Carr Hill

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Coordinates: 54°56′49″N 1°35′08″W / 54.9469°N 1.58548°W / 54.9469; -1.58548

Carr Hill
Carr Hill Shops.JPG
Shops at the junction of Carr Hill Road
Carr Hill is located in Tyne and Wear
Carr Hill
Carr Hill
 Carr Hill shown within Tyne and Wear
Population 3,200 
OS grid reference NZ2661
Metropolitan borough Gateshead
Metropolitan county Tyne and Wear
Region North East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town GATESHEAD
Postcode district NE9
Dialling code 0191
Police Northumbria
Fire Tyne and Wear
Ambulance North East
EU Parliament North East England
UK Parliament Gateshead (UK Parliament constituency)
List of places
UK
England
Tyne and Wear

Carr Hill is a suburb in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It is bordered by Felling to the north, Sheriff Hill to the south, Windy Nook to the east and Deckham to the west. It lies 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south of Gateshead, 2 miles (3.2 km) south of the city of Newcastle upon Tyne and 13 miles (21 km) north of the historic City of Durham. Once a village in County Durham, it was incorporated into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead by the Local Government Act 1972 on 1 April 1974.

One of the less populous of the former villages that comprise the metropolitan borough, Carr Hill has a long history and was first developed by the Romans. During the Industrial Revolution it became the centre of pottery making in Tyneside, and numerous stone quarries, glass makers and windmills were set up. It also had a large reservoir providing water to several areas of Gateshead and Newcastle upon Tyne.

Industrial decline from the turn of the 20th century, coupled with the building of Gateshead's first council estate, saw Carr Hill transformed from an industrial settlement into a residential suburb of the Gateshead Council ward of Deckham. Governed locally and nationally by the Labour Party, the suburb is economically disadvantaged compared to other areas of the borough and nationally, with high levels of unemployment and low levels of income. It is served by Carr Hill Primary School. There are two small parks that contribute to the social activity of the area, as does the Elgin Centre at Elgin Road. Two historic venues, both now closed, face uncertain futures, as does the parish church.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The origins of the name "Carr Hill" are subject to speculation. In the 18th and 19th centuries the village was usually referred to as Carr's Hill,[1] a possessive form suggesting that, like Deckham, the name stems from a notable family in residence.[note 1] It is more likely however that the name was taken from the Scottish Gaelic carr, meaning "rocky shelf".[2]

Parts of the early village were in Upper Heworth, and the remainder in Gateshead Fell, a wild and treacherous area of common land[3] notable for the criminality of the tinkers and hawkers who lived there.[4][note 2] There is some evidence of Roman occupation; a proposed enclosure map of Heworth Common from 1766 charts a Roman Causeway running between Carr Hill Lane (now Carr Hill Road) and Blue Quarries in Sheriff Hill.[note 3] The likely explanation for Roman interest in the area is Swan Pond, twice the size of the pond at Saltwell Park, the fresh water from which might be used to fill bathhouses and flush latrines.[5] Indeed, in 1697, William Yarnold obtained a lease for the laying of cisterns and pipes to bring water from "the Great Pond at Carr's Hill", shown on ordnance survey maps as Swan Pond, to Newcastle upon Tyne.[6]

Industrial period 1740–1860[edit]

A surviving reference to Carr Hill's rich potting past; Warburton Crescent, named after John Warburton who brought earthenware to the village

The most important event in Carr Hill's formative history occurred in 1740, when John Warburton established a pottery at Carr Hill Lane. Warburton's pottery, later referred to as 'Carr Hill Pottery' and widely credited with bringing white earthenware to the region, transformed the village into one of Gateshead's potting epicentres and encouraged workers and traders to move to the area.[7][8] Warburton passed the pottery to his son-in-law Issac Warburton in about 1760, and by the time John Warburton died in June 1794 it was the largest in the Tyne Valley, commanding a rent of £100 per annum; by comparison, the Tyne Pottery on Felling shore paid £20.[9] When placed for sale in 1812, the advert described Carr Hill Pottery as "valuable and extensive".[10]

