Carrier Air Wing Six

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Carrier Air Wing Six
Cvw6.jpg
CVW-6 Insignia
Active 1 July 1938 – 1 April 1993
Country United States
Branch United States Navy
Type Carrier air wing
Engagements World War II
Battle of Midway
Battle of the Eastern Solomons
Operation Galvanic
Operation Flintlock
Operation Hailstone
Operation Iceberg
Cold War
Operation Nickel Grass
Operation Urgent Fury
Operation Earnest Will
Operation Provide Comfort
Vietnam War
Decorations Presidential Unit Citation (1943)
Navy Unit Commendation (1968)
Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal (3)

Carrier Air Wing Six (CVW-6) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier air wing whose operational history spans from the years prior to World War II to the end of the Cold War, including participating in the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, and the Vietnam War. It was based on 15 different carriers during its operational lifetime.

When the unit was named "Air Group Six" during its time on the Enterprise, it was the Navy’s only carrier-based air group to carry out three complete tours of duty during World War II.[1]

Enterprise Air Group (1941–1942)[edit]

The lineage of Carrier Air Wing Six can be traced to the Enterprise Air Group, created on 1 July 1938, which included the following squadrons and aircraft:

This air group was embarked on board the Yorktown-class aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6) at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor.[2]

On 7 December 1941, eighteen SBD Dauntless scout bombers of squadrons VS-6 and VB-6 arrived over Pearl Harbor during the attack and, although surprised, immediately went into action in defense of the naval base. Scouting Six lost six planes during the attack, and Bombing Six lost one, killing eight airmen and wounding two others. Later that evening, six VF-6 Wildcats attempted to land at Ford Island, but five were accidentally shot down by friendly anti-aircraft fire, killing three pilots and wounding two others.[3][4][5] Enterprise’s air group carried out search missions to locate the Japanese carrier task force that attacked Pearl Harbor, but was unable to locate that force. Enterprise aircraft did sink a Japanese submarine on 10 December, but was unable to relieve the U.S. Marine garrison on Wake Island that fell to the Japanese.[6]

1942 was a critical period for the United States Navy, as they were forced to face the Japanese offensive in the Pacific War with the USS Enterprise and its air group being the only operational carrier in the Pacific due to battle losses.[7] The Enterprise’s air group launched air strikes against Japanese shipping and military installations on Marshall and Gilbert island groups on 1 February 1942, followed by air raids on Wake Island on 24 February and Marcus Island on 4 March.[8] Enterprise’s air group provided air cover for the Task Force 16 which launched the Doolittle Raid from the carrier Hornet (CV-8) on 18 April.[9] This mission prevented Enterprise and Hornet from participating in the Battle of Coral Sea which saw the Lexington (CV-2) sunk and the Yorktown (CV-5) heavily damaged.[7]

The Battle of Midway was the climatic naval battle in 1942, with the Enterprise’s air group sinking the Japanese carriers Kaga and Akagi and contributed to the sinking of Hiryū.[10] Torpedo Six (VT-6) lost ten TBD-1, Bombing Six (VB-6) lost eleven SBD-3, Scouting Six (VS-6) lost nine SBD-3, and Fighting Six (VF-6) lost a F4F-4.[11][12]

During the battle, then-Lieutenant Commander Wade McClusky, leading the Air Group, made a critical tactical decision that led to the sinking of two of Japan's fleet carriers, Kaga, and Akagi. When McClusky could not find the Japanese carriers where he expected them, and with his air group's fuel running dangerously low, he spotted the Japanese destroyer Arashi steaming north at flank speed. (The Arashi had stayed behind to attack the USS Nautilus, which had been harassing the Japanese fleet.) Taking the Arashi's heading led him directly to the enemy carriers. He then directed his dive-bombers into an attack which led to the destruction of both Kaga and Akagi.

