached Serie D as well. Pietri Carpi also sold its license to Boca.
In the season 2012–13 the team was promoted from Lega Pro Prima Divisione to Serie B for the first time ever when they defeated Lecce in the Girone A Playoff Final 2–1 on aggregate.
Carpi FC's first ever fixture at Serie B level ended in a 1–0 defeat away to Ternana on 24 August 2013. Their first win came in the manner of a 2-0 victory at Spezia Calcio courtesy of goals from Fabio Concas & Roberto Inglese. Carpi's first season in Serie B ended in a 12th place finish, only 3 points away from a Promotion playoff place, ensuring their place for another season.
The 2014–15 Serie B campaign saw Carpi, managed by experienced coach Fabrizio Castori, completing the first season half in a surprise first place, with a record, 43 points and a nine-point advantage to second-placed Frosinone.