Carrow Road

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Carrow Road
The exterior of Carrow Road, an association football stadium. A river is in the foreground.
Carrow Road is located in England
Carrow Road
Carrow Road
Full name Carrow Road
Location Norwich, England
Coordinates 52°37′19.66″N 1°18′31.15″E / 52.6221278°N 1.3086528°E / 52.6221278; 1.3086528Coordinates: 52°37′19.66″N 1°18′31.15″E / 52.6221278°N 1.3086528°E / 52.6221278; 1.3086528
Capacity 27,244[1]
Record attendance 43,984 (overall)[2]
27,005 (all-seater)[3]
Field size 114 × 74 yards[4]
Surface Desso GrassMaster
Construction
Built 1935
Opened 1935
Expanded 1979, 1984, 1992, 2004, 2005, 2010
Tenants
Norwich City F.C.

Carrow Road is a football stadium located in Norwich, England, and is the home of Norwich City F.C. The stadium is located toward the east of the city, not far from Norwich railway station and the River Wensum.

The club originally played at Newmarket Road before moving to The Nest. When The Nest was deemed inadequate for the size of crowds it was attracting, the Carrow Road ground, named after the road on which it is located, was purpose-built by Norwich City in just 82 days and opened on 31 August 1935.

The stadium has been altered and upgraded several times during its history, notably following a devastating fire that destroyed the old City Stand in 1984. Having once accommodated standing supporters, the ground has been all-seater since 1992. The ground's current capacity is 27,244, the most recent works being the addition of approximately 1,000 seats in the summer of 2010. The stadium's record attendance since becoming an all-seater ground is 27,005, set during a Football League Championship match versus Ipswich Town on 1 March 2015. In the days when fans could stand on terraces, Carrow Road saw a crowd of 43,984 when hosting Leicester City for an FA Cup match in 1963.

Carrow Road has also hosted Under-21 international football and a number of concerts, including performances by Elton John and George Michael. The Carrow Road site includes catering facilities and a Holiday Inn hotel offering rooms with views of the pitch.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

A group of people wearing predominantly yellow football shirts, walking along a road beside an association football stadium
Fans walking along the road after which the stadium takes its name

Norwich City F.C. played at Newmarket Road from 1902 to 1908, with a record attendance of 10,366 in 1908.[5] Following a dispute over the conditions of renting Newmarket Road, the club moved to a new home in 1908, a converted disused chalk pit in Rosary Road, Norwich. The new ground became known as "The Nest",[6] named for Norwich City's nickname, "The Canaries".[7]

By the 1930s, the ground capacity was proving insufficient for the growing crowds: The Nest's largest crowd was 25,037 in the 1934–35 FA Cup.[8] The physical limitations of the site of The Nest meant that expansion was not possible, and there were safety problems with the existing structures.[8] The club began looking for alternative accommodation in 1926, their hand forced finally when one corner of the pitch subsided up to 30 feet after old chalk workings collapsed.[8] An attempt to patch up the problem with railway sleepers and soil failed to impress The Football Association, who wrote to the club on 15 May 1935, saying The Nest "was no longer suitable for large crowds and measures must be taken".[8]

The club's dilemma was acute: the FA no longer approved of large crowds at The Nest, but the new season was just weeks away. About half a mile south of The Nest, they found a new site, the home of the Boulton Paul Sports Ground in Carrow Road,[8][9] which belonged to J. & J. Colman.[10]

Stadium's name and initial construction history[edit]

Map, showing how the ground is surrounded by Carrow Road and the River Wensum

The new stadium took its name from the street which encloses the ground on three sides, the fourth boundary being the River Wensum. The name "Carrow" originally refers to the former Carrow Abbey that once stood on the riverside, its name in turn having possible Norse origins.[11] In 1800, John Ridges, owner of the Carrow Abbey Estate and the land opposite on the banks of the Wensum in Thorpe Hamlet, "granted permission for a proposed road access across his grounds to Carrow".[12][13] By 1811, Philip M. Martineau, a surgeon, owned the building, lands and manor of Carrow, including the adjacent Thorpe land.[11] Carrow Hill Road was created on his Carrow Abbey Estate, to provide some work for the poor in the community. The road linked Martineau's Bracondale Estate to Carrow Toll Bridge, installed in 1810.[14] Norwich Railway Co. had acquired the land in Thorpe around Carrow Road by the 1840s, and by 1860 the Thorpe site of the future stadium belonged to the firm of J. & J. Colman. The stadium's Thorpe Corner acknowledges this historical link.[10][15][16][17][18][19] In 1935, Colman's offered the 20-year leasehold to Norwich City and construction on the new stadium began swiftly on the site: tenders were issued on the day the site was purchased and ten days later, on 11 June, work began.[8]