The Enterprise Air Group also participated in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons on 24 August 1942, which was a strategic and tactical victory that blunted the Japanese counteroffensive during Guadalcanal Campaign although the Enterprise sustained heavy damage.[13] After returning to Pearl Harbor, the Enterprise Air Group was disbanded, and starting in September 1942, all U.S. Navy carrier air groups would be numbered.[2]

World War Two deployments[edit]

Listed below are the deployments of the Enterprise Air Group during 1942 following the attack on Pearl Harbor.[2]

Aircraft Carrier Deployment Duration Operational Area Operating Force
USS Enterprise (CV-6) 7 December 1941 – 10 March 1942 Pearl Harbor; Marshall, Wake and Marcus Islands Task Force 16
USS Enterprise (CV-6) 8 April–26, 1942 Doolittle Raid Task Force 16
USS Enterprise (CV-6) 30 April – 26 May 1942 Efate Island Task Force 16
USS Enterprise (CV-6) 28 May – 13 June 1942 Battle of Midway Task Force 16
USS Enterprise (CV-6) 15 July – 25 August 1942 Guadalcanal, Battle of the Eastern Solomons Task Force 16

Air group composition–World War Two[edit]

Battle of Midway and Doolittle Raid (1942)[edit]

Enterprise Air Group embarked on USS Enterprise (CV-6) during the Battle of Midway and Doolittle Raid:[2]

  • Bombing Six (VB-6)
  • Fighting Six (VF-6)
  • Scouting Six (VS-6)
  • Torpedo Six (VT-6)

Battle of the Eastern Solomons (1942)[edit]

Enterprise Air Group embarked on USS Enterprise (CV-6) during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons:[2]

  • Bombing Six (VB-6)
  • Fighting Six (VF-6)
  • Scouting Five (VS-5)
  • Torpedo Three (VT-3)

Air Group Six (1943–1945)[edit]

The Enterprise Air Group was reconstituted as Air Group Six on 15 March 1943. While flying off the Enterprise, they provided close air support to the amphibious landing on Makin Atoll from 19 to 21 November 1943. On the night of 26 November, carrier-based night fighters from the Enterprise broke up a large group of land-based bombers attacking Task Group 50.2. After a heavy strike by aircraft of Task Force 50 against Kwajalein on 4 December, Enterprise returned to Pearl Harbor on 9 December.[14]

Air Group Six then embarked on board the new Essex-class aircraft carrier USS Intrepid (CV-11) to provide air support for the amphibious landings on Kwajalein Atoll from 31 January to 3 February 1944. They also participated in a massive air strike against the Japanese naval base at Truk. The air group destroyed fifty-five enemy planes (twelve in the air and forty-two on the ground) as well as sinking five Japanese ships. Nine planes were lost, with nine pilots and four crewmen dead or missing.[15]

On 9 March 1945, Air Group Six switched to the new Essex-class aircraft carrier USS Hancock (CV-19) and carried out air strikes against Kyūshū airfields, southwestern Honshū, and shipping in the Inland Sea of Japan on 18 March. From 23 to 27 March, they struck the Nansei-shoto islands. Their last strikes in March came on the 31st, when they hit Minami Daito Jima and Kyūshū.

Air Group Six subsequently provided air support for the U.S invasion of Okinawa beginning on 1 April until a suicide plane hit the Hancock on 7 April. This forced the carrier off the battle line for repairs. Hancock and Air Group Six returned to action on 13 June and remained at sea until the end of World War II.[16]

Air Group Six deployments, 1943–1945[edit]

Listed below are the deployments of Air Group Six during World War Two following its activation.[14][15][16]

Aircraft Carrier Deployment Duration Operational Area Operating Force
USS Enterprise (CV-6) 10 November – 9 December 1943 Operation Galvanic Task Force 50
USS Intrepid (CV-11) 3 December 1943 – 22 March 1944 Operation Flintlock; Operation Hailstone Task Force 58
USS Hancock (CV-19) 9 March – 11 April 1945 Operation Iceberg Task Force 58
USS Hancock (CV-19) 13 June – 20 June 1945 Wake Island ComAirPac
USS Hancock (CV-19) 1 July – 15 August 1945 Air raids on Japan Task Force 38

Air group composition[edit]

Operation Galvanic (1943)[edit]

Air Group Six embarked on USS Enterprise (CV-6) during Operation Galvanic:[2]

  • Bombing Six (VB-6)
  • Fighting Two (VF-2)
  • Torpedo Six (VT-6)

Operation Flintlock (1944)[edit]

