Carrot

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Carrot
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Daucus
Species: D. carota
Binomial name
Daucus carota subsp. sativus
(Hoffm.) Schübl. & G. Martens

The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus; etymology: from Late Latin carōta, from Greek καρωτόν karōton, originally from the Indo-European root ker- (horn), due to its horn-like shape) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, red, white, and yellow varieties exist. It has a crisp texture when fresh. The most commonly eaten part of a carrot is a taproot, although the greens are sometimes eaten as well. It is a domesticated form of the wild carrot Daucus carota, native to Europe and southwestern Asia. The domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its greatly enlarged and more palatable, less woody-textured edible taproot. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) reports that world production of carrots and turnips (these plants are combined by the FAO for reporting purposes) for calendar year 2011 was almost 35.658 million tonnes. Almost half were grown in China. Carrots are widely used in many cuisines, especially in the preparation of salads, and carrot salads are a tradition in many regional cuisines.

Description

Flowers of a carrot plant

The carrot is a variable biennial plant, usually growing up to 1 m tall and flowering from June to August. The umbels are claret-coloured or pale pink before they open, then bright white and rounded when in full flower, measuring 3–7 cm wide with a festoon of bracts beneath; finally, as they turn to seed, they contract and become concave like a bird's nest. The dried umbels detach from the plant, becoming tumbleweeds.[1]

Similar in appearance to the deadly poison hemlock,[2][3] D. carota is distinguished by a mix of bi-pinnate and tri-pinnate leaves, fine hairs on its stems and leaves, a root that smells like carrots, and occasionally a single dark red flower in its center.

History

Workers harvesting carrots, Imperial Valley, California, 1948

The wild ancestors of the carrot are likely to have come from Iran and Afghanistan, which remain the centre of diversity of Daucus carota, the wild carrot. Selective breeding over the centuries of a naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot, Daucus carota subsp. sativus, to reduce bitterness, increase sweetness and minimise the woody core, has produced the familiar garden vegetable.[4][5]

In early use, carrots were grown for their aromatic leaves and seeds, not their roots. Carrot seeds have been found in Switzerland and Southern Germany dating to 2000–3000 BC.[6] Some relatives of the carrot are still grown for their leaves and seeds, such as parsley, fennel, dill and cumin. The first mention of the root in classical sources is in the 1st century. The modern carrot originated in Afghanistan about 1100 years ago.[7] It was purple in the 10th century in such locations as The Middle East, India and Europe.[8] It appears to have been introduced to Europe via Spain by the Moors in the 8th century.[9] The 12th-century Arab Andalusian agriculturist, Ibn al-'Awwam, describes both red and yellow carrots;[10] Simeon Seth also mentions both colours in the 11th century. Cultivated carrots appeared in China in the 14th century, and in Japan in the 18th century.[11] Orange-coloured carrots appeared in the Netherlands, where the flag included orange, in the 17th century.[12][8] These, the modern carrots, were intended by the antiquary John Aubrey (1626–1697) when he noted in his memoranda "Carrots were first sown at Beckington in Somersetshire Some very old Man there [in 1668] did remember their first bringing hither."[13] European settlers introduced the carrot to Colonial America in the 17th century.[14]

Purple carrots, still orange on the inside, were sold in British stores starting in 2002.[8]

Chemistry

β-Carotene structure. Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of carrots and many other fruits and vegetables.

Polyacetylenes can be found in Apiaceae vegetables like carrots where they show cytotoxic activities.[15][16] Falcarinol and falcarindiol (cis-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyne-3,8-diol)[17] are such compounds. This latter compound shows antifungal activity towards Mycocentrospora acerina and Cladosporium cladosporioides.[17] Falcarindiol is the main compound responsible for bitterness in carrots.[18]

Other compounds such as pyrrolidine (present in the leaves),[19] 6-hydroxymellein,[20] 6-methoxymellein, eugenin, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde (gazarin) or (Z)-3-acetoxy-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diin-8-ol (falcarindiol 3-acetate) can also be found in carrot.

