Carshalton, by upper pond
Carshalton shown within Greater London
|OS grid reference|
|Ceremonial county||Greater London|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|UK Parliament||Carshalton and Wallington|
|London Assembly||Croydon and Sutton|
Carshalton (//[n 1] is a suburban area of the London Borough of Sutton, England. Part of Surrey until 1965, it is located 10 miles (16.1 km) south-southwest of Charing Cross, situated in the valley of the River Wandle, one of the sources of which is Carshalton Ponds in the centre of the village. The combined population of the five wards comprising Carshalton was 45,525 at the 2001 census. Sutton is centred 1.2 miles (1.9 km) west of the town centre of Carshalton.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Landmarks
- 4 Parks
- 5 Transport
- 6 Sports
- 7 Events
- 8 Education
- 9 Notable individuals
- 10 Notes and References
- 11 External links
To the south of the area now known as Carshalton, remains of artefacts dating from the Neolithic to the Iron Age have been found, suggesting that this was an early place of habitation. Prior to the Norman Conquest it is recorded that there were five manors in this location owned by five freemen.
Carshalton appears in Domesday Book as Aultone. It was held by Goisfrid (Geoffrey) de Mandeville. Its domesday assets were: 3½ hides; 1 church, 10 ploughs, 1 mill worth £1 15s 0d, 22 acres (89,000 m2) of meadow, woodland worth 2 hogs. It rendered £15 10s 0d.
Carshalton was known for its springs; these may have given the place its name Cars - Aul - ton. Aul means well or spring. A ton is a farm which was in some way enclosed. The meaning of the Cars element is uncertain but early spellings (Kersaulton and Cresaulton) may indicate connection with a cross or perhaps cress, watercress having been grown locally.
In his book History of the Worthies of England, the 17th century historian Thomas Fuller refers to Carshalton for its walnuts and trout.
Land was primarily put to arable use and the river Wandle gave rise to manufacturing using water power. A water mill to grind corn was mentioned in the Domesday Book. By the end of the 18th century it was recorded that there were several mills for the production of paper and parchment, leather, snuff, log-wood and seed oil. There were also bleaching grounds for calico. During the Victorian era and into the early 20th century, Carshalton was known for its lavender fields (also see below under "Landmarks"), but the increasing land demand for residential building put an end to commercial growing.
Central Carshalton, around the ponds and High Street, retains a village character, although the busy A232 runs through the area. There are a number of buildings and open spaces protected by the Carshalton Village Conservation Area. It was designated in 1968, and was the first area to be given the status by the London Borough of Sutton. In 1993 its boundary was extended to include parts of Mill Lane and parts of The Square and Talbot Road, containing the All Saints Church Rectory. The Conservation Area contains many of the Listed and Locally Listed Buildings which contribute to the historical significance of the area, and is widely considered to contain some of the finest historical architecture and road layout within the Borough. The Sun public house (pictured left), is a fine example of Victorian decorative brickwork, and makes a positive contribution to the Conservation Area.
The Conservation Area also comprises open parkland of historical importance, including the grounds of Carshalton House Estate (which contains St. Philomena’s Catholic School, St Mary’s Junior School, St Mary’s Infants School and the Water Tower) and The Grove Park (which contains The Grove).
Sutton is centred 1.2 miles (1.9 km) west of the town centre of Carshalton, its east-west central street can be considered a continuation of Carshalton's own main street, an almost straight A-road route to Orpington via Croydon, beginning in Ewell.
Carshalton-on-the-Hill is the residential area on the high chalk upland ground to the south of Carshalton Park around Boundary Road, Stanley Road and Stanley Park Road and stretching out towards the smallholdings of Little Woodcote.
Carshalton Beeches is the area to the west of Carshalton-on-the-Hill, around Beeches Avenue, Banstead Road and Woodmansterne Road. It grew up around the railway station which was named after Beeches Avenue, a street near to its location; which, in turn, is named after the beech trees which line it.
The Wrythe lies between Carshalton village to the south and St Helier to the north-west. Its name is thought to derive from the rye that was once grown in this area, or from the Anglo-Saxon word rithe which means a small stream. During the time of the Roman occupation of the British Isles, a small spring was situated near the green, now shadowed by a BP garage. Roman activity in the area is confirmed by the fact that there was once a Roman Villa built in Beddington, just a couple of miles away, and a number of roads in the vicinity of Roman origin. The spring has since disappeared under ground and the culvert it feeds flows into the Wandle near Hackbridge.
All Saints Church
The parish church of All Saints overlooks Carshalton Ponds. A church has stood on this site since at least Norman times and probably much longer. The current church contains 12th century work but has been much extended over the centuries; most dramatically in 1891 when a new nave and north aisle were added.
Just outside the churchyard wall is a spring locally known as "Anne Boleyn's Well". It is popularly said to have received this name because it appeared when Anne Boleyn's horse kicked a stone and a spring of water appeared. Another possible explanation is that the name is a corruption of "Boulogne". The Counts of Boulogne owned land here in the 12th century and there may have been a chapel dedicated to Our Lady of Boulogne near the well.