Air Group Six embarked on USS Intrepid (CV-11) during Operation Flintlock:[17]

  • Bombing Six (VB-6)
  • Fighting Six (VF-6)
  • Scouting Six (VS-6)
  • Night Fighting Seventy-eight (VF(N)-78)

Battle Carrier Air Group Five (1946–1948)[edit]

Post-war service for Carrier Wing Six began when Carrier Air Group Seventeen (CVG-17) was re-designated as Battle Carrier Air Group Seventeen (CVBG-17) on 22 January 1946 and subsequently re-designated as Battle Carrier Air Group Five (CVBG-5) on 16 November 1946. CVBG-5 participated in the shakedown cruises for Essex-class fleet carrier USS Valley Forge (CV-45) and the Midway-class battle aircraft carrier[Note 1] USS Coral Sea (CVB-43).[18]

Deployments[edit]

The Battle Carrier Air Group Five deployments, 1946–1948
Table 3 denotes the deployments of CVBG-5.[18]

Aircraft Carrier Deployment Duration Operational Area Operating Force
USS Valley Forge (CV-45) 24 January 1947 – 18 March 1947 South Atlantic Shakedown cruise
USS Coral Sea (CVB-43) 19 January 1948 – 5 April 1948 South Atlantic Shakedown cruise

Carrier Air Group Six (1948–1963)[edit]

NATO Operation Strikeback (1957)

Battle Carrier Air Group Five was re-designated Carrier Air Group Six (CVG-6) effective 27 July 1948. CVG-6 participated in three major NATO naval exercises, 1952's Operation Grand Slam,[19] 1952's Operation Mainbrace[20] and 1957's Operation Strikeback (pictured).[21] as well as making ten deployment to the Mediterranean Sea (see Table 4 below).[22] VF-33 joined CVG-6 aboard Midway in 1954.

The Group flew on board the Navy's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, the recently commissioned USS Enterprise (CVAN-65), on 22 June 1962. CVG-6 participated with the USS Forrestal (CVA-59) in LantFlex 2-62, a nuclear strike exercise from 6–12 July, providing eight “pre-planned” strikes and six call strikes while operating off the Virginia capes, against targets ranging from the Tidewater area to central Florida. The air group also participated in RipTide III from 3–5 August, which involved long-range simulated nuclear strikes against targets off the Portuguese and Spanish coasts, including 14 strikes and nine call strikes, all opposed.[23]

The Group embarked on board the Enterprise during its first deployment to the Mediterranean, passing the Rock of Gibraltar on 16 August 1962. CVG-6 participated n Lafayette II, 7 September, which involved 14 scheduled conventional strikes coordinated with aircraft from USS Forrestal (CVA-59) against multiple targets in southern France, with opposition provided by French air force and naval aircraft. The air group was involved in Indian Summer from 7–8 September, comprising three long-range, simulated nuclear strikes, with fighter escort by F-4Bs from VF-102, against Spanish targets defended by USAF and Spanish commands assigned to NATO. Carrier Air Group Six also provided air support during FallEx/High Heels II from 6–20 September as well as Fall Trap from 23–27 September, which was a NATO amphibious exercise. Enterprise arrived back at Norfolk Naval Station on 11 October 1962.[23]

Carrier Air Group Six subsequently participated in the naval operations during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 as part of Task Force 135, a two-carrier strike force consisting of CAG-6's home carrier, the Enterprise, and the supercarrier USS Independence (CVA-62), operating south of the Windward Passage, between Cuba and the island of Hispaniola and southward, in the vicinity of Latitude 18ºN, Longitude 74º30'W.[23][24] CAG-6 was augmented with ten additional A4D-4N Skyhawks of Attack Squadron 34 (VA-34) during the night of 26/27 October 1962.[25][26] For its participation in the Cuban Missile Crisis, Carrier Air Groups Six received the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal.[26]

Deployments[edit]

The deployments of CVG-6 are listed below.[22]

