Carroll Baker

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This article is about the American actress. For the Canadian country music performer, see Carroll Baker (singer).
Carroll Baker
C Baker 1962 (cropped).png
Baker in a 1962 publicity shot
Born (1931-05-28) May 28, 1931 (age 83)
Johnstown, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Nationality American
Ethnicity Polish American
Alma mater St. Petersburg College
Occupation Actress
Years active 1953–2003
Height 5 ft 5 in (1.65 m)[1]
Spouse(s) Louie Ritter (m. 1953–53)
Jack Garfein (m. 1955–69)
Donald Burton (m. 1978; wid. 2007)
Children 2
Golden Globe Awards
Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actress
1956 for Baby Doll

Carroll Baker (born May 28, 1931) is an American film, stage and television actress. Throughout her career, Baker enjoyed popularity as both a serious dramatic actress and as a movie sex symbol. Cast in a wide range of roles during her heyday in the 1960s, Baker was especially memorable playing brash, flamboyant women, due to her beautiful features, striking blonde hair, and distinctive drawl.

A native of Pennsylvania, she studied method acting with Lee Strasberg at the Actors Studio in New York. Baker began performing on Broadway, where she was discovered by director Elia Kazan, who cast her as the lead in his wildly controversial film Baby Doll (1956), written by Tennessee Williams. Her role as a naive Southern bride lent Baker overnight notoriety and earned her an Oscar nomination and a Golden Globe.

Other notable early roles included in Giant (1956) alongside Elizabeth Taylor, and But Not for Me (1959) with Clark Gable, as well as critically acclaimed westerns such as The Big Country (1958), How the West Was Won (1962), and Cheyenne Autumn (1964). In 1966, after a protracted legal battle with Paramount Pictures following her performance in Harlow (1965), Baker relocated to Italy. There, she became fluent in Italian, and spent the following ten years starring in horror and giallo thrillers, including multiple films by director Umberto Lenzi, including Paranoia (1969) and Il coltello di ghiaccio (1972). In 1977, she re-emerged as a character actress for American audiences, starring in Andy Warhol's cult film Bad.

Baker worked prominently in television throughout the 1980s and 1990s, appearing on the series Murder, She Wrote; L.A. Law, and Roswell, and had supporting roles in the films Ironweed (1987), Kindergarten Cop (1990), and David Fincher's acclaimed thriller The Game (1997). She formally retired from acting in 2002. In addition to acting, Baker is also the author of three books.

Early life[edit]

Carroll Baker was born and raised in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, in a Roman Catholic family, the daughter of Virginia (née Duffy) and William Watson Baker, who was a traveling salesman.[2] She is of Polish descent,[3] which has given rise to a rumor that her birth name was Karolina Piekarski. However, this currently cannot be substantiated by known records. Baker's parents separated when she was eight years old, and she moved with her mother and younger sister, Virginia, to Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania.[4] According to Baker, her mother struggled as a single parent, and the family was poor for much of her upbringing.[5]

Baker attended Greensburg Central Catholic High School in Greensburg, Pennsylvania, where she was a debate team member and active in the marching band and school musicals.[5] At eighteen, she moved with her family to St. Petersburg, Florida, where she attended St. Petersburg College (then St. Pete Junior College).[4] After her first year in college, Baker began working as a magician's assistant and joined a dance company, working as a professional dancer.[4] In 1949, Baker won the title of Miss Florida Fruits and Vegetables.[6] In 1951, Baker moved to New York City, where she rented a dirt floor basement apartment in Queens.[5] In 1952, she enrolled at the Actors Studio and studied under Lee Strasberg.[2] There, she was a classmate of Mike Nichols, Rod Steiger, Shelley Winters, and Inger Stevens, and became an acquaintance of Marilyn Monroe, and a close friend of James Dean.[7][8] In New York, Baker worked as a nightclub dancer to pay her tuition at the Actors Studio, and also took stint jobs as a chorus girl in traveling vaudeville shows, which took her to Windsor, Ontario; Detroit, and New Jersey.[5]

Career[edit]

Early career: 1953–1957[edit]

Baker in Baby Doll (1956)