Ordnance Survey Map of Carr Hill, 1862

Carr Hill by 1820 was a modern and populous village,[11] situated on hill, still isolated from Gateshead and Felling.[12] A variety of industries had developed alongside Warburton's pottery and were prospering; a flint glass manufacturer, under the management of Alexander Elliot,[13] three corn mills - Carr Hill Mill, Felling Windmill and St John's Mill[14] (the latter built after an earlier mill was destroyed by a mysterious fire in 1824)[15] – and a fire brick kiln.[16] There were also three inns and "some neat houses occupied by respectable families".[16] By 1840 Carr Hill Reservoir had been built and, under the management of the Newcastle Water Company was the major water supplier for residents in Carr Hill, Sheriff Hill and Windy Nook,[17] and freestone quarries, similar to Kells' Quarry in Windy Nook, were producing Newcastle Grindstone of excellent quality.[18] During the mid-19th century, the increasing population led to calls for social amenities to be improved; footpaths were a particular concern,[19] although an examination of ordnance survey mapping demonstrates the continued isolation of the village generally. The success of Warburton's pottery resulted in a street being named after him,[20] but the lack of residential development is evident. Carr Hill glassworks and quarries are still clearly marked, along with Swan Pond and a public house, The Free Gardeners Arms.[21] By the mid-19th century Carr Hill Reservoir was in the hands of the Whittle Dean Water Company, and in 1883 was converted into a 10-million imperial gallon (45 million l; 12 million US gal) open reservoir.[22]

Carr Hill House[edit]

Carr Hill House was the largest estate in the village;[23] a freehold mansion house on Carr Hill Lane.[24] The date of building is unknown, but it does not appear on an enclosure map of 1766, suggesting it was built after that date.[25] There is strong evidence that it was once a lunatic asylum; in 1770 an advertisement in a local newspaper declared:

LUNATICKS
Carr's Hill House on Gateshead Fell
To The Public

We beg Leave to inform the Public that we have opened the above HOUSE pleasantly situated about a mile distant from Newcastle, which we have fitted up in an elegant manner, with every Accommodation for the reception of LUNATICKS in genteel or opulent circumstances: in this House Persons entrusted to our Care shall be treated with the utmost Attention and Humanity. The terms are reasonable. R. Lambert, W. Keenlyside, H Gibson, R. Stoddard (surgeons to the Infirmary), Newcastle 1767.[26]

By the turn of the 19th century Carr Hill House was a residential property and farm, and in 1806 Matthew Atkinson responded to an advertisement in the Newcastle Courant and purchased the 12-acre (4.9 ha) estate.[27] In 1858 the house was in the hands of G. J Kenmir, town clerk of Gateshead from 1855 until 1856, who occupied a 26-acre (11 ha) estate on which he kept a large number of pigs.[23][28]

Industrial decline and modern development[edit]

The Old Brown Jug, named in reference to Warburton's pottery which once flourished behind it, stands derelict at Carr Hill Road today.

By the late 19th century the village was in steep decline. In 1894, Whellan described Carr Hill as "a scattered village, which ... was dotted with windmills, now fallen into ruins, as are many of the houses."[29] Carr Hill Pottery had operated throughout the 19th century, but the once thriving pottery had by 1860 become little more than a cottage industry, employing a mere 8 employees and paying just £15 per annum in rent.[30] Ownership subsequently transferred to Thomas Patterson, of neighbouring Sheriff Hill Pottery, who eventually closed the Carr Hill works in 1893.[31] The buildings were demolished completely in 1932;[32] only the Old Brown Jug public house and a street named in honour of Warburton survive as reminders of the area's rich pottery heritage.[31][33] Carr Hill Quarry on Elgin Quarry was infilled and replaced by a school,[34] and although the windmills still stood, none operated as a going concern by 1890, and were instead used as tenement property or storehouses[20] Carr Hill Mill was demolished between 1919 and 1939[35] as was the last remaining mill in 1963.[36] Elliot's glassworks suffered a similar fate, closing in about 1900[13] and demolished in 1932.[32] Carr Hill House fell into disrepair and was demolished in 1921.[37] Carr Hill Reservoir survived until 1973, but by then the whole of Gateshead and Newcastle were supplied by the Newcastle and Water Company from Catcleugh and Whittle Dene in Northumberland and it had become redundant, and was covered soon after.[38]