Aircraft Carrier Deployment Duration Operational Area Operating Force
USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVB-42) 27 October 1949 – 23 November 1949 North Atlantic U.S. Second Task Fleet
USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVB-42) 10 January 1951 – 18 May 1951 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Midway (CVB-41) 9 January 1952 – 5 May 1952 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Midway (CVB-41) 25 February 1952 – 16 March 1952 Operation Grand Slam CINCAFSOUTH
USS Midway (CVB-41) 26 August 1952 – 8 October 1952 Operation Mainbrace SACLANT
USS Midway (CVA-41) 1 December 1952 – 19 May 1953 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Midway (CVA-41) 9 January 1954 – 4 August 1954 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Lake Champlain (CVA-39) 9 October 1955 – 3 April 1956 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Intrepid (CVA-11) 3 September 1957 – 22 October 1957 Operation Strikeback SACLANT
USS Intrepid (CVA-11) 13 February 1959 – 20 August 1959 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Intrepid (CVA-11) 4 August 1960 – 17 February 1961 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Intrepid (CVA-11) 3 August 1961 – 1 March 1962 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) 3 August 1962 – 11 October 1962 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) 19 October 1962 – 6 December 1962 Caribbean Task Force 135
USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) 6 February 1963 – 4 September 1963 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet

Air group composition[edit]

Operation Grand Slam (1952)[edit]

Carrier Air Group Six embarked on USS Midway (CVB-41) during NATO Operation Grand Slam:[22]

  • Fleet Composite Squadron 12 (VC-12) Detachment 41
  • Fleet Composite Squadron 33 (VC-33) Detachment 41
  • Fleet Composite Squadron 62 (VC-62) Detachment 41
  • Utility Helicopter Squadron 2 (HU-2) Detachment 41

Operation Mainbrace (1952)[edit]

Carrier Air Group Six embarked on USS Midway (CVB-41) during NATO Operation Mainbrace:[22]

  • Fleet Composite Squadron 8 (VC-8)
  • Fleet Composite Squadron 12 (VC-12) Detachment 41
  • Fleet Composite Squadron 33 (VC-33) Detachment 41
  • Fleet Composite Squadron 62 (VC-62) Detachment 41
  • Utility Helicopter Squadron 2 (HU-2) Detachment 41

Operation Strikeback (1957)[edit]

Carrier Air Group Six embarked on USS Intrepid (CVA-11) during NATO Operation Strikeback:[22]

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)[edit]

Carrier Air Group Six embarked on USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) during the Cuban Missile Crisis:[22]

Carrier Air Wing Six (1963–1993)[edit]

Operation Sea Orbit (1964)
VF-33 - Vietnam (1968)

Carrier Air Group Six was re-designated Carrier Air Wing Six (CVW-6) on 20 December 1963.[22][27] The air wing participated in Operation Sea Orbit, the first around-the-world voyage made by nuclear-powered surface ships, in 1964 (pictured).[25]

CVW-6 embarked on the new supercarrier USS America (CVA-66) for its 1965 shakedown cruise, and during that ship's second deployment to the Mediterranean Sea, CVW-6 was operating with the U.S. Sixth Fleet when the Six Day War broke out between Israel and its Arab neighbors on 5 June 1967. America's escorting destroyers detected an unknown submarine contact on 7 June, and a Sikorsky SH-3A Sea King from Helicopter Antisubmarine Squadron (HS-9) assisted in tracking this contact. CVW-6 aircraft provided air cover for the stricken USS Liberty (AGTR-5), which had been attacked by Israeli military forces, and it also dispatched two helicopters to evacuate the seriously injured to the America.[28]

Carrier Air Wing Six made its first combat deployment in 1968 upon the America. During this deployment, CVW-6 spent a total of 112 days at Yankee Station, attacking roads, waterways, trucks, bridges, as well as lighters, barges, and other logistical support watercraft. They also attacked petroleum storage areas, truck parks, and cave storage areas to impede the flow of men and war materials to the south during the Tet Offensive. On 10 July 1968, Lt. Roy Cash, Jr. (pilot) and Lt. (j.g.) Joseph E. Kain, Jr. (radar intercept officer), flying in an F-4J Phantom from Fighter Squadron 33 (VF-33), downed a MiG-21 about 17 miles (27 km) northwest of Vinh, North Vietnam. This was the first MiG "kill" in the Vietnam War for CVW-6. America and Carrier Air Wing Six were awarded the Navy Unit Commendation for this deployment.[28]