After appearing in television commercials for Winston cigarettes and Coca-Cola,[5] Baker made her film debut in 1953 with a small part in the musical Easy to Love. She was then cast in a lead role in a Broadway production of Roger MacDougall's Escapade in the fall of 1953.[9] The following year, she appeared in another Broadway production of Robert Anderson's All Summer Long, opposite Ed Begley, which ran from September to mid-November 1954.[9] In 1955, she screen tested and auditioned for the lead role in Picnic, but lost the part to Kim Novak.[10] She was also considered for the lead in Rebel Without a Cause (1955) after James Dean recommended her for the part to director Nicholas Ray, which she turned down.[11]

Baker's first major screen role was the supporting part of Luz Benedict II in Giant (1956), opposite Elizabeth Taylor, Rock Hudson, and James Dean, in his final role. According to Baker, she had been offered numerous leading parts in feature films before that point, but chose to debut in a supporting role in Giant because she was "insecure" and "wanted to start out a little less 'profile.'"[8] Giant was largely filmed in the small town of Marfa, Texas in 1955;[12] Baker recalled her experience on set, saying that she and James Dean were both "enamored of" Rock Hudson and Elizabeth Taylor while filming: "I considered them the glamorous part of old Hollywood," she recalled. "And this was a town that had one paved street, they had one hotel, and we all had to eat [together] in the dining room."[13]

Simultaneously, Baker was cast as the title character in Elia Kazan's Baby Doll (1956), a role initially intended for Marilyn Monroe.[2] Tennessee Williams, who had written and developed the screenplay based on two of his one-act plays, wanted Baker to play the part after seeing her perform a scene from his script at the Actors Studio; likewise, Kazan had been impressed by her performance in All Summer Long on Broadway the year prior.[14] Shot directly after Baker completed Giant, her role in the film as a sensuous Mississippi teenage bride to a failed middle-aged cotton gin owner brought Baker overnight fame as well as a certain level of notoriety; the film was virtually banned after its December 1956 release due to a publicized condemnation from the Roman Catholic National Legion of Decency, who lambasted it as "grievously offensive to Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency."[7][15] In a retrospective, FilmSite ranked the film as one of the "100 Most Controversial Films of All Time."[16]

Irrespective of the controversiality of the film's material, Baker received immense critical praise for her performance. Variety said that her performance "captures all the animal charm, the naivete, the vanity, contempt and rising passion of Baby Doll,"[17] while Bosley Crowther of The New York Times praised Baker's ability to exhibit "a piteously flimsy little twist of juvenile greed, inhibitions, physical yearnings, common crudities and conceits."[18] Baby Doll established Baker as an A-list actress and would remain the film for which she is best remembered.[19] She was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance, a Golden Globe for Best Actress, and won a Golden Globe for Most Promising Newcomer, which she shared with Jayne Mansfield and Natalie Wood. The performance also earned her a Film Achievement Award from Look magazine, as well as the title "Woman of the Year" in 1957 from Harvard University's Hasty Pudding Club.[20]

Contract battles and Westerns: 1958–1963[edit]

Baker with Gregory Peck in The Big Country (1958)

After the success of Baby Doll, Baker was subsequently offered parts in The Brothers Karamazov (1958), Too Much, Too Soon (1958), and The Devil's Disciple (1959).[21] She refused to make Too Much Too Soon, so Warner Brothers put her on suspension, which prevented her from starring in The Brothers Karamazov (1958) at MGM.[22] Baker was also chosen by MGM for the lead in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) and by Twentieth Century Fox for The Three Faces of Eve (1957) but her contract with Warner Brothers again prevented her from accepting the roles.[7][23] She also defied the studio's wishes by appearing in Arms and the Man on stage.[24] Baker commented on the effect of the system on her career, saying: "I came in at the end of the big studio system. I still had a slave contract and they were willing to put you in almost anything they had."[25]