Nutrition

Carrots, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 173 kJ (41 kcal)
Carbohydrates 9.6 g
- Sugars 4.7 g
- Dietary fibre 2.8 g
Fat 0.24 g
Protein 0.93 g
Vitamin A equiv. 835 μg (104%)
- beta-carotene 8285 μg (77%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin 256 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.066 mg (6%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.058 mg (5%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.983 mg (7%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.273 mg (5%)
Vitamin B6 0.138 mg (11%)
Folate (vit. B9) 19 μg (5%)
Vitamin C 5.9 mg (7%)
Vitamin E 0.66 mg (4%)
Calcium 33 mg (3%)
Iron 0.3 mg (2%)
Magnesium 12 mg (3%)
Manganese 0.143 mg (7%)
Phosphorus 35 mg (5%)
Potassium 320 mg (7%)
Sodium 69 mg (5%)
Zinc 0.24 mg (3%)
Fluoride 3.2 µg
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Most carrot cultivars are about 88% water, 7% sugar, 1% protein, 1% fibre, 1% ash, and 0.2% fat. The fibre comprises mostly cellulose, with smaller proportions of hemicellulose and lignin. Carrots contain almost no starch.[21] Free sugars in carrot include sucrose, glucose, xylose and fructose. Nitrite and nitrate contents are about 40 and 0.41 milligrams per 100 grams (fresh), respectively. Most of the taste of the vegetable is due to glutamic acid and other free amino acids. Other acids present in trace amounts include succinic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, lactic acid and glycolic acid; the major phenolic acid is caffeic acid.[22]

The carrot gets its characteristic and bright orange colour from β-carotene, and lesser amounts of α-carotene and γ-carotene. α and β-carotenes are partly metabolised into vitamin A in humans.[23][24] β-carotene is the predominant carotenoid, although there are lesser amounts of α-carotene and γ-carotene. There are typically between 6000 and 54,000 micrograms of carotenoids per 100 grams of carrot root. Carrot extracts are used by poultry producers to improve animal skin and alter the colour of egg yolk.[21] Massive overconsumption of carrots can cause carotenosis, a benign condition in which the skin turns orange.[25] Carrots are also rich in antioxidants and minerals.[26] Ethnomedically, the roots are used as an emmenagogue (to increase blood flow in the pelvic area and uterus), a carminative (to reduce flatulence), to treat digestive problems, intestinal parasites, and tonsillitis or constipation.[27]

Lack of vitamin A can cause poor vision, including night vision, and this can be remedied by adding vitamin A to the diet.[citation needed] An urban legend states that eating large quantities of carrots will allow one to see in the dark. This myth developed from stories about British gunners in World War II, who were able to shoot down German planes at night. The rumour arose during the Battle of Britain when the RAF circulated a story about their pilots' carrot consumption in an attempt to cover up the discovery and effective use of radar technologies in engaging enemy planes, as well as the use of red light (which does not destroy night vision) in aircraft instruments.[28] It reinforced existing German beliefs,[29] and helped to encourage Britons who were trying to improve their night vision during the blackout to grow and eat the vegetable, which was not rationed like most other foodstuffs. A "Dr. Carrot" advertising campaign encouraged its consumption.[30]

Methods of consumption and uses

Carrot tzimmes

Carrots can be eaten in a variety of ways. Only 3% of the β-carotene in raw carrots is released during digestion: this can be improved to 39% by pulping, cooking and adding cooking oil.[31] Alternatively they may be chopped and boiled, fried or steamed, and cooked in soups and stews, as well as baby and pet foods. A well-known dish is carrots julienne.[32] Together with onion and celery, carrots are one of the primary vegetables used in a mirepoix to make various broths.[33]

The greens are edible as a leaf vegetable, but are only occasionally eaten by humans;[34] some sources suggest that the greens contain toxic alkaloids.[35][36] When used for this purpose, they are harvested young in high-density plantings, before significant root development, and typically used stir-fried, or in salads.[34] Some people are allergic to carrots. In a 2010 study on the prevalence of food allergies in Europe, 3.6 percent of young adults showed some degree of sensitivity to carrots.[37] Because the major carrot allergen, the protein Dauc c 1.0104, is cross-reactive with homologues in birch pollen (Bet v 1) and mugwort pollen (Art v 1), most carrot allergy sufferers are also allergic to pollen from these plants.[38]

In India carrots are used in a variety of ways, as salads or as vegetables added to spicy rice or daal dishes. A popular variation in north India is the Gajar Ka Halwa carrot dessert, which has carrots grated and cooked in milk until the whole mixture is solid, after which nuts and butter are added.[39] Carrot salads are usually made with grated carrots in western parts with a seasoning of mustard seeds and green chillies popped in hot oil, while adding carrots to rice usually is in julienne shape.