CVW-6 then left the America for another carrier, the USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42). This carrier, along with USS Independence (CV-62) and USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7), stood by to execute the possible evacuation of foreign civilians during the Yom Kippur War in October 1973.[29] CVW-6 provided air cover during the 1983 invasion of Grenada (Operation Urgent Fury) while embarked on board the USS Independence (CV-62). During that ship's subsequent deployment to the Mediterranean Sea, CVW-6 conducted air strikes against Syrian positions that were attacking U.S. Marine positions in Lebanon.[30] Carrier Air Group Six received the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal for Operation Urgent Fury.[31]

Beginning in 1986, Carrier Air Wing Six embarked on board the USS Forrestal (CV-59). It participated in a joint U.S.-Egyptian training exercise (Operation Sea Wind) and Display Determination '86, which featured low-level coordinated strikes and air combat maneuvering training over Turkey. CVW-6 subsequently participated in Ocean Safari '87, a six-week cruise in the North Atlantic which was highlighted by operations with NATO forces posing as aggressors lurking in Norwegian fjords. A year later, the air wing participated in Ocean Venture ’88 in the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea, and then provided air support for Operation Earnest Will.[32][33]

During its final overseas deployment, CVW-6 participated in three multi-lateral exercises (Harmonie Sud Est, Iles D’Or, and Display Determination ‘91), and also provided air support for Operation Provide Comfort.[34] Carrier Air Group Six received the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal for Provide Comfort. (see Table 5 below).[33]

Deployments[edit]

The deployments of CVW-6 are listed below.[22][27]

Aircraft Carrier Deployment Duration Operational Area Operating Force
USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) 8 February 1964 – 31 July 1964 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) 31 July 1964 – 3 October 1964 Operation Sea Orbit Task Force One
USS America (CVA-66) 1 May 1965 – 1 July 1965 South Atlantic/Caribbean Shakedown cruise
USS America (CVA-66) 29 November 1965 – 10 July 1966 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS America (CVA-66) 10 January 1967 – 20 September 1967 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS America (CVA-66) 10 April 1968 – 16 December 1968 Yankee Station Task Force 77
USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) 2 January 1970 – 27 July 1970 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) 29 January 1971 – 18 July 1971 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) 15 February 1972 – 11 December 1972 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) 14 September 1973 – 17 March 1974 Mediterranean/Operation Nickel Grass U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CV-42) 3 January 1975 – 16 July 1975 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS America (CV-66) 15 April 1976 – 25 October 1976 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS America (CV-66) 10 June 1977 – 19 July 1977 South Atlantic Task Group 20.4
USS America (CV-66) 25 September 1977 – 25 April 1978 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Independence (CV-62) 28 June 1979 – 14 December 1979 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Independence (CV-62) 19 November 1980 – 10 June 1981 Mediterranean/Indian Ocean COMUSNAVEUR
USS Independence (CV-62) 7 June 1982 – 21 December 1982 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Independence (CV-62) 25 October 1983 – 2 November 1983 Operation Urgent Fury U.S. Second Fleet
USS Independence (CV-62) 18 October 1983 – 11 April 1984 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Independence (CV-62) 16 October 1984 – 19 February 1985 Mediterranean/Indian Ocean COMUSNAVEUR
USS Forrestal (CV-59) 4 June 1986 – 10 November 1986 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Forrestal (CV-59) 28 August 1987 – 8 October 1987 Ocean Safari '87 SACLANT
USS Forrestal (CV-59) 25 April 1988 – 7 October 1988 Mediterranean/Indian Ocean NAVCENT
USS Forrestal (CV-59) 4 November 1989 – 12 April 1990 Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet
USS Forrestal (CV-59) 30 May 1991 – 21 December 1991 Operation Provide Comfort NAVCENT

Air wing composition[edit]

Operation Sea Orbit (1964)[edit]

Carrier Air Wing Six embarked on USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) during Operation Sea Orbit:[27]

Six Day War (1967)[edit]

Carrier Air Wing Six embarked on USS America (CVA-66) during the Six Day War:[27]