Baker at the premiere of How the West Was Won, 1962

After her suspension with Warner Brothers was lifted, Baker appeared in the studio's western The Big Country (1958), directed by William Wyler.[26] The film was well received by critics, though the shoot was described as "problematic": Baker was four months pregnant at the time and had to wear restraining garments, and director Wyler reportedly had her on the verge of tears after forcing her to repeat the same take over sixty times only to use the first one.[27] She followed The Big Country with lead roles in two romances, The Miracle (1959) co-starring a young Roger Moore and But Not for Me (1959) with Clark Gable. Baker was then cast in the experimental film Something Wild (1961), directed by her then-husband Jack Garfein, in which she plays a rape victim opposite Ralph Meeker as a man who keeps her imprisoned after witnessing her suicide attempt. In preparation for her role, Baker lived alone in a boarding house in New York's Lower East Side, and got a job as a department store salesgirl.[28] The film's controversial depiction of rape led to critical backlash, and the film has been oft-credited as almost halting Baker's career.[23] The same year, she portrayed Gwen Harold in Bridge to the Sun, a 1961 production by MGM based on the 1957 best-selling autobiography of a Tennessee-born woman who married a Japanese diplomat (portrayed by James Shigeta) and became one of the few Americans to live in Japan during World War II. While only a modest success at the box office, the film was well received by critics and was America's entry at the Venice International Film Festival.

After this, Baker appeared in the British-German film Station Six-Sahara (1962) as a woman who provokes tensions at an oil station in the Sahara Desert, as well as the acclaimed blockbuster western epic How the West Was Won (1962). In addition to film acting, Baker also found time to appear again on Broadway, starring in the 1962 production of Garson Kanin's Come on Strong in the fall of that year. In 1963, Baker relocated permanently with then-husband Jack Garfein and their two children to Los Angeles, where she based herself for the next several years.[5] She traveled to Kenya to film Mister Moses in 1964, where publicized rumors spread that she and co-star Robert Mitchum were having an affair, which they both vehemently denied.[7] Another story, now considered apocryphal, had it that a Maasai chief in Kenya offered 150 cows, 200 goats, sheep, and $750 for her hand in marriage.[29] She subsequently appeared with Maasai warriors on the cover of Life's July 1964 issue.

Sex symbol roles: 1964–1966[edit]

Baker aboard the USS Ticonderoga with Bob Hope's traveling USO troupe, December 1965

After a lead role in the western Cheyenne Autumn (1964), and a supporting role in George Stevens' The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965), Baker portrayed a fledgling movie star in the 1964 hit The Carpetbaggers, which brought her a second wave of notoriety in spite of the film's lackluster reviews.[30] The New York Times called the film "a sickly sour distillation" of the source novel, but said Baker's performance "brought some color and a sandpaper personality as the sex-loaded widow."[30] The film was the top moneymaker of that year, with domestic box-office receipts of $13,000,000[31] and marked the beginning of a tumultuous relationship with the film's producer, Joseph E. Levine. Based on her Carpetbaggers performance, Levine began to develop Baker as a movie sex symbol, and she appeared posing in the December 1964 issue of Playboy.[32] She was subsequently cast by Levine in the title roles of two 1965 potboilersSylvia, as an ex-prostitute and con artist, and as Jean Harlow in Harlow. Baker likened this era of her career to "being a beauty contest winner [as opposed to] an actress."[5]

Despite much pre-publicity, Harlow received a lukewarm response from critics; Variety referred to Baker's portrayal of Harlow as "a fairly reasonable facsimile although she lacks the electric fire of the original."[33] Relations between Baker and Levine eventually soured, leading Baker to sue Levine over her contract with Paramount Pictures.[34] She was ultimately fired by Paramount and had her paychecks from Harlow frozen amidst the contentious legal battle, though she was eventually awarded $1 million in compensation.[6] "Joe Levine behaved like he owned me," said Baker in 1977. "My husband thought it was all terrific as long as I kept bringing in the money. I started objecting to everything, but it was too late. The sex-symbol image had already started. I turned down parts and they blacklisted me. The press attacked me viciously at every opportunity. I came very close to suicide."[35]

After the lawsuit and amidst a deep depression, Baker spent December of 1965 as part of Bob Hope's Christmas USO troupe entertaining soldiers in Vietnam and Southeast Asia, which she described as a reformative experience: "In the hospitals I held the hands of damaged young men, and I realized that my pain was not exclusive: that in this world there was suffering much more terrible than mine."[5]

European career and giallo films: 1967–1975[edit]

Baker in Her Harem (1967)

Baker separated from her second husband, Jack Garfein, in 1967, and moved to Europe with her two children to pursue a career there after struggling to find work in Hollywood. Eventually settling in Rome, Italy, Baker became fluent in Italian[4] and would spend the next several years starring in hard-edged giallo thrillers, exploitation, and horror films. Some of Baker's earliest roles in Europe included in Her Harem (1967), The Sweet Body of Deborah (1968), and The Devil Has Seven Faces (1971). Baker also starred in So Sweet... So Perverse (1969), Paranoia (1969), A Quiet Place to Kill (1970), and Il coltello di ghiaccio (Knife of Ice) (1972), all horror films directed by Italian filmmaker Umberto Lenzi. Baker became a favorite of Lenzi, with her most notable role being in the aforementioned Paranoia, where she played a wealthy widow tormented by two sadistic siblings.