Typical 1920's council housing at Carr Hill Road

Carr Hill today is shaped by the housing development of the 20th century. A building boom begun in Gateshead at the start of the 20th century; large tracts of development at Deckham were matched by development in Carr Hill at Mafeking, Methuen and Baden Powell Streets.[32] In 1911 an offer to build Sutton Dwellings was made to Gateshead Council and was staunchly rebuffed and in 1917 Parliament made a further proposal which was again rejected.[39] However, a Gateshead Council survey concluded in 1919 that "overcrowding in Gateshead was at dangerous levels, that landlords were scrimping on repairs and improvements" and that housing levels were unsustainable in light of rapid population growth.[40] When in February 1919 the Town Improvement Committee recommended the purchase of 214 acres (0.87 km2; 0.334 sq mi) of land between Dryden Road at Low Fell and Carr Hill under the Housing Act 1919, the Council finally yielded and purchased 65 acres (0.26 km2; 0.102 sq mi) of land in Carr Hill and Sheriff Hill at the cost of £19,000.[41] The result was that, in 1921, a large council estate was built in Carr Hill at Iona Road and the surrounding areas.[42] The estate remains largely unchanged and shapes the suburb today, with only the width of Carr Hill Road (indicating a village green), the 'Old Brown Jug' inn and some stone cottages at Co-Operative Terrace remaining of the industrial village which once stood in its stead.[43]

Governance[edit]

Gateshead Council, Deckham–2012 local elections[44]
Candidate name Political party Number of votes % of votes cast
Brian Coates Labour 1,407 70%
May Ainscow Conservative 214 10.7%
Karen Therese Crozier Liberal Democrats 146 7.3%
John Richards National Front 124 6.2%
Norman Hall Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition 118 5.9%

Carr Hill is in the council ward of Deckham in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead.[note 4] This ward is approximately 1.5 square kilometres (0.58 sq mi) in area and has a population of 9,228.[45] It is represented by three councillors. In June 2012, they were Brian Coates, Martin Gannon and Bernadette Oliphant.[46]

Carr Hill is part of the Westminster parliamentary constituency of Gateshead. It was previously in the Gateshead East and Washington West constituency which was abolished by boundary changes before the 2010 UK General Election.[47] For many years the MP was Joyce Quin, who retired on 11 April 2005 and was awarded a life peerage into the House of Lords on 13 June 2006[48] and is now Baroness Quin.

The present MP Ian Mearns, is a member of the Labour party and his office is in Gateshead.[49] He replaced Sharon Hodgson who successfully campaigned in the newly formed constituency of Washington and Sunderland West.[50] In the 2010 UK General Election, Mearns was elected with a majority of 12,549 over Frank Hindle. The swing from Labour to the Liberal Democrats was 3.9%.[51]

Carr Hill is in a safe Labour seat. Mearns' success in 2010 followed of Sharon Hodgson, who in the 2005 UK General Election polled over 60% of the votes cast[52] whilst in 2001, Joyce Quin was returned with a majority of 53.3%.[53]

Geography and topography[edit]

Carr Hill
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
43
 
7
3
 
 
41
 
8
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39
 
10
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67
 
12
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48
 
14
8
 
 
60
 
17
11
 
 
48
 
19
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61
 
20
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52
 
17
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62
 
13
8
 
 
66
 
10
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57
 
7
3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [1]

Carr Hill, at latitude 54.9469 and longitude −1.58548, is "pleasantly situated" 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south-east of Gateshead[54] and 255 miles (410 km) from London. It lies on a bed of sandstone and clay and the land is steep in places, slopes from south to north and reaches a height of around 140 metres (460 ft) above sea level at the southern fringes.[4][55] This distinctive, steep topography means that Carr Hill sits atop "a lofty hill"[4] and, where not spoiled by house building, this provides residents with good views to Newcastle upon Tyne in the north, the north-west and north-east towards the North Sea.[56] Around 25% of the land is open space and 70% residential.[55]

Documents indicate that the settlement boundaries lie at the Falla Park estate in the north, Windy Nook Road/St Alban's Place to the east, Hendon Road to the west and Sheriff Hill to the south.[57] Carr Hill was part of County Durham until it was incorporated into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead by the Local Government Act 1972.[58] It is now bordered by settlements which are also part of the metropolitan borough. These are Sheriff Hill to the south, Deckham to the west, Felling to the north and Windy Nook to the east.[57]

The climate in Carr Hill is temperate like much of the north east of England. The mean highest temperature, at 12.8 °C (55.0 °F), is slightly lower than the England average (13.1 °C (55.6 °F)) though the mean lowest temperature, at 7.2 °C (45.0 °F), is somewhat higher (5.6 °C (42.1 °F)). The total annual rainfall, at 643.1 millimetres (25.32 in), is significantly lower than the national average of 838.7 millimetres (33.02 in).[59][60]

Demography[edit]