The variety of carrot found in north India is rare everywhere except in Central Asia and other contiguous regions, and is now growing in popularity in larger cosmopolitan cities in South India. The north Indian carrot is pink-red comparable to plum or raspberry or deep red apple in colour (without a touch of yellow or blue) while most other carrot varieties in the world vary from orange to yellow in colour, comparable to hallowe'en pumpkins.

Since the late 1980s, baby carrots or mini-carrots (carrots that have been peeled and cut into uniform cylinders) have been a popular ready-to-eat snack food available in many supermarkets.[40] Carrots are puréed and used as baby food, dehydrated to make chips, flakes, and powder, and thinly sliced and deep-fried, like potato chips.[21]

The sweetness of carrots allows the vegetable to be used in some fruit-like roles. Grated carrots are used in carrot cakes, as well as carrot puddings, an old English dish thought to have originated in the early 19th century. Carrots can also be used alone or with fruits in jam and preserves. Carrot juice is also widely marketed, especially as a health drink, either stand-alone or blended with fruits and other vegetables.[41]

Companion plant

Carrots are useful companion plants for gardeners. There is experimental evidence[citation needed] that growing it intercropped with tomatoes increases tomato production. If left to flower, it (like any umbellifer) attracts predatory wasps that kill many garden pests.[42]

Cultivation

Right frame 
Carrotseeds3d.jpg
Carrot seeds


Carrots grow best in full sun but tolerate some shade.[43] The optimum growth temperature is between 16 and 21 °C (61 and 70 °F).[44] In order to avoid growing deformed carrots it is better to plant them in loose soil free from rocks. They thrive in raised garden beds. High nitrogen levels should be avoided, as this will cause the vegetables to become hairy and misshapen.[45] The seeds, which are 1–3 mm in diameter, should be sown about 2 cm deep. Carrots take around four months to mature and it is suggested that carrot seeds are sown from mid-February to July.

Cultivation problems

There are several diseases that can reduce the yield and market value of carrots. The most devastating carrot disease is Alternaria leaf blight, which has been known to eradicate entire crops. A bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris can also be destructive in warm, humid areas. Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) can cause stubby or forked roots, or galls.[46] Cavity spot, caused by the oomycetes Pythium violae and Pythium sulcatum, results in irregularly shaped, depressed lesions on the taproots.[47]

Physical damage can also reduce the value of carrot crops. The two main forms of damage are splitting, whereby a longitudinal crack develops during growth that can be a few centimetres to the entire length of the root, and breaking, which occurs postharvest. These disorders can affect over 30% of commercial crops. Factors associated with high levels of splitting include wide plant spacing, early sowing, lengthy growth durations, and genotype.[48]

Cultivars

Carrot cultivars can be grouped into two broad classes, eastern carrots and western carrots. More recently, a number of novelty cultivars have been bred for particular characteristics.

The city of Holtville, California, promotes itself as "Carrot Capital of the World", and holds an annual festival devoted entirely to the carrot.[49]

Eastern carrots were domesticated in Central Asia, probably in modern-day Iran and Afghanistan in the 10th century, or possibly earlier. Specimens of the eastern carrot that survive to the present day are commonly purple or yellow, and often have branched roots. The purple colour common in these carrots comes from anthocyanin pigments.[50]

The western carrot emerged in the Netherlands in the 17th century,[51] its orange colour making it popular in those countries as an emblem of the House of Orange and the struggle for Dutch independence.[52] The orange colour results from abundant carotenes in these cultivars.

Western carrot cultivars are commonly classified by their root shape. The four general types listed below are followed by specific variety examples. However, there are also many varieties falling outside these types.

  • Chantenay carrots are shorter than other cultivars, but have greater girth, sometimes growing up to 8 centimetres (3 in) in diameter. They have broad shoulders and taper towards a blunt, rounded tip. They are most commonly diced for use in canned or prepared foods.
    • Carson Hybrid
    • Red Cored Chantenay
  • Danvers carrots have a conical shape, having well-defined shoulders and tapering to a point at the tip. They are somewhat shorter than Imperator cultivars, but more tolerant of heavy soil. Danvers cultivars are often puréed as baby food. They were developed in 1871 in Danvers, Massachusetts.[53]
    • Danvers Half Long
    • Danvers 126
  • Imperator carrots are sweet and generally longer and narrower than other types. Imperator types are the most widely produced by commercial growers.
    • Imperator 58
    • Sugarsnax Hybrid
  • Nantes carrots are shorter with a more blunt tip than Imperator types but still can attain high yields in varying conditions. A number of hybrid varieties are available.
    • Nelson Hybrid
    • Scarlet Nantes
    • Sweetness Hybrid

One particular variety lacks the usual orange pigment from carotenes, owing its white colour to a recessive gene for tocopherol (vitamin E).[54] Derived from Daucus carota L. and patented at the University of Wisconsin–Madison,[54] the variety is intended to supplement the dietary intake of Vitamin E.[55]

Production trends

Carrot and turnip output in 2005. Green: largest producer (China). Yellow: other major producers. Red: minor producers.