Initial materials were sourced by demolishing the former "Chicken Run" section of The Nest, with the rubble dumped as a bank at the river end of the new ground. Thereafter, work proceeded quickly, with most of the stands and terraces built by 17 August.[8] A practice match was held on 26 August with work "still in progress",[20] and, after just 82 days, on 31 August, the ground was opened for a Second Division fixture featuring West Ham United.[8] The stadium had an initial capacity of 35,000, including 5,000 seats under cover. Norwich won the game 4–3; the attendance was 29,779, which set a new record crowd for a home game. The first competitive goal at the ground was scored by the Canaries' Duggie Lochhead.[21]

The new stadium was described by club officials as "the largest construction job in the city since the building of Norwich Castle", "miraculously built in just 82 days" and "the eighth wonder of the world".[10][22] An aerial photograph from August 1935 shows three sides of open terracing, and a covered stand with a Colman's Mustard advertisement painted on its roof, visible only from the air.[23] The club's association with Colman's has continued into the modern era; in 1997 the club signed a shirt sponsorship deal with the company.[24] The mustard manufacturer's original factory was located adjacent to the stadium in Carrow Road,[8] and the ground was opened by Russell Colman, the President of the club.[25] The author Simon Inglis describes the early Carrow Road as comprising "a Main Stand, a covered end terrace and two large open banks".[8] The covered terrace was paid for by Captain Evelyn Barclay, the vice-president of Norwich City; it was constructed in time for the opening of the 1937–38 season, and while the original construction is long gone, the end retains the name of its benefactor.[26]

At this time, the ground's capacity was 38,000, with space for 10,000 of "the more vociferous of the home and away supporters", in the new Barclay end.[26] The new ground received a royal seal of approval: on 29 October 1938, King George VI watched twenty minutes of the home game versus Millwall,[27] the first time a ruling monarch had watched a Second Division match.[8]

Ground developments[edit]

View of the River End terracing (right) and the old South stand in 1979

Floodlights were erected at the ground in 1956 and the £9,000 cost nearly sent the club into bankruptcy.[28] However, Norwich's success in the 1959 FA Cup (where as a Third Division club they reached the semi-final, losing to First Division Luton Town after a replay) secured the financial status of the club and provided sufficient funds for a cover to be built over the South Stand.[28] In 1963, the record was set for attendance for Carrow Road: a crowd of 43,984 watched a sixth round FA Cup match against Leicester City,[28] and the South Stand (now the Jarrold) was covered shortly afterwards.[8]

In the wake of the Ibrox stadium disaster in 1971, a government enquiry brought more stringent safety requirements, which, when applied to Carrow Road, resulted in the capacity being drastically reduced to around 20,000.[9] With focus on the dangers of standing, seats began to replace terracing: by 1979, the stadium had a capacity of 28,392, with seats for 12,675. A fire in 1984 partially destroyed one of the stands which eventually led to its complete demolition and replacement by 1987 of a new City Stand. When it opened, then chairman Robert Chase compared the experience of visiting the new stand to "going to the theatre – the only difference being that our stage is covered with grass".[9]

Conversion to all-seater[edit]

After the Hillsborough disaster in 1989 and the subsequent outcome of the Taylor Report in 1990, the stadium was converted to all-seater.[2] In 2003 the South Stand was replaced by the new, 8,000-seat Jarrold Stand.[9] In the summer of 2010, work was undertaken to increase the ground's capacity from 26,018 to 27,000. This was achieved by finding additional capacity for seats within the existing stands.[29]

Pitch[edit]