  • Fighter Squadron 104 (VF-104)
  • Fighter Squadron 33 (VF-33)
  • Attack Squadron 66 (VA-66)
  • Attack Squadron 64 (VA-64)
  • Attack Squadron 36 (VA-36)
  • Reconnaissance Attack Squadron 5 (RVAH-5)
  • Heavy Attack Squadron 10 (VAH-10 ) Detachment 66

Vietnam War (1968)[edit]

Carrier Air Wing Six embarked on USS America (CVA-66) during the Vietnam War:[27]

Yom Kippur War (1973)[edit]

Carrier Air Wing Six embarked on USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) during the Yom Kippur War:[27]

Operation Urgent Fury (1984)[edit]

Carrier Air Wing Six embarked on USS Independence (CV-62) during Operation Urgent Fury:[27]

Ocean Safari 1987[edit]

Carrier Air Wing Six embarked on USS Forrestal (CV-59) during NATO exercise Ocean Safari 1987:[27]

  • Fighter Squadron 31 (VF-31)
  • Fighter Squadron 11 (VF-11)
  • Attack Squadron 176 (VA-176)
  • Attack Squadron 105 (VA-105)
  • Attack Squadron 37 (VA-37)

Operation Earnest Will (1988)[edit]

Carrier Air Wing Six embarked on USS Forrestal (CV-59) during Operation Earnest Will:[27]

  • Fighter Squadron 31 (VF-31)
  • Fighter Squadron 11 (VF-11)
  • Attack Squadron 176 (VA-176)
  • Attack Squadron 105 (VA-105)
  • Attack Squadron 37 (VA-37)

Operation Provide Comfort (1991)[edit]

Carrier Air Wing Six embarked on USS Forrestal (CV-59) during Operation Provide Comfort:[27]

Decommissioning[edit]

F/A-18A - VFA-137 (1991)

Carrier Air Wing Six shifted to the USS Forrestal (CV-59) when the USS Independence (CV-62) underwent its Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) overhaul at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in 1986. Following the completion of its SLEP, the Independence sailed to its new homeport at the San Diego Naval Base with Carrier Air Wing 5. With the shifting of the Forrestal to a naval aviation training role as AVT-59, plus post-Cold War budget cutbacks, Carrier Air Wing Six (CVW-6) was decommissioned on 1 April 1993.[35]

Final composition[edit]

Carrier Air Wing Six embarked on USS Forrestal (CV-59):[35]

Awards and commendations[edit]

Presidential Unit Citation[edit]

NavyPres.gif

For consistently outstanding performance and distinguished achievement during repeated action against enemy Japanese forces in the Pacific war area, 7 December 1941, to 15 November 1942. Participating in nearly every major carrier engagement in the first year of the war, the Enterprise and her air group, exclusive of far-flung destruction of hostile shore installations throughout the battle area, did sink or damage on her own a total of 35 Japanese vessels and shoot down a total of 185 Japanese aircraft. Her aggressive spirit and superb combat efficiency are fitting tribute to the officers and men who so gallantly established her as an ahead bulwark in the defense of the American nation.[36]

Other awards and commendations[edit]

Navy Unit Commendation ribbon.svg

AFEMRib.svg

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Battle aircraft carrier" was used to refer to the new 'big' carriers that came out after the Essex class carriers.

References[edit]