Carrot is one of the top-ten most economically important vegetables crops in the world.[56] In 2011, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 35.658 million tonnes of carrots and turnips were produced worldwide for human consumption, grown on 1,184,000 hectares (2,926,000 acres). With 16.233 million tonnes, China was by far the largest producer and accounted for 45.5% of the global output, followed by Russia (1.735 million tonnes), the United States (1.342), Uzbekistan (1.222), Poland (0.887), Ukraine (0.864), and the United Kingdom (0.694). About 61% of world carrot production occurred in Asia, followed by the Europe (24.2%) and the Americas (North, Central, and South America and the Caribbean) (9.7%). Less than 4% of the world's 2011 total was produced in Africa. Global production has increased from 21.4 million tonnes in 2000, 13.7 million tonnes in 1990, 10.4 million tonnes in 1980, and 7.85 million tonnes in 1970.[57] The rate of increase in the global production of carrots has been greater than the world's population growth rate, and greater than the overall increase in world vegetable production. Europe was traditionally the major centre of production, but was overtaken by Asia in 1997.[58] The growth in global production is largely the result of increases in production area rather than average yield. Modest improvements in the latter can be attributed to optimised agricultural practices, the development of better cultivars (including hybrids), and increased farm mechanisation.[59]

Storage

Carrots ready for purchase.

Carrots can be stored for several months in the refrigerator or over winter in a moist, cool place. For long term storage, unwashed carrots can be placed in a bucket between layers of sand, a 50/50 mix of sand and wood shavings, or in soil. A temperature range of 32 to 40°F (0 to 5°C) is best.[60][61]