Carshalton House Water Tower
The water tower was built in the early 18th century primarily to house a water driven pump supplying water to Carshalton House (now St Philomena's School) and the fountains in its gardens. It was planned as a (now Grade II listed) multi-purpose building, however, and also contains an orangery, a saloon and a bathroom which retains original Delft tiles.
Two historic lavender fields. One at Oaks Way, Carshalton Beeches: A not-for-profit community project that manages 3 acres of lavender. Plus a 25-acre commercial site in Croydon Lane, popular with tourists. This area was once famous as "the lavender capital of the world". From the 18th to the early 20th centuries the North Downs of Surrey, with its chalky free-draining soil, ideal for lavender growing, were at the centre of worldwide production of lavender. It was a very prosperous part of the local agriculture. Blue fields could be seen all over Mitcham, Croydon, Wallington, Banstead, Carshalton and Sutton. The scale of the operation can be understood from the fact that the Daily News in 1914 was able to state that at Carshalton Beeches "In every direction the low hill sides of the farm beyond Beeches Halt are swept with the bloomy pastel tint of the lavender flowers".
Little Holland House
Little Holland House in Carshalton Beeches was the home of the artist Frank Dickinson (1874–1961). Dickinson's Arts and Crafts style interior was influenced by John Ruskin and William Morris. The house contains many of his art works. It is now occasionally open to members of the public.
Honeywood is a large house at the western end of Carshalton Ponds. At its earliest it dates from the 17th century but has been much extended and restored, particularly in the period 1896 to 1903 when a large Edwardian wing was added to the south side. It now houses the London Borough of Sutton's Museum and has a local history collection, including objects that date back to the Bronze Age.
The museum has recently been refurbished, reopening in May 2012 with enhanced features. There are now expanded displays about the river Wandle and its influence on the life of the area, including an interactive map.
The Oaks bakehouse
The late 19th century bakehouse in Oaks Park is all that remains of "The Oaks" mansion which burned down and was demolished in the 1950s. The original bread oven remains in situ. Blocks of burnt bricks from the ruins of the great house were used by local builders to construct garden walls for houses all along Woodmansterne Road, and may still be seen today.
The Orangery in The Square was built in the second half of the 18th century in Carshalton Park (the section of which between here and Ruskin Road has since been built over). It is now used for commercial office space.
Constructed in 1685, Strawberry Lodge is one of Carshalton's oldest buildings. It was built by Josias Dewye who was described in records at the time as a 'clothworker and citizen of London'. In the late 17th century Josias moved from Chilworth to Carshalton to run a Gunpowder Mill on the River Wandle and decided to make his home nearby at the lodge.
Located on the corner of Strawberry Lane and Mill Lane, Strawberry Lodge is owned by Carshalton Baptist Church. Besides being a place of worship it is also used during the week as a conference and training centre. During the 1990s the site was renovated by the Baptist Church supported by the London Borough of Sutton.
Sutton Ecology Centre
The Sutton Ecology Centre is located in the Carshalton Village part of Sutton borough. It is an area of mainly open space where visitors can find out about wildlife habitats, alternative energy, recycling, composting, and organic gardening. The Centre's activities include running educational visits for schools and community groups, as well as events and volunteer days.
The history of the Ecology Centre is that the grounds were until the late eighties known as the "Lodgelands", named after the old gardens of The Lodge in Carshalton. They were used as a tree nursery until the early eighties, when they became surplus to requirements. After a prolonged public debate, it was agreed in 1987 to preserve the area as an open space for public use.
In common with the London Borough of Sutton as a whole, Carshalton has many green spaces with three main public parks of note.
The present day Carshalton Park is situated south of the High Street, in the area bounded by Ruskin Road, Ashcombe Road and Woodstock Road. The park and some of the surrounding houses lie within a conservation area. Although much reduced from its original size, it still offers features of historical significance and includes a grotto, the Hog Pit Pond, and a recently rediscovered air raid shelter.
Grove Park, closest to the village centre, is the best example of a Victorian park in the Borough. It is situated in the area approximately bounded by the High Street, North Street and Mill Lane. The southwest corner of the park abuts one of Carshalton's ponds (Lower Pond) from where water flows through the park as the river Wandle.
Oaks Park is a large park landscaped in a naturalistic style, providing downland walks. There is a public golf course and sports centre forming part of the open space. The park itself contains a craft-centre and a café.
Carshalton has two railway stations: Carshalton and Carshalton Beeches. From 1847 to the opening of the current Carshalton in 1868 Wallington railway station was named Carshalton. Trains run from the current Carshalton to Victoria (in around 25 minutes), London Bridge and Thameslink stations including Blackfriars, Farringdon and Kings Cross St Pancras. The closest London Underground station is Morden, which is a 12-21 minute journey from Carshalton High Street by 157 bus. Bus services 127, 407, 627, and X26 also serve the High Street. Bus service 154 serves Carshalton Beeches Station with links to Morden and West Croydon.