Carr Hill compared (2012)
Carr Hill[61][62] Gateshead[61] England[61]
Total population 3,200[note 5] 191,151 49,138,831
White 98.6% 98.4% 90.9%
BME 1.4% 1.6% 4.6%
Aged 0–19 24.8% 24.2% 26.32%
Aged 65+ 13.8% 17.3% 15.9%
Male 47% 48.3% 48.7%
Female 53% 51.7% 51.3%

According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, Carr Hill has an approximate population of 3,200 – 53% of the population are female, slightly above the national average, whilst 47% are male.[63] Only 1.4% of the population are from a black or other minority ethnic group (BME), as opposed to 9.1% of the national population.[61][64] Relatively few pensioners live in the suburb, 12.2% as compared to 15.9% nationally and 17.3% in the borough.[65]

Carr Hill Nook has a high proportion of lone parent households at some 19.3% of all households. This is the fourth highest figure in Gateshead and compares with a borough average of 11.5%.[66] Some 36.9% of households have dependent children, as opposed to 29.5% nationally and 28.4% in Gateshead. This is also the fourth-highest figure in Gateshead.[67] The Index of Multiple Deprivation, which divides England into 32,482 areas and measures quality of life to indicate deprivation, splits Carr Hill into halves and lists one half in the top 5% of all deprived areas in England in 2008. The other half is listed in the top 20% of all deprived areas.[67]

Economy[edit]

Carr Hill shops

The decline of industry in Carr Hill and the rapid building of residential property transformed the village into a residential estate.[68] There is a small commercial area at the junction of Carr Hill Road and Pottersway, which provides some employment and which has become a "social landmark", but there is no major employer.[69] A Tesco Extra store at the eastern fringe of the boundary with Windy Nook opened in 2012 and also provides employment to residents.[70]

Carr Hill performs poorly in comparison to the wider borough in terms of economic activity and opportunity. Some 42% of children in the ward live in poverty, the second-highest figure in Gateshead. The adult unemployment rate is 7%, compared to 5% borough-wide, the joint third-highest figure in Gateshead.[71] Youth unemployment is 10%, also the joint third-highest in the borough. The income of residents is £24,000; £3,000 below the regional median.[72] Carr Hill has only 70 VAT-registered businesses, compared to a borough average of 230.[73] Only 2.6% of residents are self-employed, compared to 4.5% of the borough and 8.3% nationally.[74] Overall, Carr Hill falls within the most deprived 20% of regions in England according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation in 2010.[45]

Leisure and recreation[edit]

There are no libraries in Carr Hill, though Gateshead Central Library, the largest in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, is nearby.[75] Gateshead Leisure Centre in Shipcote and Saltwell Park are close by.[76]

Parks[edit]

Carr Hill Park

There are two parks in Carr Hill. The first is Carr Hill Park, a small play area at the junction of Northway and Carr Hill Road[77][78] known by locals as "the Top Park"[79] Previously an under-used resource,[80] the play area was rebuilt in 2009–10 at a cost of £148,000.[81] It now includes spring-mounted play items, rope walks and other play equipment, whilst improvements to lighting, pathways and drainage to the football area were made.[80] The park has become a valuable social open area; in April 2011 it hosted a 'community play' event, organised by Gateshead Council to encourage physical activity, attended by almost one hundred residents[82] whilst in 2010 it hosted the first annual "Mark Turner Memorial Day"; a fundraising event begun after Turner, a Sheriff Hill resident, was killed whilst on duty in Afghanistan. Around 1,000 guests attended, including Michael Hood, the Mayor of Gateshead.[83]

The second park is Carr Hill Reservoir Park, which occupies the site of the covered reservoir at Carr Hill and Ruskin Roads.[78] This is a larger park containing a play area and contained sports area paid for by fundraising by local residents.[84] There is also a full-size football pitch, which is the base of Sheriff Hill Football Club; a mixed-sex club of around 125 players which is substantially funded by Gateshead Council.[85]

Venues[edit]

The Gardners Arms, nine days after it was gutted by fire in 2012

There is some evidence that there were at least two inns during the 18th century, although their precise locations and names are unknown.[86] In 1827, Parson and White's Directory listed the Brown Jug, adjoining Carr Hill Pottery at Carr Hill Lane[87] and it is likely that this venue is one of those earlier inns.[note 6] The second is likely the Old Fellows Inn, located near the Brown Jug at Carr Hill Lane, listed in 1844, but later listed as 'The Free Gardeners Arms".[88] By 1856, both the Brown Jug and the Free Gardeners Arms were well established and thriving[32] and continued to prosper well into the 20th century, under the slightly different names of The Old Brown Jug and The Gardeners Arms.[20]