Many of these films exploited Baker's status as a blonde bombshell, featuring her in roles as distressed women, and often exhibited Baker in a variety of nude scenes, which few Hollywood actors were willing to do at the time.[36] She followed her roles in Lenzi's films with a leading role in Corrado Farina's cult film Baba Yaga (1973) as the titular witch, alongside Isabelle De Funès and George Eastman. TV Guide referred to the film as an "exceptionally handsome example of 1970s Italian pop-exploitation filmmaking sweetened by Piero Umilani's lounge-jazz score," and praised Baker's performance, but noted that she was "physically wrong for the role; her elaborate lace-and-beribboned costumes sometimes make her look more like a fleshy Miss Havisham than a sleekly predatory sorceress."[37]

In retrospect, Baker commented on her career in Italy and on her exploitation film roles, saying: "I think I made more films [there] than I made in Hollywood, but the mentality is different. What they think is wonderful is not what we might... it was marvelous for me because it really brought me back to life, and it gave me a whole new outlook. It's wonderful to know about a different world."[35]

Return to American films; theatre: 1976–1987[edit]

Baker with Perry King in Andy Warhol's Bad (1977)

Baker's first American film in over ten years came in the Andy Warhol–produced black comedy Bad (1977). In it, she plays the lead role of a Queens beauty salon owner who provides hitmen with jobs, starring alongside Susan Tyrrell and Perry King. She followed Bad with a part in the low-budget surrealist thriller The Sky Is Falling (1979) with Dennis Hopper, playing a washed-up actress living among expatriates in a Spanish village. The seventies also saw a return to the stage for Baker, where she appeared in British theatre productions of Bell, Book, and Candle; Rain, Lucy Crown, and Motive. In 1978, while touring England and Ireland in productions of Motive, Baker met her third husband, stage actor Donald Burton.[4] She also appeared in American stage productions of 13 Rue de l'Amour, Forty Carats, and Goodbye Charlie.[38]

By the eighties, Baker had largely become a character actor, and was based in London. She starred in a supporting role in the 1980 Walt Disney–produced horror film, The Watcher in the Woods, alongside Bette Davis, after having been asked by British director John Hough, a longtime admirer of her work. After an appearance in the British television film Red Monarch (1983), she played the mother of murdered Playboy model Dorothy Stratten (played by Mariel Hemingway) in the critically acclaimed biopic Star 80 (1983). She also appeared as the mother of Sigmund Freud in the comedy The Secret Diary of Sigmund Freud (1984) with Carol Kane and Klaus Kinski.

Baker was featured prominently in Jim Goddard's Hitler's SS: Portrait in Evil (1985), a coming-of-age drama set against Nazi Germany; as well as in the drama Native Son (1986), based on the novel by Richard Wright, which also featured Matt Dillon, Geraldine Page, and a young Oprah Winfrey. In it, Baker plays a 1930s Chicago housewife and mother of a teenage girl who is accidentally killed by an African American chauffeur, who attempts to cover up the accident. Critic Roger Ebert praised Baker's performance in the film, noting her "powerful" scene with Winfrey during the film's finale.[39]

Following Native Son, Baker had a critically acclaimed lead role as the wife of a schizophrenic drifter (played by Jack Nicholson) in Ironweed (1987), alongside Meryl Streep. Her performance in the film was again praised by Roger Ebert, who said: "Nicholson’s homecoming [in the film] is all the more effective because Carroll Baker is so good as his wife... she finds a whole new range. It may seem surprising to say that Baker holds the screen against Jack Nicholson, and yet she does."[40]

Kindergarten Cop, The Game; television: 1988–2001[edit]

In 1990, she played a villainess— described by Roger Ebert as "an effective bitch on wheels"[41]— in Ivan Reitman's comedy Kindergarten Cop, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, which she filmed in Astoria, Oregon in the summer of 1990. Her film and television work continued sporadically through the nineties, and she acted in many made-for-television movies, including the true crime story Judgment Day: The John List Story (1993), Witness Run (1996), and Dalva (1996) with Farrah Fawcett.

