Carroll Izard

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Carroll Ellis Izard (born October 8, 1923) is an American psychologist[1] known for his contributions to Differential Emotions Theory (DET),[2] and the Maximally Discriminative Affect Coding System (MAX). DET maintains that universally recognizable innate, basic emotions emerge within the first 2 to 7 months of post-natal life "without facial movement precursors" (Izard, et al., 1995), and argues for congruence of emotion expression and subjective experience (Izard & Abe, 2004). He also proposed the facial feedback hypothesis according to which emotions which have different functions also cause facial expression which in turn provide us with cues about what emotion exactly a person is feeling.

Representative publications[edit]

  • Izard, C.E.; King, K.A.; Trentacosta, C.J.; Morgan, J.K.; Krauthamer-Ewing, E.S.; Finlon, K.J. (2008). "Accelerating the development of emotion competence in Head Start children: Effects on adaptive and maladaptive behavior". Development and Psychopathology 20: 369–297. doi:10.1017/s0954579408000175. 
  • Trentacosta, C.J.; Izard, C.E. (2007). "Kindergarten children's emotion competence as a predictor of their academic competence in first grade". Emotion 7 (1): 77–88. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.7.1.77. PMID 17352565. 
  • Fine, S.E.; Izard, C. E.; Mostow, A. J.; Trentacosta, C. J.; Ackerman, B. P. (2003). "First grade emotion knowledge as a predictor of fifth grade self-reported internalizing behaviors in children from economically disadvantaged families". Development and Psychopathology 15 (2): 331–342. doi:10.1017/s095457940300018x. PMID 12931831. 
  • Izard, C.E.; Fine, S.E.; Mostow, A.J.; Trentacosta, C.J.; Campbell, J. (2002). "Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventative intervention". Development and Psychopathology 14 (4): 761–787. doi:10.1017/s0954579402004066. PMID 12549703. 
  • Mostow, A.J.; Izard, C.E.; Fine, S.E.; Trentacosta, C. J. (2002). "Modeling the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral predictors of peer acceptance". Child Development 73 (6): 1775–1787. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00505. PMID 12487493. 
  • Izard, C.E. (2002). "Translating emotion theory and research into preventative interventions". Psychological Bulletin 128 (5): 796–824. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.796. PMID 12206195. 
  • Izard, C. E. (2001). "Emotional intelligence or adaptive emotions?". Emotion 1 (3): 249–257. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.1.3.249. PMID 12934684. 

See also[edit]


  1. ^ American Psychological Association Directory. Pennsylvania: American Psychological Association. 1968. 
  2. ^ Siegler, Robert (2006). How Childred Develop, Exploring Child Develop Student Media Tool Kit & Scientific American Reader to Accompany How Children Develop. New York: Worth Publishers. ISBN 0-7167-6113-0. 


  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum. ISBN 0-306-42022-8

External links[edit]