In 2004, £700,000 was invested in improving the pitch.[30] The former all-grass surface was replaced with a sand-based Desso GrassMaster one, the mix of artificial and real grass which, according to the manufacturer "guarantee[d] that the pitch would be looking good enough for every match to be broadcast on TV".[30] The under-soil heating system "can clear snow and ice within eight hours of being turned on".[30]

Eightieth anniversary[edit]

The ground will celebrate its 80th anniversary on 31 August 2015.[31] In anticipation of the ground's 80th anniversary on 31 August 2015, a rematch of the original fixture versus West Ham, was arranged for 28 July 2015.[31] As part of the celebrations, the club offered season ticket holders the opportunity to mark their seats with their name or a message.[32] Fans were also offered the chance to buy tickets for a celebratory dinner with the first-team squad, the menu provided by the club's joint majority shareholder, the celebrity chef Delia Smith.[33]

Stands[edit]

A schematic plan view of an association football stadium with each stand named, along with a hotel in the bottom-right-hand corner.
Schematic plan view of Carrow Road's stands

The current stadium consists of four stands; the Norwich and Peterborough Stand, the Barclay, the Geoffrey Watling City Stand and the most recent addition, the Jarrold Stand.[2]

Norwich and Peterborough Stand[edit]

The Norwich and Peterborough (background) and Geoffrey Watling (right) Stands

This end of the ground, closest to the River Wensum, was originally known as the "River End", a name that still persists among fans.[34] An old stand was demolished in April 1979 and a two-tiered replacement was completed in December 1979.[35] The stand was officially named the Norwich & Peterborough Stand in the 1990s, after a sponsorship deal with the Norwich and Peterborough Building Society.[36] An extra 160 seats installed were in the summer of 2010.[37]

The Barclay[edit]

Looking towards The Barclay from The Jarrold Stand.

The Barclay is named after Captain Evelyn Barclay, a former vice-president of the club, who donated the cost of roofing the original stand.[38] This was built in 1937,[26] but demolished in 1992,[39] when a new two-tier structure, modelled on the River End (now the Norwich & Peterborough Stand) was built in accordance with the recommendations of the Taylor Report.[39]

Geoffrey Watling City Stand[edit]

The single-tiered Geoffrey Watling City Stand was built following a severe fire in its ageing predecessor on 25 October 1984.[40] The fire was apparently caused by an employee of the club leaving a three-bar electric fire switched on overnight.[40]

The City Stand (as it was named at the time) cost £1.7 million to build and was used for the first time on 30 August 1986 when City hosted Southampton. It was formally opened by the Duchess of Kent on 14 February 1987.[39] The stand was renamed in honour of Norwich City president Geoffrey Watling, who died in 2004, aged 91.[41][42] The stand is the smallest of the four in terms of capacity, but includes the Directors' Box, Press Area, and various other hospitality suites.[4] Where The Barclay extends around to meet the Geoffrey Watling City Stand, is the Thorpe corner infill, known to supporters as 'The Snakepit'.[2]

Jarrold Stand[edit]

The Jarrold Stand – visiting fans are evident in blue, sitting in the block to the left of the stand

The Jarrold Stand is on the former site of the South Stand, which was named in honour of Sir Arthur South.[43] The new stand was partially opened for the game against Sheffield United on 31 January 2004, and fully opened for the next home match against West Ham on 21 February 2004.[44]

The Jarrold Stand is sponsored by Jarrolds, a local department store.[45][46] The stand is a cantilever, single-tiered, all-seated stand, that can hold up to 8,184 supporters.[2] Work prior to the 2013–14 Barclays Premier league was undertaken to join the three gantries into one larger one.[47]

The corner infill between the Jarrold and Norwich & Peterborough stands is called the Aviva Community Stand.[2] It was originally built in 2005 and named after sponsors Aviva.[2] It seats up to 1,708 fans and also provides extensive facilities for disabled supporters.[2]

Visiting supporter accommodation[edit]

Aviva Community Stand depicted in 2007 with the Norwich Union branding

Accommodation for visiting supporters is provided in the end of the Jarrold Stand closest to The Barclay. The Essential Football Fan describes the away end as follows:

"As you would expect from a new stand, the facilities and view of the playing action are good. The normal allocation in this area is 2,500 fans although this can be increased further for cup games. If you are located at the very back of the stand then you can enjoy some fine views of the city."[4]

Other facilities and services[edit]

Holiday Inn Hotel[edit]

Ashley Young places the ball for a free kick for England Under-21s in 2007. The Barclay and The Holiday Inn hotel can be seen in the background.