In 1997, Baker was cast in a supporting role in David Fincher's acclaimed thriller The Game, in which she plays a housekeeper to a billionaire San Franscisco banker (played by Michael Douglas) who becomes embroiled in a sadistic game by his antagonistic brother, played by Sean Penn. In an interview with the New York Post following the film's release, Baker said that the film was "an important movie" and that she was "honored to be in it."[42]

The nineties also saw Baker more frequently on television, appearing in episodes of Grand, Tales from the Crypt, Murder, She Wrote; L.A. Law, Chicago Hope, and Roswell. In 2000, she appeared in the Lifetime film Another Woman's Husband, and guest-starred on The Lyon's Den, playing Rob Lowe's mother, in 2001.

Retirement and post-retirement: 2002–present[edit]

In 2002, Baker appeared in the documentary Cinerama Adventure, before formally retiring from acting. Baker's acting career spanned 50 years, and more than 80 roles in film, television, and theater.

She has, however, participated in retrospective documentaries, including an interview for the 2006 DVD release of Baby Doll, which includes a documentary featuring Baker reflecting on the film's impact on her career. Baker has also been featured in documentaries about several of her co-stars, including Clark Gable, Roger Moore, Sal Mineo, and James Dean, including the 1975 James Dean: The First American Teenager, and a 1985 BBC Radio 2 tribute marking the 30th anniversary of the actor's death. Her memories of James Dean at the Actors Studio and later in Giant were recalled on BBC Radio 2 in 1982 when she guested on You're Tearing Me Apart, Terence Pettigrew's documentary which commemorated the 25th anniversary of Dean's death in a car accident in 1955. Also on the programme were singer-actor Adam Faith and the screenwriter Ray Connolly.

In 2011, Baker attended the Tennessee Williams/New Orleans Literary Festival in celebration of Williams' 100th birthday. There, she participated in a panel with Rex Reed, where she discussed her experiences with Williams and performing in Baby Doll.[43] In 2011 and 2012, she was awarded Lifetime Achievement Awards from the Hoboken and Fort Lauderdale International Film Festivals, and attended screenings of Baby Doll and But Not For Me, respectively.

Baker has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1725 Vine Street, which was erected on February 8, 1960. In 2001, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs, California, Walk of Stars was also dedicated to her.[44]

Writing[edit]

In 1983, Baker published an autobiography entitled Baby Doll: An Autobiography, detailing her life and career as an actress and revealing the issues with Paramount and Warner Bros. Pictures that led her to move to Europe in the 1970s and pursue a career in Italian films.[5] Baker has said that she "didn't want to write an autobiography... but I wanted to write, and I knew that would be the easiest thing to get published."[45] She further commented on her writing, saying "I think I always wanted to write, but I was a little self-conscious about it. I never had a formal education, and I've always had such a respect for writing. While I could go out and say, even before I started to act, 'Yes, I'm an actress,' I couldn't really say 'I'm a writer.'"[45] Baby Doll: An Autobiography was well received. She later wrote two other books, To Africa with Love (1986), detailing her time spent in Africa, and a novel entitled A Roman Tale (1987).

In popular culture[edit]

A 1956 photograph by Diane Arbus depicts Baker onscreen in Baby Doll with a passing silhouette during a New York City theatre screening of the film.[46]

Personal life[edit]

Baker has been married three times; she first married furrier Louie Ritter in 1953, but the marriage ended within a year, after which she enrolled at the Actors Studio in New York City. Baker alleged that Ritter had raped her when she was still a virgin in the early stages of their relationship.[25] Her second was to director Jack Garfein, a Holocaust survivor she met at the Studio and for whom she converted to Judaism (having been raised a Catholic).[47] They had one daughter, Blanche Baker (born 1956), also an actress; and a son, Herschel Garfein, (born 1958) who is a composer and faculty member at the Steinhardt School of Music at New York University. Garfein and Baker divorced in 1969 while she was working in Italy.