See also

References

  1. ^ Herbert Waldron Faulkner (1917). The Mysteries of the Flowers. Frederick A. Stokes company. p. 238.  page 210
  2. ^ Noxious weeds - Poison-hemlock, King County, Washington
  3. ^ Hemlock Poisoning, Medscape
  4. ^ Rose, F. (2006). The Wild Flower Key. London: Frederick Warne. p. 346. ISBN 0-7232-5175-4. 
  5. ^ Mabey, R. (1997). Flora Britannica. London: Chatto and Windus. p. 298. ISBN 1-85619-377-2. 
  6. ^ Robatsky et al. (1999), p. 6.
  7. ^ Simon et al. (2008), p. 328.
  8. ^ a b c "Carrots return to purple roots". BBC. May 16, 2002. Retrieved December 5, 2013. 
  9. ^ Krech, Shepard; McNeill, J.R.; Merchant, Carolyn (2004). Encyclopedia of World Environmental History: O-Z, Index. Routledge. p. 1071. ISBN 978-0-415-93735-1. 
  10. ^ Staub, Jack E. (2010). Alluring Lettuces: And Other Seductive Vegetables for Your Garden. Gibbs Smith. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-4236-0829-5. 
  11. ^ Simon et al. (2008). p. 328.
  12. ^ Dalby, Andrew (2003). Food in the Ancient World from A to Z. Psychology Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-415-23259-3. 
  13. ^ Oliver Lawson Dick, ed. Aubrey's Brief Lives. Edited from the Original Manuscripts, 1949, p. xxxv.
  14. ^ Robatsky et al. (1999), pp. 6–7.
  15. ^ Zidorn, Christian; Jöhrer, Karin; Ganzera, Markus Schubert, Birthe; Sigmund, Elisabeth Maria ; Mader, Judith; Greil, Richard; Ellmerer, Ernst P.; Stuppner, Hermann (2005). "Polyacetylenes from the Apiaceae vegetables carrot, celery, fennel, parsley, and parsnip and their cytotoxic activities". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (7): 2518–2523. doi:10.1021/jf048041s. PMID 15796588. 
  16. ^ Baranska, Malgorzata; Schulz, Hartwig; Baranski, Rafal; Nothnagel, Thomas; Christensen, Lars P. (2005). "In situ simultaneous analysis of polyacetylenes, carotenoids and polysaccharides in carrot roots". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (17): 6565–6571. doi:10.1021/jf0510440. 
  17. ^ a b Garrod, B.; Lewis, B.G.; Coxon, D.T. (1978). "Cis-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyne-3,8-diol, an antifungal polyacetylene from carrot root tissue". Physiological Plant Pathology 13 (2): 241–246. doi:10.1016/0048-4059(78)90039-5. 
  18. ^ Czepa, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas (2003). "Structural and sensory characterization of compounds contributing to the bitter off-taste of carrots (Daucus carota L.) and carrot puree". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (13): 3865–3873. doi:10.1021/jf034085+. PMID 12797757. 
  19. ^ O'Neil, M.J. (ed). (2006). The Merck Index – An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (14th ed.). Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-911910-00-1. 
  20. ^ Kurosaki, Fumiya; Nishi, Arasuke (1988). "A methyltransferase for synthesis of the phytoalexin 6-methoxymellein in carrot cells". FEBS Letters 227 (2): 183–186. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(88)80894-9. 
  21. ^ a b c Rubatsky et al. (1999), p. 254.
  22. ^ Sharma et al. (2012), pp. 22–23.
  23. ^ Strube, Michael; OveDragsted, Lars (1999). Naturally Occurring Antitumourigens. IV. Carotenoids Except β-Carotene. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers. p. 48. ISBN 978-92-893-0342-2. 
  24. ^ Novotny, Janet A.; Dueker, S.R.; Zech, L.A.; Clifford, A.J. (1995). "Compartmental analysis of the dynamics of β-carotene metabolism in an adult volunteer". Journal of Lipid Research 36 (8): 1825–1838. PMID 7595103. 
  25. ^ Haas, Elson; Levin, Buck (2012). Staying Healthy with Nutrition: The Complete Guide to Diet and Nutritional Medicine. Random House Digital. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-60774-507-5. 
  26. ^ Cohen, Alissa; Dubois, Leah J. (2010). Raw Food for Everyone: Essential Techniques and 300 Simple-to-Sophisticated Recipes. Penguin. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-101-44468-9. 
  27. ^ Ross (2005), pp. 199–200.
  28. ^ Kruszelnicki, Karl (2010). Dis Information And Other Wikkid Myths: More Great Myths In Science. HarperCollins Australia. pp. 71–73. ISBN 978-0-7304-4528-9. 
  29. ^ Kruszelnicki, K.S. (26 October 2005). "Carrots & Night Vision". Great Moments in Science. ABC. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  30. ^ Webley, Nicholas (2003). A Taste of Wartime Britain. Thorogood Publishing. pp. 35–36. ISBN 1-85418-213-7. 
  31. ^ Hedrén, E.; Diaz, V.; Svanburg, U. (2002). "Estimation of carotenoid accessibility from carrots determined by an in vitro digestion method". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56 (5): 425–430. doi:10.1038/sj/ejcn/1601329. PMID 12001013. 
  32. ^ Martino, Robert S. (2006). Enjoyable Cooking. AuthorHouse. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4259-6658-4. 
  33. ^ Gisslen, Wayne (2010). Professional Cooking, College Version. John Wiley & Sons. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-470-19752-3. 
  34. ^ a b Rubatsky et al. (1999), p. 253.
  35. ^ Yeager, Selene; Editors of Prevention (2008). The Doctors Book of Food Remedies: The Latest Findings on the Power of Food to Treat and Prevent Health Problems – From Aging and Diabetes to Ulcers and Yeast Infections. Rodale. p. 366. ISBN 978-1-60529-506-0. 
  36. ^ Brown, Ellen (2012). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Smoothies. DK Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-4362-9393-8. 
  37. ^ Burney, P.; Summers, C.; Chinn, S.; Hooper, R.; Van Ree, R.; Lidholm, J. (2010). "Prevalence and distribution of sensitization to foods in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey: A EuroPrevall analysis". Allergy 65 (9): 1182–1188. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02346.x. 
  38. ^ Ballmer-Weber, B.K.; Skamstrup Hansen, K.; Sastre, J.; Andersson, K.; Bätscher, I.; Ostling, J.; Dahl, L.; Hanschmann, K.M.; Holzhauser, T.; Poulsen, L.K.; Lidholm, J.; Vieths, S. (2012). "Component-resolved in vitro diagnosis of carrot allergy in three different regions of Europe". Allergy 67 (6): 758–766. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2012.02827.x. PMID 22486768. 
  39. ^ Gupta, Niru (2000). Cooking the Up Way. Orient Blackswan. p. 17. ISBN 978-81-250-1558-1. 
  40. ^ Bidlack, Wayne R.; Rodriguez, Raymond L. (2011). Nutritional Genomics: The Impact of Dietary Regulation of Gene Function on Human Disease. CRC Press. p. 321. ISBN 978-1-4398-4452-6. 
  41. ^ Shannon, Nomi (1998). The Raw Gourmet. Book Publishing Company. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-920470-48-0. 
  42. ^ Carr, Anna (1998). Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. Rodale. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-87596-964-0. 
  43. ^ "Understand How to Grow Carrots for Outstanding Results". Retrieved 2011-07-12. 
  44. ^ Benjamin et al. 1997, p. 557.
  45. ^ Abbott, Catherine (2012). The Year-Round Harvest: A Seasonal Guide to Growing, Eating, and Preserving the Fruits and Vegetables of Your Labor. Adams Media. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-1-4405-2816-3. 
  46. ^ Davis, R. Michael (2004). "Carrot diseases and their management". In Naqvi S.A.M.H. Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables: Diagnosis and Management. Springer. pp. 397–439. ISBN 978-1-4020-1822-0. 
  47. ^ "Carrot cavity spot". University of California Agriculture & Natural Resources. September 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  48. ^ Benjamin et al. 1997, pp. 570–571.
  49. ^ Jordan, Michele Anna (2011). California Home Cooking: 400 Recipes that Celebrate the Abundance of Farm and Garden, Orchard and Vineyard, Land and Sea. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-55832-597-5. 
  50. ^ Tiwari, B.K.; Brunton, Nigel P.; Brennan, Charles (2012). Handbook of Plant Food Phytochemicals: Sources, Stability and Extraction. John Wiley & Sons. p. 405. ISBN 978-1-118-46467-0. 
  51. ^ "Scientists unveil 'supercarrot'". BBC News. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 
  52. ^ Greene, Wesley (2012). Vegetable Gardening the Colonial Williamsburg Way: 18th-Century Methods for Today's Organic Gardeners. Rodale. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-60961-162-0. 
  53. ^ "Carrots History" Retrieved on 2009-02-26
  54. ^ a b US patent 6437222, Irwin L. Goldman and D. Nicholas Breitbach, "Reduced pigment gene of carrot and its use", issued 2002-8-20 
  55. ^ For an overview of the nutritional value of carrots of different colors, see Philipp Simon, Pigment Power in Carrot Color, College of Agricultural & Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison. Retrieved December 7, 2007.
  56. ^ Simon et al. (2008), p. 327.
  57. ^ "FAOSTAT database". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  58. ^ Rubatsky et al. (1999), p. 18.
  59. ^ Bradeen and Simon (2007), pp. 164–165.
  60. ^ Gist, Sylvia. "Successful Cold Storage". Backwoods Home Magazine. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  61. ^ Owen, Marion. "What's Up Doc? Carrots!". UpBeat Gardener. PlanTea. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 