Despite one document referring to both as "social landmarks", they have experienced a significant downturn in recent years and their future is extremely uncertain.[34] The Brown Jug has been closed and derelict for several years; in 2009 an application was made to convert the property into a block of six apartments.[89] Although the application was declined,[90] the pub and surrounding locale became something of a "no-go" area,[91] and a new application by Yorkshire Homes to convert the public house into a single residential property was approved in 2011.[92] The Gardeners Arms continued to trade until 2011[93] but was vacant when, on 1 July 2012, the inn was gutted by fire. It was immediately put up for sale by the owners.[94][95]

Culture and community[edit]

There are no structures listed by English Heritage in Carr Hill, although the buildings at 179–185 Carr Hill Road were listed locally by Gateshead Council;[96] in 2004 Our Lady of the Annunciation Church was added to the local list.[97]

The Elgin Centre[edit]

The Elgin Centre provides leisure and community facilities to Carr Hill residents.

The Elgin Centre, on Elgin Road at the south–east boundary between Deckham and Carr Hill, provides "the key cluster" of community provisions for residents.[98] These facilities contribute to the regeneration of the suburb.[99][100]

The facilities are utilised by the Route 26 Community Project, a registered charity based at the centre[101] that works towards the betterment of lives in Deckham and neighbouring wards.[102] The project works with Gateshead Council and the Gateshead Housing Company to provide a community cafe promoting healthy eating (the T–Junction), a gymnasium, indoor sports hall, outdoor Five-a-side football pitches and a meeting place for resident groups. The project has education provision for young children as a registered day–care provider[103] and it also offers adult education and training.[104][105] The project hosts the Carnival on the Hill/Deckham Festival, a collaborative enterprise between Route 26, Gateshead Council and Home Group, offering free activities such as go-karting and children's soft play, against the backdrop of a steel band.[106] The second Carnival on the Hill was held on 3 September 2011 and attracted more than 1,000 visitors, including the Mayor of Gateshead and BBC local weatherman Paul Mooney.[107][108]

Transport[edit]

The 52 bus at Carr Hill Road

The principal roads in Carr Hill are the local distributors: Carr Hill Road to the south, Coldwell Lane in the east and Nursery Lane, which bisects the suburb centrally.[109] Journey time by car or bus to Gateshead town centre is approximately ten minutes, and fifteen minutes into the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne.[110] Residents have a comparatively low level of car ownership, 46.9% as compared to a borough average of 56.8%. Some 27.3% of residents travel to work by public transport.[111]

Carr Hill is on a bus route into Gateshead and Newcastle upon Tyne served by two bus services: the Orbit 51, which travels to Heworth Interchange and terminates at Gateshead, and the 68.[110][112] All buses serving Carr Hill are operated by Go North East under the administration of Nexus.[113]

List of buses serving Carr Hill[114]
Route To Via Frequency Route Name
51/52 Gateshead Interchange Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Gateshead Central Library
every fifteen minutes
  The Orbit
Gateshead Interchange Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Felling Square, Heworth InterchangeBus interchangeNational RailTyne and Wear Metro
68 Wrekenton Queen Elizabeth Hospital
every hour
 
Bill Quay Felling Square, Heworth InterchangeBus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro, Pelaw

The nearest Metro station is Felling, and the nearest railway station is Heworth Interchange.[115] The nearest airport is Newcastle International Airport, some 7.4 miles (11.9 km) away.[59]

Education[edit]

Carr Hill Community Primary School

Carr Hill Community Primary School, at the western end of Carr Hill on Carr Hill Road, caters for pupils in the 3–11 age range.[116] It is a larger than average school where almost two thirds of the pupils are eligible for schools meals, well above the national average.[117] The school has made steady and sustained improvement; in 2008 an OFSTED inspection found the school to be "good" and in 2010 the school was rated 'outstanding', with excellent teaching and leadership noted and praised.[118][119] Carr Hill Primary is the only school in the suburb, after Elgin Secondary Technical School, built in 1962, was closed in the 1990s.[120] The majority of children aged 11–16 now will attend Thomas Hepburn Community School in Felling.[121]