Baker married her third husband, British theater actor Donald Burton, on March 10, 1978,[48] and resided in Hampstead, London, in the 1980s.[4] The couple remained together until Burton's death from emphysema at their home in Cathedral City, California, on December 8, 2007.[48]

In February 2014, Baker served as maid of honor at longtime friend and former actor Patrick Suraci's wedding to his partner, Tony Perkins, in New York City.[49]

Filmography[edit]

Select filmography:

Select television credits:

Select stage credits:[9]

Works[edit]

Accolades[edit]

Baker in the Broadway production of Come on Strong, September 1962
Awards
Nominations
Honors
  • 1996: Golden Boot Award for The Big Country, How the West Was Won, and Cheyenne Autumn[50]
  • 1997: Lifetime Achievement Award, Breckenridge (Colorado) Film Festival[20]
  • 2009: The National Arts Club's Medal of Honor[51]
  • 2011: Lifetime Achievement Award, Hoboken International Film Festival[52]
  • 2012: Lifetime Achievement Award, Fort Lauderdale International Film Festival[53]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Carroll Baker". Mt. Vernon Register-News (Mt. Vernon, Illinois): 6. 1957-02-04. She's proud of her five-foot five, 113 pound dancer's figure, and she figured no part was worth her becoming fat. 
  2. ^ a b c "Carroll Baker Biography". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved 2012-11-10. 
  3. ^ "Caroll Baker". Polish American Encyclopedia. p. 23.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "The Private Life and Times of Carroll Baker". Glamour Girls of the Silver Screen. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Baker, Carroll (1983). Baby Doll: An Autobiography. Arbor House. ISBN 978-0877955580. 
  6. ^ a b Slifkin, Irv (2013-05-03). "The Fabulous Baker: A Consideration of Carroll". MovieFanFare. Retrieved 2015-02-26. 
  7. ^ a b c d Bubbeo, Daniel (2011-06-20). "'Baby Doll' Carroll Baker in Huntington". Newsday. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  8. ^ a b Carroll Baker on working with James Dean on YouTube. Media Funhouse (2000). Retrieved 2012-11-13.
  9. ^ a b c "Carroll Baker – Broadway Theater Credits". Playbill Vault. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  10. ^ Mell, Eila (2005). Casting Might-Have-Beens: A Film by Film Directory of Actors Considered for Roles Given to Others. McFarland. p. 187. ISBN 978-0786420179. 
  11. ^ Rathgeb, Douglas L. (2004). The Making of Rebel Without a Cause. McFarland. p. 63. ISBN 978-0786419760. 
  12. ^ Fitzgerald, Mike. "Carroll Baker Interview". Western Clippings. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  13. ^ Baker, Carroll (2011-03-30). Carroll Baker on Elizabeth Taylor. Saturday Night at the Movies. (Interview). Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  14. ^ Murphy, Brenda (1992). Tennessee Williams and Elia Kazan: A Collaboration in the Theatre. Cambridge University Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-0521400954. 
  15. ^ Hoberman, J. (2008-12-17). "Catch Baby Doll with Carroll Baker and Eli Wallach". The Village Voice. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  16. ^ Dirks, Tim. "The 100+ Most Controversial Films of All-Time: 1940s-1950s". FilmSite. Retrieved 2015-03-02. 
  17. ^ Variety Staff (1956-12-31). "Review: ‘Baby Doll’". Retrieved 2015-03-02. 
  18. ^ Crowther, Bosley (1956-12-19). "Baby Doll (1956) Screen: Streetcar on Tobacco Road; Williams-Kazan 'Baby Doll' Is at Victoria". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-03-02. 
  19. ^ TV Guide Staff. "Baby Doll Review". TV Guide. Retrieved 2015-03-02. 
  20. ^ a b "Overview for Carroll Baker". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  21. ^ Carroll Baker Becomes Star in Quick Order Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 17 Feb 1957: E1.
  22. ^ WARNERS TO HOLD ACTRESS TO PACT: Studio Halts Deal Between Carroll Baker and M-G-M for 'Karamazov' Movie Maria Schell Sought By THOMAS M. PRYOR Special to The New York Times.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 03 May 1957: 20.
