Carrier sense multiple access

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Carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) is a probabilistic media access control (MAC) protocol in which a node verifies the absence of other traffic before transmitting on a shared transmission medium, such as an electrical bus, or a band of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Carrier sense means that a transmitter uses feedback from a receiver to determine whether another transmission is in progress before initiating a transmission. That is, it tries to detect the presence of a carrier wave from another station before attempting to transmit. If a carrier is sensed, the station waits for the transmission in progress to finish before initiating its own transmission. In other words, CSMA is based on the principle "sense before transmit" or "listen before talk".

Multiple access means that multiple stations send and receive on the medium. Transmissions by one node are generally received by all other stations connected to the medium.

Protocol modifications[edit]

CSMA with collision detection[edit]

CSMA/CD is used to improve CSMA performance by terminating transmission as soon as a collision is detected, thus shortening the time required before a retry can be attempted.

CSMA with collision avoidance[edit]

In CSMA/CA collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of CSMA by attempting to be less "greedy" on the channel. If the channel is sensed busy before transmission then the transmission is deferred for a "random" interval. This reduces the probability of collisions on the channel.

Virtual time CSMA[edit]

VTCSMA is designed to avoid collision generated by nodes transmitting signals simultaneously, used mostly in hard real-time systems. The VTCSMA uses two clocks at every node, a virtual clock (vc) and a real clock (rc) which tells "real time". When the channel is sensed to be busy, the vc freezes, when channel is free, it is reset. Hence, calculating vc runs faster than rc when channel is free, and vc is not initiated when channel is busy.[1]

CSMA access modes[edit]

1-persistent 
1-persistent CSMA is an aggressive transmission algorithm. When the sender (station) is ready to transmit data, it senses the transmission medium for idle or busy. If idle, then it transmits immediately. If busy, then it senses the transmission medium continuously until it becomes idle, then transmits the message (a frame) unconditionally (i.e. with probability=1). In case of a collision, the sender waits for a random period of time and attempts to transmit again unconditionally (i.e. with probability=1). 1-persistent CSMA is used in CSMA/CD systems including Ethernet.
Non-persistent 
Non persistent CSMA is a non aggressive transmission algorithm. When the sender (station) is ready to transmit data, it senses the transmission medium for idle or busy. If idle, then it transmits immediately. If busy, then it waits for a random period of time (during which it does not sense the transmission medium) before repeating the whole logic cycle (which started with sensing the transmission medium for idle or busy) again. This approach reduces collision, results in overall higher medium throughput but with a penalty of longer initial delay compared to 1–persistent.
P-persistent 
This is an approach between 1-persistent and non-persistent CSMA access modes. When the sender (station) is ready to transmit data, it senses the transmission medium for idle or busy. If idle, then it transmits immediately. If busy, then it senses the transmission medium continuously until it becomes idle, then transmits a frame with probability p. If the sender chooses not to transmit (the probability of this event is 1-p), the sender waits until the next available time slot. If the transmission medium is still not busy, it transmits again with the same probability p. This probabilistic hold-off repeats until the frame is finally transmitted or when the medium is found to become busy again (i.e. some other sender has already started transmitting their data). In the latter case the sender repeats the whole logic cycle (which started with sensing the transmission medium for idle or busy) again. p-persistent CSMA is used in CSMA/CA systems including Wi-Fi and other packet radio systems.
O-persistent 
Each station is assigned a transmission order by a supervisor station. When medium goes idle, stations wait for their time slot in accordance with their assigned transmission order. The station assigned to transmit first transmits immediately. The station assigned to transmit second waits one time slot (but by that time the first station has already started transmitting). Stations monitor the medium for transmissions from other stations and update their assigned order with each detected transmission (i.e. they move one position closer to the front of the queue).[2] O-persistent CSMA is used by CobraNet, LonWorks and the controller area network.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Krishna, C. M.; Shin, K. G. (1997). Real-Time Systems. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-07-070115-1. 
  2. ^ US 5761431 
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