The corner between The Barclay and the Jarrold Stand contains a hotel. A contract was signed with the Holiday Inn hotel chain in 2005, and construction commenced in 2006.[48] The hotel, with six floors and 180 beds opened in 2008;[35] it allows customers with pitch-facing rooms to watch matches.[49][50] The club gave Holiday Inn a 150-year lease, receiving in return a 30% stake in the hotel and £1.1m.[51]

Catering[edit]

Catering at Carrow Road is provided by Delia's Canary Catering, which is part of Norwich City Football Club PLC.[52] Smith took control of the catering at the club in 1999.[53] The dishes are designed to be simple and "home-style", rather than elaborate, generally following recipes taken from her recipe books.[53]

Catering facilities include: Yellows American Bar & Grill, an American-style diner located in the Norwich & Peterborough Stand;[54] and Delia's Restaurant and Bar, located in the Norwich & Peterborough Stand.[53] The Gunn Club is a catering facility behind The Barclay, named after former player and manager Bryan Gunn.[53] There are a number of other conference facilities around the ground, mostly named after former players and officials, like Darren Huckerby and Sir Arthur South, as well as former club sponsors Lotus Cars.[55]

Future plans for construction[edit]

Norwich City have a capped season ticket allocation of 22,000, with a waiting list.[56][57] The club regularly sells out its 'home' allocation of tickets[58] and, in 2013–14, the ground had an occupancy rate of 99.95%, one of the highest in the Premier League.[57]

In this context, the clubs has often stated that it plans to increase the capacity of the stadium in the future,[59][60] The club has stated that the Geoffrey Watling stand has foundations designed to support a second tier, and that the roof could be removed and replaced after a second tier is added.[59] In January 2011, Chairman Alan Bowkett announced an interest in expanding the ground by about 8,000 seats, because Carrow Road was routinely close to capacity.[60] Bowkett said:

The trade off is between capacity and price. I've had some conversations with people saying 'it's getting a bit expensive Alan' and I know it is. I think the obvious route is the Geoffrey Watling stand, whether you put another layer on it or take it down and re-build, I don't know. Probably the sensible thing to do is bite the bullet, take it down and build a new stand, but it means 18 to 24 months without revenue and the people in that stand tend to be the people who have been the supporters for many generations.[60]

In 2012, chief executive David McNally quoted a study, commissioned by the club, and written by the University of East Anglia. The report cited a cost of £20 million to expand the ground by 7,000 seats.[58] Consequently, the club decided it would only expanding the stadium once they have become a fixture in the Premier League.[58]

Other uses[edit]

International football[edit]

Carrow Road has never hosted a match involving the England national football team, but the England Under-21 team has played at the stadium on five occasions.[61][62] The first was in 1983 in a European Under-21 Championship qualifying match against Denmark, which England won 4–1.[62] The team played another qualifying match in the same tournament at the stadium in 1997, beating Greece 4–2.[62] The Slovakia team featured in a friendly match at the ground in June 2007, England winning 5–0 in front of a crowd of 20,193 people.[63] In 2010, the ground played host to a play-off against Romania, a game the home side won 2–1 in front of a then record all-seated attendance for the stadium of 25,749.[61][64] Most recently, in October 2012, the England U21s defeated their Serbian counterparts 1–0 at Carrow Road.[61]

George Michael, with the Norwich and Peterborough Stand in the background, in June 2007

Games involving the England Under-19 team and the full England women's team have also been played at the stadium.[65] The women's team have played there on two occasions; the first a 1–0 defeat to Nigeria in 2002, in front of 8,000 fans, and the second a 1–0 victory over Iceland in 2006.[66][67] The latter game's attendance of 9,616 was then the largest crowd that had watched a friendly game involving the women's team.[67]