Cited literature

  • Benjamin, L.R.; McGarry, A.; Gray, D. (1997). "The root vegetables: Beet, carrot, parsnip and turnip". The Physiology of Vegetable Crops. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. pp. 553–80. ISBN 978-0-85199-146-7. 
  • Bradeen, James M.; Simon, Philipp W. (2007). "Carrot". In Cole, Chittaranjan (ed.). Vegetables. Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding in Plants 5. New York, New York: Springer. pp. 162–184. ISBN 978-3-540-34535-0. 
  • Ross, Ivan A. (2005). "Daucus carota L.". Medicinal Plants of the World. Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses 3. Springer. pp. 197–221. ISBN 978-1-59259-887-8. 
  • Rubatsky, V.E.; Quiros, C.F.; Siman, P.W. (1999). Carrots and Related Vegetable Umbelliferae. CABI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85199-129-0. 
  • Sharma, Krishnan Datt; Karki, Swati; Thakur, Narayan Singh; Attri, Surekha (2012). "Chemical composition, functional properties and processing of carrot—a review". Journal of Food Science Technology 49 (1): 22–32. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0310-7. 
  • Simon, Philipp W.; Freeman, Roger E.; Vieira, Jairo V.; Boiteux, Leonardo S.; Briard, Mathilde; Nothnagel, Thomas; Michalik, Barbara; Kwon, Young-Seok. "Carrot". Vegetables II. Handbook of Plant Breeding 2. New York, New York: Springer. pp. 327–357. ISBN 978-0-387-74108-6. 

External links