  23. ^ a b "Bridge to the Sun". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2015-02-26. 
  24. ^ TOWER TICKER Lyon, Herb. Chicago Daily Tribune (1923–1963) [Chicago, Ill] 1 July 1957: b11.
  25. ^ a b Jones, Jerene (1983-11-07). "For Baby Doll Carroll Baker, Life Has Been No Nursery Rhyme". People. Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  26. ^ Parsons, Louella (1957-07-22). "Carroll Baker Unleashed by Warner." The Washington Post and Times Herald (1954–1959) [Washington, D.C]: A10.
  27. ^ Cantarini, Martha Crawford; Spicer, Chrystopher J. (2010). Fall Girl: My Life as a Western Stunt Double. McFarland. ISBN 978-0786447534. 
  28. ^ "Practice for an Actress". LIFE. 1960-11-28. pp. 41–2. 
  29. ^ Kovznski, Gerald (1964-08-07). "Letters to the Editor". LIFE: 18. 
  30. ^ a b Crowther, Bosley (1964-07-02). "Screen: 'The Carpetbaggers' Opens:Adaptation of Book by Robbins in Debut". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  31. ^ Steinberg, Cobbett (1980). Film Facts. New York: Facts on File, Inc. p. 23. ISBN 0-87196-313-2. 
  32. ^ Lisanti, Tom (2001). Fantasy Femmes of 60's Cinema: Interviews with 20 Actresses from Biker, Beach, and Elvis Movies. McFarland. p. 12. ISBN 978-0786408689. 
  33. ^ Variety Staff (1964-12-31). "Review: ‘Harlow’". Variety. Retrieved 2015-03-02. 
  34. ^ Ebert, Roger (1969-08-20). "Paranoia Movie Review". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  35. ^ a b Brennan, Patricia (1987-01-03). Los Angeles Times "Carroll Baker". Hollywood Star Walk. Retrieved 2015-02-03. 
  36. ^ Shipka, Danny. Perverse Titillation: The Exploitation Cinema of Italy, Spain and France, 1960–1980. McFarland. p. 80. ISBN 978-0786448883. 
  37. ^ McDonagh, Maitland. "Baba Yaga Review". TV Guide. Retrieved 2015-01-31. 
  38. ^ "Carroll Baker Biography (1931-)". Film Reference. Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  39. ^ Ebert, Roger (1986-12-25). "Native Son Movie Review". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2015-02-03. 
  40. ^ Ebert, Roger (1988-02-12). "Ironweed Movie Review & Film Summary". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  41. ^ Ebert, Roger (1990-12-21). "Kindergarten Cop Movie Review". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  42. ^ "Carroll Baker". New York Post. 1997-09-09. ['The Game' is] an important movie and I'm honored to be in it. Of course, I'd like to be the romantic lead. And I'm actually closer to Michael's [Douglas] age than Deborah Kara Unger is [Baker is 66, Douglas is 53 and Unger is 31]. I think it's always worked that way in Hollywood. When I was in my 20s, I played opposite Jimmy Stewart, Robert Mitchum and Clark Gable, all of whom were old enough to be my father. 
  43. ^ Dalton-Beninato, Karen (2011-03-26). "Tennessee Williams Actresses Honor His 100th Birthday". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  44. ^ Palm Springs Walk of Stars by date dedicated
  45. ^ a b Baker, Carroll (1986). An Interview with Carroll Baker. Interview with Regis Philbin. Lifestyles. Lifetime. New York. 
  46. ^ "Carroll Baker on Screen in "Baby Doll" with Passing Silhouette, N.Y.C., 1956". Christie's. Retrieved 2015-03-04. 
  47. ^ "Carroll Baker". St. Petersburg Times. 1957-01-23. Retrieved 2009-11-02. 
  48. ^ a b "British actor Donald Burton, husband Carroll Baker, dies at 73". San Jose Mercury News. 2008-01-11. 
  49. ^ Laskey, Margaux (2014-03-07). "When May Catches Up to December". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-03-04. 
  50. ^ "Givin' 'Em the Boot". American Cowboy (Nov-Dec. 1996). p. 65. 
  51. ^ Gans, Andrew (2009-06-11). "Stritch, Jackson, Seldes, Reed and Wallach Will Salute Baker June 15". Playbill. Retrieved 2015-03-05. 
  52. ^ Robb, Adam (2011-06-15). "Carroll Baker named Lifetime Achievement Award winner at Hoboken International Film Festival". NJ.com. Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  53. ^ Crandell, Ben (2012-09-24). "Fort Lauderdale International Film Festival to honor Oscar-nominated "Baby Doll" star Carroll Baker". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 2015-02-28. 

External links[edit]