Carr Hill compares unfavourably with the wider Gateshead area in respect of adults with educational qualifications. 43.5% of adults have no educational qualifications, compared to 38.4% across the whole of Gateshead and the England average of 28.9%.[122] Only 30.4% of adults have five or more GCSE's or equivalent at A*–C (compared to 36.9% across Gateshead and 47.6% nationally) whilst 13.4% of adults in the suburb have two or more A-Level's or equivalent.[123]

Religion[edit]

According to the 2001 UK census, 78.9% of Carr Hill residents identify themselves as Christian. This is marginally less than the regional average of 80.1% but is higher than the national figure of 71.7%. About 0.1% of residents identify as Buddhist, slightly fewer as Sikh, 0.4% as Muslim, and around 0.2% with another unstated religion. No residents identified themselves as Jewish or Hindu. The percentage of residents who have "no religion" is 13.6%; 6.7% of residents did not state any religion.[note 7]

Our Lady of the Annunciation Church[edit]

Built in 1950, this modern, Roman Catholic church is located at Millway,[124] and is the only place of worship in the suburb. It was also a social hub, hosting regular events such as Christmas fayres.[125] In 2009 however, parish priest David Taylor was arrested in connection with a number of indecent assaults on young boys in his care and was suspended from his joint parish of St Peter's, Low Fell and the Annunciation.[126] Taylor admitted five charges at Durham Crown Court in 2009 and was given a prison sentence.[127] On 20 April 2012, a final mass was held by the Bishop of Hexham and Newcastle and the church was closed.[128] As of 2012 the building remains standing, although property company GVA are inviting tenders for the church and adjoining land.[129]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Some authors have suggested that the name may relate to a John Carr of Dunston Hill, but it is accepted that there is little supporting evidence. See Proctor, 2006: 31 at para.1 and Manders, 1973: 337
  2. ^ Manders, 1973: 309. Indeed, in March 1888, North Country Lore and Legend, Monthly Chronicle recalled: "Gateshead Fell, as the name implies, was once a wild common, over a portion of which lay the road between Durham and Newcastle. The loneliness of the bleak moorland was quite guile enough to invest it with terror to travellers a hundred years ago and occasionally there were incidents that served greatly to enhance the evil repute of the locality". (author unknown)
  3. ^ Proctor, 2006: 22 at para.2 writes "Commissioners appointed to oversee the division of land subject to Enclosures were generally sober types, not given to dreaming up Roman roads that had not existed."
  4. ^ A small cluster of streets around Brettanby Road in the east are actually in the Windy Nook and Whitehills Ward. See Gateshead Council Windy Nook and Whitehills Ward Factsheet 2012 p.1
  5. ^ Figure is cumulative total of Lower Layer Super Output Areas Gateshead 011C and 012D per the 2001 UK Census. Gateshead Council records the combined population of the Carr Hill and Sheriff Hill neighbourhoods to be 5,576 (at NPE, 2008: 8) but does not provide separate population figures for the two. All other data is, however, provided separately and is specific to Carr Hill.
  6. ^ "Given the frequent name changes of the public houses on Carr Hill, one gets the impression that the Brown Jug was the most firmly established public house on Carr Hill and the one most likely to date from the 18th century." Proctor, 2006: 26 at para.5
  7. ^ All figure are averages across Lower Layer Super Output Areas Gateshead 011C and 012D per the 2001 UK Census. Gateshead Council does not provide specific data.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Whellan, 1848, 803
  2. ^ Proctor, 2006: 31 at para.2 and Manders, 1973: 337
  3. ^ Manders, 1973: 308
  4. ^ a b c Mackenzie and Ross, 1834: 110
  5. ^ Proctor, 2006: 22 at para.3
  6. ^ MacKensie, 1827: 726
  7. ^ Manders, 1973: 63 at para.1
  8. ^ Carlton, 1974:
  9. ^ Proctor, 2006: 13 at para.2
  10. ^ Newcastle Courant, 18 April 1812
  11. ^ Surtees, 1820: 66
  12. ^ Carlton, 1974: 117
  13. ^ a b Manders, 1973: 77
  14. ^ Sykes, 1833: 171
  15. ^ Proctor, 2006: 1
  16. ^ a b Mackensie and Ross, 1834: 110
  17. ^ Douglas, 1840: 33
  18. ^ Douglas, 1840: 57
  19. ^ Douglas, 1852: 128
  20. ^ a b c Manders, 1973: 63
  21. ^ 'England – Durham: 007', Ordnance Survey 1:10,560 – Epoch 1 (1862).
  22. ^ Manders, 1973: 288
  23. ^ a b Fordyce, 1857: 780
  24. ^ Proctor, 2006: 15 at para.5
  25. ^ Proctor, 2006: 29 at para5
  26. ^ Newcastle Chronicle, Saturday 1 August 1770.
  27. ^ Proctor, 2006: 15 at paras 3–4