Carshalton has two football clubs: Carshalton Athletic F.C. (home ground at The War Memorial Sports Ground, Colston Avenue) and Carshalton FC (at Beddington Park). At the Westcroft Leisure Centre in Grove Park, Carshalton, there are health and fitness facilities including two swimming pools one being a teaching pool, sports hall, two others halls, squash court and fitness centre. There is also a children's play area called Kid's Kingdom. The centre has been undergoing a major renovation costing £11 million, bringing improved swimming facilities, a dance studio and beauty treatment rooms. In addition, Carshalton library has moved to the centre.
There are frequent productions at The Charles Cryer Studio Theatre, which is situated on the High Street and within walking distance of Carshalton (the nearest) and Carshalton Beeches railway stations. As well as drama and musicals, productions include comedy and dance. The theatre is named after the man who led the campaign to open the Secombe Theatre in neighbouring Sutton. With material ranging from Shakespeare to Chekov to panto and children’s favourites, the theatre's aim is to balance popularity with quality. The theatre also serves as a concert venue for local bands and has played host to the popular local Rockshot festival. The theatre building also incorporates a Thai restaurant.
- Carshalton Environmental Fair
The Environmental Fair is held in Carshalton Park on August Bank Holiday Monday. It features over 100 stalls and showcases local sustainability initiatives. It also includes music, performing art, poetry, children's activities, campaign groups, local craft, interactive demonstrations, and a farmers' market. Music is performed from three stages and across the genres from rock to folk. The main stage is a natural open-air amphitheatre. There is food and a bar with real ales. The fair attracts on average around 10,000 people. It is organised by EcoLocal with a team of volunteers.
- Other events
Other annual events include the Carshalton Fireworks a charity fireworks display at Carshalton Park on the Saturday nearest to Guy Fawkes Night, a summer carnival on the second Saturday of June, a beer festival over the first Bank Holiday weekend in May, and Carshalton Charter fair held in September.
The Ecology Centre and Honeywood Museum also hold regular events and meetings.
The Methodist hall in Ruskin Road is home to the Ruskin Players and the Carshalton Choral Society, both of which perform at regular intervals throughout the year.
The annual Carshalton Lavender harvest weekend is held in July, at Stanley Park Allotments, Carshalton-on-the-Hill.
There are a number of primary schools and secondary schools as well as one college in Carshalton. These are listed below.
- Primary schools
- All Saints, CofE, Carshalton Primary
- Barrow Hedges Primary
- Camden Junior
- Muschamp Primary
- Rushy Meadow
- Stanley Park Infants'
- Stanley Park Junior
- Secondary schools
- St Philomena's School (Catholic Girls' High School)
- Carshalton High School for Girls
- Carshalton Boys Sports College (renamed from Carshalton High School for Boys)
- Stanley Park High School
- See the London Borough of Sutton article for notable individuals in the whole borough.'
Notes and References
- "London Biodiversity Partnership - audit of rivers document." (PDF).[dead link]
- "2001 Census Data for Carshalton Beeches, Central, South & Clockhouse, North, plus The Wrythe.".
- The Victoria History of the County of Surrey: Vol 4, edited by H.E.Malden, published 1912.
- "The Environs of London: Vol 1 - County of Surrey" by Daniel Lysons, published 1792.
- Surrey Domesday Book
- The Book of Carshalton: At the Source of the Wandle, based on talks by Michael Wilks, published 2002.
- Volume 16, Page 293 of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "A Vision of Britain through Time, University of Portsmouth Department of Geography - unit history of Carshalton, 1801-2001.".
- Grid reference Finder measurement tools
- Carshalton. "Carshalton All Saints". Carshalton All Saints. Retrieved 2012-07-29.
- "Carshalton All Saints - History of Church.".
- "Carshalton Water Tower". Carshalton Water Tower & Historic Garden Trust. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
- "Mayfield Lavender".
- "London Borough of Sutton Heritage, Little Holland House.".
-  London Borough of Sutton
- "See section entitled 'Chilworth gunpowder mills in the period of the Dutch Wars'.".[dead link]
- "Carshalton Baptist Church.".
- "157 Bus timetable.".
- "Carshalton Environmental Fair".
- Carshalton Fireworks.
- "Carshalton Charter Fair".
- "Friends of Honeywood Museum".
- "Carshalton Lavender".
- St Philomena's School.
- Carshalton High School for Girls.
- Carshalton Boys Sports College.
- Stanley Park High School.
- Carshalton College.
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (June 2011)|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carshalton.|
- Map of area from Streetmap
- Carshalton Water Tower
- Carshalton Mums
- The Friends of Honeywood Museum
- All Saints Church
- Strawberry Lodge
- Carshalton College
- Carshalton Athletic FC
- Carshalton Football Club
- Carshalton Lavender