Music[edit]

The stadium has occasionally hosted music concerts. Status Quo played a concert there in 1997.[68] Elton John, supported by Lulu, appeared at the venue in 2005.[69] George Michael gave a performance there on 12 June 2007, supported by Sophie Ellis-Bextor,[70] and Rod Stewart performed a concert at the stadium in June 2011.[71]

The Elton John and George Michael concerts both attracted crowds of over 20,000 people.[69][72] Andrew Cullen, the director of sales and marketing for the Carrow Road ground, told BBC Radio Norfolk prior to the George Michael performance that he hoped such concerts would become an annual summer event for the venue, if big enough star names could be attracted.[73]

Summary of ground records[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Premier League Handbook Season 2013/14" (PDF). Premier League. p. 27. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
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  7. ^ Sparkes, Matthew (16 November 2010). "Complaint over "lazy" name for Norwich flats". Norwich Evening News. Retrieved 10 June 2015. 
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  10. ^ a b c Eastwood. Canary Citizens. p. 63. 
  11. ^ a b Rye, Walter. "History of Carrow Abbey, Chaper 1, page 19". Originally published in 1889, microfilmed, – Columbia University, 1993. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  12. ^ "Norwich City Records Account of tolls taken at Postwick Gate 1772–90. NCR Case 16e/78 1800". Norwich City Records – The National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 4DU. Retrieved 7 October 2013. Account of tolls taken at Postwick Gate 1772–90. NCR Case 16e/78 1800; Petition advocating the building of a bridge across the Wensum near Conisford Gates 1776. Notice of the names of members of the committee to consider the utility of erecting a bridge from Carrow Abbey to Thorpe Road, 1791 and a list of advantages to the public. Letter from John Ridges granting permission for a proposed road across his grounds to communicate with a ferry near Carrow. 
  13. ^ Record Office, Norfolk. "Norfolk: Thorpe St Andrew – 1810 – Estate of Sir Roger Kerrison Knt.". Genuki. Norfolk Recored Office; PD 228/153; Lot XXXV – sold to Mr Martineau. Retrieved 7 October 2013. Sale Particulars of an Estate of the late Sir Roger Kerrison, Deceased, lying in Thorpe and Carrow – Dwelling called Carrow Abbey etc. inc. Malt House Piece, Gravel pit Piece, Meadow adjoining Trowse Eye (some copyhold of the Manor of Trowse with Newton and some Leasehold from Dean and Chapter of Norwich) 
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  15. ^ Carter Drayton, R.G. "Carter Builder – Building for the future (document – Norwich City Football Club)". R G Carter. Retrieved 18 July 2015. One of these, officially named the Thorpe Corner, is affectionately known as "The Snakepit" 
  16. ^ Rye, Walter. "Carrow Abbey, [microform] otherwise Carrow priory near Norwich in the county of Norfolk". 1889 – (Originally) printed by Agas H. Goose, Rampant Horse Street, Norwich. Retrieved 15 July 2015. In 1811, the Abbey and grounds were purchased by Surgeon Philip. M. Martineau Esq....and the Abbey remained in the Martineau family until 1879, when the building, lands and manor of Carrow were purchased by J and J Colman 
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  18. ^ "City College students design Colman’s bicentenary cake, May 12, 2014". Norwich Evening News. Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  19. ^ A Guide to the Eastern Counties Railway. Stevenson and Matchett. May 1847. p. 77. Retrieved 5 October 2013. The ground in Carrow over which the railroad passes formally belonged to Carrow Abbey 
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  25. ^ Eastwood. Canary Citizens. p. 66. 
  26. ^ a b c Eastwood. Canary Citizens. p. 67. 
  27. ^ "Crowd's "He's a jolly good fellow"". Aberdeen Journal. 31 October 1938. p. 3 – via British Newspaper Archive.  (subscription required)