  28. ^ Rogerson and Tuxford, 1858, 255
  29. ^ Whellan, 1894: 987
  30. ^ Proctor, 2006: 28
  31. ^ a b Carlton, 1974: 78
  32. ^ a b c d Manders, 1973: 315
  33. ^ Manders, 1973: 341
  34. ^ a b GC 13, 2008: 1
  35. ^ Proctor, 2006: 19 at para.5
  36. ^ Carlton, 1974: 77
  37. ^ Manders, 1973: 135
  38. ^ Manders, 2973: 288
  39. ^ Manders, 1973: 172, para 2
  40. ^ Manders, 1973: 172, para 3
  41. ^ Manders, 1973: 172–3
  42. ^ Carlton, 1974: 118
  43. ^ Carlton, 1974: 117–8
  44. ^ Author unknown, "Local Elections 2012– Deckham", Gateshead MBC (retrieved 18 June 2012)
  45. ^ a b WFS, 2012: 1
  46. ^ Author unknown, "Ward Information–Deckham", Gateshead MBC (retrieved 17 June 2012)
  47. ^ Author Unknown, "Gateshead East and Washington West", The Guardian Online (retrieved 17 June 2012)
  48. ^ Author unknown, "(Profile) Joyce Quin", They Work For You (retrieved 14 April 2012)
  49. ^ Author unknown, "Contact Ian Mearns", IanMearns.Org (retrieved 16 April 2012)
  50. ^ Author unknown, "Election 2010– Washington & Sunderland West", the BBC Online (retrieved 14 April 2012)
  51. ^ Author unknown, "Election 2010– Gateshead", the BBC Online (retrieved 14 April 2012).
  52. ^ Author unknown, "Election 2005", the BBC Online (retrieved 14 April 2012)
  53. ^ Morgan, 2001: 67
  54. ^ Whellan, 1856: 803
  55. ^ a b GC13, 2008: 2
  56. ^ GC13, 2008: 1 at column 2
  57. ^ a b NPE, 2008: 5
  58. ^ Manders, 1973: 23
  59. ^ a b Unknown (2012). "Carr Hill Weather, United Kingdom". World Weather Online.  (retrieved 19 September 2012)
  60. ^ Unknown (2012). "England 1971–2000 averages". The Met Office.  (retrieved 19 September 2012)
  61. ^ a b c d Author unknown "Neighbourhood Statistics, Area Gateshead, Key figures for 2001", Office for National Statistics, UK Census 2001 (Retrieved 14 April 2012).
  62. ^ NPE, 2008
  63. ^ NPE, 1008: 8
  64. ^ NPE, 2008: 13
  65. ^ NPE, 2008: 11
  66. ^ NPE: 2008, 14
  67. ^ a b NPE, 2008: 15
  68. ^ GC13, 2008: 1 at col.1
  69. ^ GC13, 2008: 1 at col.2
  70. ^ Davies, 2011 at para.5
  71. ^ WFS, 2012: 2
  72. ^ WFS, 2012: 3
  73. ^ EHT, 2008: 52
  74. ^ EHT, 2008: 53
  75. ^ NPSD, 2006: 60 at para. 8.18
  76. ^ NSPD, 2006: 60 at para. 8.20
  77. ^ G15, 2008: 1
  78. ^ a b CYP, 2008: 24–5
  79. ^ Prcotor, 2006: 4
  80. ^ a b Quinn & Barker, 2009: 3 at para. 9
  81. ^ Quin & Barker, 2009: 3 at para. 8
  82. ^ Bradshaw, 2011: 6
  83. ^ Mullen, 2010
  84. ^ Bailey, 2007: 15
  85. ^ GAA, 2011: 7
  86. ^ Proctor, 2006: 25 at para.3
  87. ^ Parson and White, 1827: 113
  88. ^ Proctor, 2006: 26 at para.1
  89. ^ Application No. DC/10/01168/COU, Gateshead Council
  90. ^ Hutchinson, 2010
  91. ^ Glover, 2011
  92. ^ Application No.DC/11/00006/COU, Gateshead Council
  93. ^ Mullen, 2011
  94. ^ Fire destroys former pub, ITV, 1 July 2012 (retrieved 9 July 2012)
  95. ^ Pentagon, 2012: 12
  96. ^ Quinn, 2004: 14
  97. ^ Quinn, 2004: 9
  98. ^ UDHC, 2006: 13
  99. ^ UDHC, 2006: 43
  100. ^ NPSD, 2006: 59 at para. 8.5
  101. ^ Registered Charity number 1064584
  102. ^ Author Unknown, Route 26 Community Project– Charity Overview, The Charity Commission (retrieved 21 June 2012).
  103. ^ OFSTED reference number EY340899
  104. ^ Author unknown, Housing fund gives Deckham project £2775 training boost, Gateshead Housing Company, 4 March 2008
  105. ^ NSDP, 2006: 59 at para. 8.6
  106. ^ Author unknown, Roll up to the Deckham Carnival, Home Group, 2011 (retrieved 21 June 2011)
  107. ^ Bradshaw (Christmas issue), 2011: 2
  108. ^ Bradshaw (issue 22), 2011: 1
  109. ^ GC13, 2008: 4
  110. ^ a b Author Unknown, Route Map Orbit, Go North East (retrieved 2 July 2012).
  111. ^ EHT, 2008: 59
  112. ^ Author unknown, Timetable: 68 (retrieved 8 July 2012)
  113. ^ Author unknown, "What is Nexus?", Nexus (retrieved 2 July 2012)
  114. ^ "View All Routes". Go North East. 2012.  (retrieved 17 September 2012)
  115. ^ Author unknown, Nexus Buses 68, Go North East (retrieved 2 July 2012). The reference points are neighbouring Windy Nook and Sheriff Hill.
  116. ^ Petts, 2010: 1
  117. ^ Petts, 2010: 2
  118. ^ Gater, 2008: 3
  119. ^ Petts, 2010: 3
  120. ^ Manders, 1973: 210
  121. ^ Whellans, 2012: 4
  122. ^ EHT, 2008: 55
  123. ^ EHT, 2008: 56
  124. ^ Manders, 1973: 184
  125. ^ Author unknown, "News in Brief", Newcastle Evening Chronicle, 30 November 2004
  126. ^ Hickman, 2008: para.s 1–3, 24
  127. ^ McKay, 2009: paras 1–3
  128. ^ Author unknown, Our Lady of the Annunciation, Millway, Gateshead, Roman Catholic Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle (retrieved 8 July 2012)
  129. ^ Author unknown, Development Opportunity (subject to planning) Our Lady of the Annunciation, Millway, Gateshead, NE5 9PQ, GVA.co.uk (retrieved 8 July 2012)

