Carrie Chapman Catt
|Carrie Chapman Catt|
|Born||Carrie Clinton Lane
January 9, 1859
|Died||March 9, 1947
New Rochelle, New York
Carrie Chapman Catt (January 9, 1859 – March 9, 1947) was an American women's suffrage leader who campaigned for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which gave U.S. women the right to vote in 1920. Catt served as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and was the founder of the League of Women Voters and the International Alliance of Women. She "led an army of voteless women in 1919 to pressure Congress to pass the constitutional amendment giving them the right to vote and convinced state legislatures to ratify it in 1920" and "was one of the best-known women in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century and was on all lists of famous American women".
Born Carrie Clinton Lane in Ripon, Wisconsin, Catt spent her childhood in Charles City, Iowa and graduated from Iowa State Agricultural College (now Iowa State University) in Ames, Iowa, graduating in three years. She was a member of Pi Beta Phi, as well as the valedictorian and only woman in her class. She became a teacher and then superintendent of schools in Mason City, Iowa in 1885. She was the first female superintendent of the district.
In 1885 Carrie married newspaper editor Leo Chapman, but he died in California soon after. Eventually she landed on her feet but only after some harrowing experiences in the male working world. In 1890, she married George Catt, a wealthy engineer. Their marriage allowed her to spend a good part of each year on the road campaigning for women's suffrage, a cause she had become involved with in Iowa during the late 1880s. Catt also joined the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
Role in women's suffrage
National American Woman Suffrage Association
Catt became a close colleague of Susan B. Anthony, who selected Catt to succeed her as head of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). She was elected president of NAWSA twice; her first term was from 1900 to 1904 and her second term was from 1915 to 1920. Her second term coincided with the climax of the women's suffrage movement in the U.S. Under Catt's leadership the movement focused on success in at least one eastern state, because previous to 1917 only western states had granted female suffrage. Catt thus led a successful campaign in New York state, which finally approved suffrage in 1917. During that same year President Wilson and the Congress entered World War I. Catt made the controversial decision to support the war effort, which shifted the public's perception in favor of the suffragettes who were now perceived as patriotic. Receiving the support of President Wilson, the suffrage movement culminated in the adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution on August 26, 1920.
In her efforts to win women's suffrage state by state, Catt sometimes appealed to the prejudices of the time. In South Dakota, Catt lamented that while women lacked suffrage, "The murderous Sioux is given the right to franchise which he is ready and anxious to sell to the highest bidder." In 1894, Catt urged that uneducated immigrants be stripped of their right to vote - the United States should "cut off the vote of the slums and give it to woman." "White supremacy will be strengthened, not weakened, by women's suffrage," was her argument when trying to win over Mississippi and South Carolina in 1919.
NAWSA was by far the largest organization working for women's suffrage in the U.S. From her first endeavors in Iowa in the 1880s to her last in Tennessee in 1920, Catt supervised dozens of campaigns, mobilized numerous volunteers (1 million by the end), and made hundreds of speeches. After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Catt retired from NAWSA.
International women's suffrage movement
Catt was also a leader of the international women's suffrage movement. She helped to found the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA) in 1902, serving as its president from 1904 until 1923. The IWSA remains in existence, now as the International Alliance of Women.
Role during the World Wars
Catt was active in anti-war causes during the 1920s and 1930s. Catt resided at Juniper Ledge in the Westchester County, New York community of Briarcliff Manor from 1919 through 1928  when she settled in nearby New Rochelle, New York. It was during this period that she became recognized as one of the most prominent female leaders of her time.
In 1933 in response to Adolf Hitler's rise to power in which he used the Jewish race as a scapegoat for Germany's worst problems, Catt organized the Protest Committee of Non-Jewish Women Against the Persecution of Jews in Germany. This group gathered 9,000 signatures of non-Jewish American women and attached these to a letter of protest sent to Hitler in August 1933. The letter decried acts of violence and restrictive laws against German Jews. Catt pressured the U.S. government to ease immigration laws so that Jews could more easily take refuge in America. For her efforts, Catt became the first woman to receive the American Hebrew Medal. She also wrote the "Do you know" pamphlet, informing people about Woman Suffrage issues.
The last event she helped organize was the Woman's Centennial Conference in New York in 1940, a celebration of the feminist movement in the United States.
Death and recognition
In popular culture
- List of civil rights leaders
- List of suffragists and suffragettes
- List of women's rights activists
- Timeline of women's suffrage
- Open Christmas Letter
- Women's suffrage organizations
- Voris, Jacqueline Van (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. Women and Peace Series. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY. p. vii. ISBN 1558611398.
- "Carrie Lane Chapman Catt". Traditions. ISU Alumni Association. Archived from the original on May 4, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
- Sara M. Evans. Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America. New York: The Free Press, 1989. pp. 164-172.
- Van Voris, Jacqueline (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. Feminist Press at CUNY. p. 21.
- Bredbenner, Candice Lewis (1998). A Nationality of Her Own: Women, Marriage, and the Law of Citizenship. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 48.
- Munns, Roger (May 5, 1996). "University Honors Suffragette Despite Racism Charge". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- [Women in Congress, 1917-1990, DIANE Publishing Company, p. 208].
- Excerpt from The Corruption of Economics by Mason Gaffney
- [Carrie Chapman Catt: A Life of Leadership,by Nate Levin, p.62].
- Peter D. Shaver (October 2003). "National Register of Historic Places Registration:Carrie Chapman Catt House". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2010-12-24.
- Recker, Cristen. "Carrie Chapman Catt". Ladies For Liberty. Retrieved April 2, 2011.
- Nasaw, David (2001). The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 489. ISBN 0-618-15446-9.
- James, Edward T.; James, Janet Wilson (1974). Notable american women: a biographical dictionary. Harvard University Press. p. 312. ISBN 0-674-62734-2.
- "Catt Hall". Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- Robert Booth Fowler, Carrie Catt: Feminist Politician (1986). ISBN 9781555530051
- Jacqueline Van Voris, Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life (1996).
- Mary Gray Peck, Carrie Chapman Catt: A Biography (1944).
- Nate Levin, Carrie Chapman Catt: A Life of Leadership (2006).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carrie Chapman Catt.|
|Wikisource has the text of a 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia article about Carrie Chapman Catt.|
- The Carrie Chapman Catt Girlhood Home and Museum online, located in Charles City, Iowa
- PBS Kids: Women and the Vote 
- Information from the Library of Congress  
- About.com 
- Interesting Timeline showing the different tactics of the National Woman’s Party and the National American Woman Suffrage Association 
- Alice Paul Institute 
- Biography by Women in History (an organization in Ohio) 
- Diane Carmichael Blank (Jan 1, 2001). "Carrie Chapman Catt". Social reformer, suffragist. Find a Grave. Retrieved Aug 18, 2011.
- Papers in the Woman's Rights Collection, 1904-1947. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
- The Carrie Chapman Catt Collection at the Rare Book and Special Collection Division, The Library of Congress
- Carrie Chapman Catt Papers, 1880-1958 (1.75 linear feet (0.53 linear metres)) is housed at Smith College Sophia Smith Collection.