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
  1. ^ St. John, Philip A. (2004). USS Hancock CV/CVA-19: Fighting Hannah. Nashville, Tennessee: Turner Publishing Company. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-56311-420-5. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Air Groups". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  3. ^ "Enterprise Air Group, Report for Pearl Harbor Attack". Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  4. ^ "Scouting Squadron Six Report of Action with Japanese at Oahu on 7 December 1941". ibiblio. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  5. ^ "Pearl Harbor — 7 December 1941". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  6. ^ "1941". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  7. ^ a b "1942". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  8. ^ "Action Report — 1 February 1942". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  9. ^ "Doolittle Raid". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  10. ^ "Battle of Midway". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. ; "Action Report Serial 0137". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  11. ^ "Action Report Serial 0133". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  12. ^ "Action Report Serial 0137". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  13. ^ "Battle of the Eastern Solomons". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  14. ^ a b "1943". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 3 September 2008. 
  15. ^ a b "History of USS Intrepid". USS Intrepid Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  16. ^ a b "Hancock". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  17. ^ "Unit Citation Air Groups and Squadrons 1943–1972". USS Intrepid Association. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  18. ^ a b "Appendix 15: Evolution of Carrier Air Groups and Wings" (PDF). Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons, Volume 1. Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 6 September 2008. ; "Carrier Air Group Six". GoNavy.jp. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  19. ^ "U. S. Navymen Work on NATO Team". All Hands (BuPers) (427): 35. September 1952. Retrieved 7 August 2009. 
  20. ^ "Operation Mainbrace". Time. 22 September 1952. Retrieved 21 October 2008. 
  21. ^ "Intrepid". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. Retrieved 5 October 2008. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h "Carrier Air Group Six". GoNavy.jp. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  23. ^ a b c "Enterprise". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. Retrieved 14 April 2008. 
  24. ^ "The Naval Quarantine of Cuba, 1962: Wednesday, 24 October". Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 4 October 2008. 
  25. ^ a b "The Naval Quarantine of Cuba, 1962: Wednesday, 27 October". Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 4 October 2008. 
  26. ^ a b "U.S. Navy Ships and Units Which Received the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal for Participating in the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962". Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 4 October 2008. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Carrier Air Wing Six". GoNavy.jp. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  28. ^ a b c "America". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. Retrieved 5 October 2008. 
  29. ^ "USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42)". A Brief History of Aircraft Carriers. United States Navy. Retrieved 4 October 2008. 
  30. ^ "USS Independence (CV-62)". A Brief History of Aircraft Carriers. United States Navy. Retrieved 4 October 2008. 
  31. ^ a b "Grenada, 1983, Operation Urgent Fury: List of US Navy Ships Participating (23 October - 21 November 1983)". Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  32. ^ "Yearly Chronologies of the United States Marine Corps - 1988". The Patriot Files. Retrieved 30 October 2008. 
  33. ^ a b c "The 80's (page 1 of 2)". USS Forrestal Association. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  34. ^ "USS Forrestal (CV-59)". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. Retrieved 2008-10-045. 
  35. ^ a b Polmar, Norman (1993). The Naval Institute Guide to the Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet, 15th edition. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute Press. p. 375. ISBN 978-1-55750-675-7. 
  36. ^ "Presidential Unit Citation". USS Enterprise CV-6 Association. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  37. ^ "U.S. Navy Ships and Units Which Received the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal for Participating in the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962". Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 

Other sources[edit]

  • Francillon, René (1988). Tonkin Gulf Yacht Club US Carrier Operations off Vietnam. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-696-1. 
  • —— (1978). US Navy Carrier Air Group: Pacific 1941-1945. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85045-291-4. 
  • Lundstrom, John B. (1976). The First South Pacific Campaign: Pacific Fleet Strategy, December 1941 – June 1942. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-185-0. 
  • —— (1976). The First Team: Pacific Naval Air Combat from Pearl Harbor to Midway. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-189-8. 
  • —— (1994). The First Team and the Guadalcanal Campaign Naval Fighter Combat from August to November 1942. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-472-4. 
  • Nichols, John B. (Cmdr., USN ret.) (1987). On Yankee Station; the Naval Air War Over Vietnam. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-85310-008-6. 
  • Reynolds, Clark G. (2001). The Fast Carriers: The Forging of an Air Navy. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-55750-998-7. 
  • Smith, Douglas V. (2006). Carrier Battles: Command Decision in Harm's Way. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-794-7. 
  • St. John, Philip A. (2004). USS Hancock CV/CVA-19: Fighting Hannah. Nashville, Tennessee: Turner Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-56311-420-5. 
  • Stafford, Edward P. (1962). The Big E: The Story of the USS Enterprise. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-55750-998-7. 
  • Turner Publishing Company Staff; USS Wasp Veterans (1999). U. S. S. Wasp CV 18. Turner Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-56311-404-5. 
  • Utz, Curtis A. (2005). Cordon of Steel: The US Navy And the Cuban Missile Crisis. Honolulu, Hawaii: University Press of the Pacific. ISBN 978-1-4102-2123-0. 
  • Wise, Harold Lee (2007). Inside the Danger Zone: The U.S. Military in the Persian Gulf, 1987–1988. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-970-5. 

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