Bibliography[edit]

Academic and other texts[edit]

  • Carlton, Ian Clark (1974). A Short History of Gateshead. Gateshead Corporation. ISBN 0-901273-04-X. 
  • Douglas (1840). Local collections; or, Records of remarkable events, connected with the borough of Gateshead, Volume 1. William Douglas. 
  • Douglas (1852). Local collections; or, Records of remarkable events, connected with the borough of Gateshead, Volume 1. William Douglas. 
  • Fordyce, William (1857). The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham: Volume 2. Fullerton and Co. 
  • MacKenzie, Eneas (1827). Historical Account of Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Including the Borough of Gateshead. McKenzie and Dent. ISBN 1-144-29746-X. 
  • MacKenzie and Ross (1834). An Historical, Topographical and Descriptive View of the County Palatine of Durham. McKenzie and Ross. ISBN 1-150-79679-0. 
  • Manders, Francis William David (1973). A History of Gateshead. Gateshead Corporation. ISBN 0-901273-02-3. 
  • Proctor, Brian (2006). Carr Hill Notes: Part One. Gateshead Libraries. 
  • Surtees, Robert (1820). 'Parish of Jarrow', The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham: volume 2: Chester ward (1820). 
  • Rogerson & Tuckford (1858). The Farmers Magazine. Rogerson & Tuckford. 
  • Sykes, John (1833). Local records or, Historical register of remarkable events, which have occurred in Northumberland and Durham, Newcastle upon Tyne, and Berwick upon Tweed, from the earliest period of authentic record, to the present time; with biographical notices of deceased persons of talent, eccentricity, and longevity, Volume 2. John Sykes. 
  • Whellan, William (1856). Whellan's History, Topography and Directory of Northumberland. Whellan & Co, Manchester. 

Journals, reports, papers and other sources[edit]

Where an abbreviation is used in the references this is indicated below in (brackets) at the end of the source name. When a source is available online, a link has been included.