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  29. ^ "Building work ongoing at Carrow Road". Norwich City F.C. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  30. ^ a b c Doggett, Gregg (25 October 2010). "The Canaries can help you beat the winter blues". Pitchcare.com. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  31. ^ a b "West Ham to take on Norwich City as Carrow Road celebrates 80th birthday". Eastern Daily Press. 8 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  32. ^ "New for 2015: my seat, my club". Norwich City F.C. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  33. ^ "80th anniversary pre-season dinner at Carrow Road". Norwich City F.C. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  34. ^ Cuffley, David (22 January 2011). "Boosting Norwich City crowd potential would turn back the clock". Norwich Evening News. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  35. ^ a b "Norwich City Football Club". R G Carter Construction. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  36. ^ Lowthorpe, Shaun (7 September 2012). "Canaries sign new five-year partnership with Norwich and Peterborough Building Society". Norwich Evening News. Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  37. ^ "First phase of seating increase". Norwich City F.C. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2010. 
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  39. ^ a b c "Club history – 1986 to 1995". Norwich City F.C. 1 April 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010. 
  40. ^ a b "Man claims he started Carrow Road blaze". The Pink 'Un. 2 September 2004. Archived from the original on 23 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  41. ^ Hill, Chris (10 April 2013). "£100,000 boost for nature reserve bid" (pdf). Norwich Evening News. Retrieved 3 July 2015. 
  42. ^ "Norwich legend Watling has died". BBC Sport. 17 November 2004. Retrieved 3 July 2015. 
  43. ^ A history of Norwich City Football Club, Norwich HEART. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  44. ^ "Extra tickets for Blades game". The Pink 'Un. 27 January 2004. Archived from the original on 23 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  45. ^ "Jarrold Group". Jarrold Group. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
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  48. ^ "Hotel to make way for more city flats". Norwich Evening News. 25 November 2006. Retrieved 16 July 2009. 
  49. ^ "Holiday Inn – Norwich City". Holiday Inn. Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  50. ^ "Police lay down the law over Carrow Road hotel". The Pink 'Un. 1 March 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2015. 
  51. ^ "First look at Carrow Road hotel". The Pink 'Un. 30 May 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2015. 
  52. ^ "Delia's Canary Catering at Norwich City Football Club". Delia's Canary Catering. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  53. ^ a b c d Rosalind Mullen. "Delia's soccer collection – 14 May 2003". Caterer Search. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  54. ^ "Delia's Canary Catering – Yellows New York Diner". Delia's Canary Catering. Retrieved 27 September 2009. 
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  57. ^ a b "Season tickets: renewal deadline nears". Norwich City F.C. 12 February 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
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  59. ^ a b "Internet Football Ground Guide – Carrow Road, Norwich City FC". Football Ground Guide. Retrieved 19 October 2008. 
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  61. ^ a b c Smith, Ben (12 October 2012). "England U21 1–0 Serbia U21". BBC Sport. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
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  63. ^ Lakey, Chris (6 June 2007). "Young guns hit spot in five star show". Eastern Daily Press. Retrieved 6 June 2007. 
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  66. ^ "Carrow Road to host international football". BBC Norfolk. 16 February 2006. Retrieved 6 June 2007. 
  67. ^ a b Bradbury, Jamie (9 March 2006). "Carney breaks the ice". The Football Association. Retrieved 6 June 2007. 
  68. ^ "Two Football Clubs in One Week". StatusQuo.co.uk. 1997. Retrieved 11 August 2007. 
  69. ^ a b "Elton John review". BBC Norfolk. 2005. Retrieved 11 August 2007. 
  70. ^ Parkin, Simon (13 June 2007). "George George Michael: The review, the pictures". Norwich Evening News. Retrieved 11 August 2007. 
  71. ^ "Rod Stewart on new fatherhood and Carrow Road gig". BBC News. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  72. ^ Panter, Ann (13 June 2007). "George Michael: Why he's so Fan-tastic!". BBC Norfolk. Retrieved 11 August 2007. 
  73. ^ "George Michael to play at Carrow Road". BBC Norfolk. 9 March 2007. Retrieved 11 August 2007. 
  74. ^ Smith, p. 251.
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  76. ^ Smith, p. 13.
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Bibliography

  • Eastwood, John; Davage, Mike (December 2001). Canary Citizens. Jarrold Publishing. ISBN 978-0711720206. 
  • Smith, Roger (August 2004). The Canary Companion. RJS Publishing. ISBN 978-0954828707.